• Save
Cell Tech V09 0312
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Cell Tech V09 0312

  • 1,366 views
Uploaded on

This presentation compromises of OSI, TCP/IP, SS7

This presentation compromises of OSI, TCP/IP, SS7

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,366
On Slideshare
1,363
From Embeds
3
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 3

http://www.linkedin.com 3

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. function [op_seq] = pnseq (a, b, c) Ashwini Patankar % a : no of fliflops; b = tapp _ function starting c = initial stae close all; clc; x = a; tap_ff =b; int_stat= c; for i = 1:1: length(int_stat) old_stat(i) = int_stat(i); gen_pol(i) = tap_ff(i); end len = (2 ^x)-1; gen_pol(i+1)= 1; gen_l = length(gen_pol); old_l = length(old_stat); for i1 = 1: 1:len % feed back input genration CellTech V 09.0320 %defining variables t = 1; ll = input('lower limit'); for i2 = 1:old_l if gen_pol(i2)==1 ul = input('upper limit'); stat_str(t) = old_stat(gen_l - i2); st= input('step size'); i2 = i2+1; fr = ll: st: ul; about set of RULES ! It is all t = t+1; x = rand(size(fr)); %defining inpt %correlation of output Sequence %corr_ip = xcorr[x]; % correlation of input var_c = var(x); %variance of input corr_op = ifft (psd_op); %figure(2) trf_flt = 1 ./ (1 + j* 2*pi*fr); %transfer function of the given subplot(2,2,3) filter stem(fr,corr_op) psd_ip = var_c; %power spectral density of input subplot(2,2,4) %power spectral density of output plot(fr,corr_op) psd_op = ((abs(trf_flt)).^2).*psd_ip; % power spectral density of cen_op = size(corr_op) output mean_sqr = abs(corr_op(1,cen_oopp)) sprintf('E[Y^2 (t)] = %f',mean_sqr) Friday, March 20, 2009 1 Can be downloaded from http://resources.ashwinipatankar.com/ ©2009 Ashwini Patankar
  • 2. Agenda Protocols – Misconceptions and Reality TCP/IP Vs OSI SS7 (The GOD of mobile protocols) Left Over topics from • (Spectral Efficiency, fading Vs CellTech V09.0127 attenuation) Friday, March 20, 2009 2 CellTech V09.0320
  • 3. Protocols Protocols are a set a rules which define the complex processes. Protocol Models defines the services which should be provided by the layers (TCP/IP model or OSI model) Protocol Software is the implementation of the Protocol Model. Friday, March 20, 2009 3 CellTech V09.0320
  • 4. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol Story begins in late 1969 Friday, March 20, 2009 4 CellTech V09.0320
  • 5. TCP/IP Model Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Access Layer Friday, March 20, 2009 5 CellTech V09.0320
  • 6. Functions of Layers •Application Layer Transport Layer Network Trouble Shooting Flow Control file transfer Error Control Remote control Acknowledgement services for the internetwork Internet activities Interface for the internetwork Supports APIs Friday, March 20, 2009 6 CellTech V09.0320
  • 7. Functions of Layers •Internet Layer Network Access Layer Logical Addressing Interface with the Physical Network Routing Formats the Data for transmission medium Relates physical address with the logical address Error control for data delivered on physical network Friday, March 20, 2009 7 CellTech V09.0320
  • 8. The Data Flow scenario…. Data Application Data Header Transport Data Header Internet Data Header Network Access Footer Data Header 1001 010111100001001…….. Friday, March 20, 2009 8 CellTech V09.0320
  • 9. OSI Model Open System Interconnection Reference Model Development started in 1977 by International Organization for Standardization Friday, March 20, 2009 9 CellTech V09.0320
  • 10. OSI Model Application Presentation Session TCP IP Transport Application Layer Network Transport Layer Data Link Internet Layer Physical Network Access Layer Friday, March 20, 2009 10 CellTech V09.0320
  • 11. Functions of Layers Application Layer Network interface for applications Supports application for file transfer , communications etc. Presentation Layer Translates data to standard format Manages encryption and data compression Friday, March 20, 2009 11 CellTech V09.0320
  • 12. Functions of Layers Session Layer Sessions between communication applications on the communicating computers Transport Layer Error control and Flow control for the internetwork Friday, March 20, 2009 12 CellTech V09.0320
  • 13. Functions of Layers Network Layer Supports Logical Addressing Deals with routing related issues Data Link Layer Provide interface with the network adapter Maintains logical links for the subnet Physical Layer Converts the data into electric signals Transmits the data across the transmission medium Friday, March 20, 2009 13 CellTech V09.0320
