Behavioristic theory Ivan Pavlov – a Russian pioneer & John B. Watson of USA attributed learning to the association between stimulus & response. Classical Conditioning : Pavlov’s experiment using dogs with meat powder & bell. This experiment was a major breakthrough that had a lasting impact on understanding of learning. However Skinner says, ”behaviour is a function of consequences not the classical conditioning eliciting stimuli”.
Operant Conditioning : It is concerned primarily with learning that occurs as a consequence of behaviour.
Concept Learning Concepts are categories of stimuli that have certain features in common. The shapes on the left are all members of a conceptual category: rectangle. Their common features are (1) 4 lines; (2) opposite lines parallel; (3) lines connected at ends; (4) lines form 4 right angles. The fact that they are different colors and sizes and have different orientations is irrelevant. Colour, size, and orientation are not defining features of the concept.
Learning Curve In mathematics, a curve consists of the points through which a continuously moving point passes. The "learning curve" was first described by the 19th Century German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghausaccording to the difficulty of memorizing varying numbers of verbal stimuli. The learning curve effect states that the more times a task has been performed, the less time will be required on each subsequent iteration. This relationship was probably first quantified in 1936 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, where it was determined that every time total aircraft production doubled, the required labour time decreased by 10 to 15 percent.
The experience curve effect is broader in scope than the learning curve effect encompassing far more than just labour time. It states that the more often a task is performed the lower will be the cost of doing it. The task can be the production of any good or service. Each time cumulative volume doubles, value added costs (including administration, marketing, distribution, and manufacturing) fall by a constant and predictable percentage.
The real equation EN = KN^S where EN = effort per unit of production (i.e., manhours) to produce the Nth unit. K = constant, which is the effort to produce the first unit. s = slope constant, which is negative since the effort per unit decreases with production. The above relationship will plot as a straight line on log-log paper. Take the logarithms of both sides, log EN = s x log N + log K which is the equation of a straight line Y = sX + b
Praxis-Organize our activities in new & creative ways Workplace Learning for Individuals, Groups and Organisations – Economic & Social Research Council Networked Management Learning for Managers of Small &Medium Enterprises- University Management School, Lancaster, UK
Future of learning is written in the future of knowledge. Learning now : defined as the moment when we actively acquire the knowledge that is missing in order for us to complete the needed tasks or solve a problem. The most difficult lesson to learn is: Which bridge in life to use or which one to break off .
References The Internet. OB – Fred Luthans OB – Robbins & Papers.