  • 14. TCP/IP vS OSI - Similarities Share Same Characteristics Similar Architecture Share Common Application Layer Comparable Transport and Network Layer Both Models assumed that packet s are switched Friday, March 20, 2009 14 CellTech V09.0320
  • 15. TCP/IP vS OSI – Differences ! OSI TCP/IP Service, interface and protocol are Protocols in the OSI are Service, interface not clearly defined. hidden and can be replaced and protocol relatively easily Because models were invented In this case, the protocols before protocols, functionalities have been invented before Functionalities put in each layer are not very models optimized. Seven layers Only four layers. Numbers of layers Both are supported in the Only one mode in the network layer, but only network layer Connectionless/ connection-oriented (connectionless) but both Connection-oriented communication in the transport modes in the transport communication layer. layer are supported, giving the users a choice. Friday, March 20, 2009 15 CellTech V09.0320
  • 16. What is Signaling ? Signaling refers to the exchange of information between call components required to provide and maintain service Out of Band Signaling that does not take place over the same path as the conversation Friday, March 20, 2009 16 CellTech V09.0320
  • 17. Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) SS7 is used for common channel signaling between interconnected network Friday, March 20, 2009 17 CellTech V09.0320
  • 18. SS7 and OSI OSI Model SS7 Protocol Model OMAP ASEs Application Layer TCAP Presentation Layer ISDN User Part Session Layer NULL Transport Layer SCCP Network Layer MTP Level 3 NSP Data Link Layer MTP Level 2 Physical Layer MTP Level 1 Friday, March 20, 2009 18 CellTech V09.0320
  • 19. SS7 and OSI OMAP ASEs TCAP OMAP: Operation Maintenance and ISDN User Administration Part Part ASE: Application Service Element NULL TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part SCCP: Signaling Connection Control SCCP Part MTP: Message Transfer Part MTP Level 3 NSP: Network Service Part NSP MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1 Friday, March 20, 2009 19 CellTech V09.0320
  • 20. Functions of Each Part Network Service Part NSP Provides ISDN nodes with a highly reliable and efficient means of exchanging signaling traffic using connection less service It allows network nodes to communicate throughout the world without concern for the application or context of the signaling traffic NSP is made up of four different parts viz., MTP Level 1, 2, 3 and SCCP Friday, March 20, 2009 20 CellTech V09.0320
  • 21. MTP MTP (Message Transfer Part) : it ensures that signaling traffic can be transferred and delivered between the end – users and the network. MTP Level 1 MTP Level 2 MTP Level 3 Friday, March 20, 2009 21 CellTech V09.0320
  • 22. MTP Level 1 Also known as Signaling Data Link Functions Provides an interface with the actual Physical Channel # 64 kbps (CCITT) # 56 kbps (ANSI) Minimum data rate provided for telephony control operations is 4.8 kbps Friday, March 20, 2009 22 CellTech V09.0320
  • 23. MTP Level 2 Also Known as Signaling Link Functions Provides a reliable link Message Signal Units (MSUs) • Variable length packet messages • Maximum length 272 Octets • 16 bit cyclic redundancy checksum is included Flow control, sensing link failure, timer Friday, March 20, 2009 23 CellTech V09.0320
  • 24. MTP Level 3 Also known as Signaling Network Functions • Provides procedures that transfer messages between signaling nodes. Two types of MTP Level 3 functions • Signaling message handling • Signaling network management Signaling Message Handling • Routing, distribution and traffic discrimination Signaling Network Management • Allows network to reconfigure in case of node failure • Alternate routing facilities in case of congestion or blocking Friday, March 20, 2009 24 CellTech V09.0320
  • 25. SCCP Signaling connection Control Part enhancement to the addressing capabilities provided by MTP • Sub System Numbers (SSNs) based local addressing • Ability to address global title messages 4 class of services • 2 connection less ( Class 0 Basic Connection Class and 1 Sequenced – MTP- Connection Less Class) • 2 connection oriented (Class 2 and 3) Four Functional Blocks Friday, March 20, 2009 25 CellTech V09.0320
  • 26. SCCP – Class of Services 2 2 Connection Connection Oriented Less Class Class 0 Class 2 Class Basic Connection Basic Connection Class Oriented Class Class 3 Class 1 Sequenced (MTP) Flow control Connection connection Oriented Class oriented class Friday, March 20, 2009 26 CellTech V09.0320
  • 27. SS7 User Part Provides call control and management functions Call set up capabilities to the network USER part includes: ISDN User Part (ISUP) , Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) and Operations Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP) ISUP includes Telephone User Part (TUP) and Data User Part (DUP) Friday, March 20, 2009 27 CellTech V09.0320
  • 28. ISUP Provides signaling functions for carrier • Supplementary services for Voice, Data and Video in an ISDN environment Transfer of messages between different exchanges by using MTP • Routing label (source and destination) Circuit identification code, • message code to define the format and fucntion of each message • Have variable lengths , Maximum 272 Octets includes MTP level headers Some more facilities along with basic bearer services • User to user signaling, closed user groups, calling line identification, call forwarding Friday, March 20, 2009 28 CellTech V09.0320
  • 29. TCAP & OMAP TCAP Transaction Capabilities Application Part • Refers to application layer • Concerned with Remote Operations OMAP Operation Maintenance and Administration Part • To ensure trouble free communication is possible • Supports diagnostics Friday, March 20, 2009 29 CellTech V09.0320
  • 30. Signaling traffic in SS7 Maximum Signaling traffic is generated Call Set Ups Inter MSCs Handoffs Location Updates Friday, March 20, 2009 30 CellTech V09.0320
  • 31. SS7 Services TouchStar • Also known as CLASS • Switch controlled services (call management capabilities like call block, repeat dialing, call block, call tracing etc.) 800 Services • To provide toll free access to the calling party to the services and databases • Two plans • 800-NXX first six digits are used to select interexchange carrier (IXC) • 800 Database Plan call is looked up in database Alternate Billing and Line Information Database (ADB/LIDB) • Used CCS network to enable the calling party to bill a call to personal number from any number Friday, March 20, 2009 31 CellTech V09.0320
  • 32. Performance of SS7 Performance of signaling system is studied by connection setup time or end to end signaling information transfer time Congestion Control in SS7 Network Greater Trunking Information Faster Call Setup Efficiency Transfer • High speed • Shorter calls • Additional signaling setup time information networks along with • Less call signaling traffic • Smaller delays holding time • Caller identification voice or data identification Friday, March 20, 2009 32 CellTech V09.0320
  • 33. Spectral Efficiency • For cellular mobile system, Spectral Efficency is defined as SUE= (Traffic in Erlang) / (Amount of spectrum in MHz X Area in Sq. Kms.) • • Friday, March 20, 2009 33 CellTech V09.0320
  • 34. Fading Vs Attenuation Fading is the characteristic of Attenuation means decrease Channel in the strength of the signal A signal is called as faded only A signal can get attenuated at when it goes through a any point in the whole channel transmission system Fading can cause attenuation but attenuation can not results in fading Friday, March 20, 2009 34 CellTech V09.0320
  • 35. function [op_seq] = pnseq (a, b, c) Ashwini Patankar % a : no of fliflops; b = tapp _ function starting c = initial stae close all; clc; x = a; tap_ff =b; int_stat= c; for i = 1:1: length(int_stat) old_stat(i) = int_stat(i); gen_pol(i) = tap_ff(i); end len = (2 ^x)-1; gen_pol(i+1)= 1; gen_l = length(gen_pol); old_l = length(old_stat); for i1 = 1: 1:len % feed back input genration ThAnK YoU ! %defining variables t = 1; ll = input('lower limit'); for i2 = 1:old_l if gen_pol(i2)==1 ul = input('upper limit'); stat_str(t) = old_stat(gen_l - i2); st= input('step size'); i2 = i2+1; fr = ll: st: ul; QUERRIES ? t = t+1; x = rand(size(fr)); %defining inpt %correlation of output Sequence %corr_ip = xcorr[x]; % correlation of input var_c = var(x); %variance of input corr_op = ifft (psd_op); %figure(2) trf_flt = 1 ./ (1 + j* 2*pi*fr); %transfer function of the given subplot(2,2,3) filter stem(fr,corr_op) psd_ip = var_c; %power spectral density of input subplot(2,2,4) %power spectral density of output plot(fr,corr_op) psd_op = ((abs(trf_flt)).^2).*psd_ip; % power spectral density of cen_op = size(corr_op) output mean_sqr = abs(corr_op(1,cen_oopp)) sprintf('E[Y^2 (t)] = %f',mean_sqr) Friday, March 20, 2009 35 Can be downloaded from http://resources.ashwinipatankar.com/ ©2009 Ashwini Patankar
  • 36. Friday, March 20, 2009 36
  • 37. SCCP – Functional Blocks Connection Managemenmt Oriented Block Control Block Routing Block Friday, March 20, 2009 37