International Marketing Research:Complete Aspect.


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Thorough explaination of whole concept of International Marketing Research with relevant examples.

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International Marketing Research:Complete Aspect.

  1. 1. International Marketing Research Presented by: Ashutosh Mishra MBA-Marketing
  2. 2. What is International Marketing? International Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of a company's goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit. -Cateora and Ghauri (1999) International Marketing, McGrawHill Publc. International marketing is the application of marketing orientation and marketing capabilities to international business. -Muhlbacher, Helmuth, and Dahringer (2006) International Marketing-A Global perspective,3rd. edition
  3. 3. According to American Marketing Association, “marketing research involves the systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data about problems related to the marketing of goods and services.” When done at international level is termed as “International Marketing Research.” -Onkvisit & Shaw
  4. 4. Influential aspect of International Marketing Research
  5. 5. You need.. Now the questions arising in your mind would be and should be as an upcoming marketer,
  6. 6. What Influences Market Selection? Market Potential The Degree of Adaptation Required  Accessibility of Markets  Dangers of Fragmentation of Effects Making the Selection Decision: Collecting Information & Seeking Advice Visiting Markets A Strategy for International Marketing Why is Market Research Needed? Market & Investment Planning Development of Products to Fit different Markets Choosing the Appropriate Marketing Mix Forecasting Source: The Institute of Commercial Management (ICM), The Fusee, 20A Bargates, Christchurch, Dorset, BH23 1QL, UK
  7. 7. Sources of Information: Numerical & Statistical Analysis: Internal Records External Desk Research Presentation of Data by Field research Graph, Chart & Diagram Analysis of National World Methods of Collecting Information: Markets Calculating Market Share Desk Research Comparative Performance Interviews Observations Budgets: Test Marketing Questions & Questionnaires Sales Budgets Sampling Techniques Market Research Budget Source: The Institute of Commercial Management (ICM), The Fusee, 20A Bargates, Christchurch, Dorset, BH23 1QL, UK
  8. 8. Marketing Research Terms Meta-analysis: It is also called Conceptualization means the the Schmidt-Hunter technique process of converting vague refers to a statistical method of mental images into definable combining data from multiple concepts. studies or from several types of studies. Operationalization is the process of converting Precision refers to concepts into specific the exactness of any observable behaviours that a given measure. researcher can measure. Validity refers to the Reliability refers to the extent to which a likelihood that a given measure provides data operationalized that captures the construct will yield the meaning of the same results if re- operationalized construct measured. as defined in the study.
  9. 9. IMRI Ltd. IMRI aims to provide an inventory of all International Market Research Information sources worldwide. IMRI comprises: •An On-Line Database •IDMRO (International Directory of Market Research Organizations) •IMRI Yearbook •IMRI Websites •IMRI Enquiry-Relay Service
  10. 10. Real Time Illustrations
  11. 11. Tailored Research Programme The research specialisation includes: The regional distribution:- Customer Satisfaction / Customer Loyalty North America Employee Satisfaction Caribbean Market Segmentation Central America Corporate Brand Positioning Latin America Market Assessment Europe New Product Development North Europe & The Baltics Advertising Testing / Tracking Former Soviet Republics Image & Awareness Studies Africa Pricing Research North Africa Market Monitoring / Tracking East Africa Middle East Asia Asia Pacific Source: IMRI eYearbook, 2008
  12. 12. Measurement: The best research design and the best sample are useless without proper measurements. A measuring method or instrument that works well in one culture may fail in other country. Conceptual & Linguistic Equivalencies During cross national surveys, these play a crucial role on reliability and validity measurement, thereby influencing the whole research process.
  13. 13. Conceptual Equivalence It is concerned with whether a particular concept of interest is interpreted and understood in the same manner by people in various cultures. Eg. i. Hunger and family welfare are universally understood so it poses little problem. ii. Demographic variable such as gender is universal but age isn’t. iii. Educational level has different meaning for different countries.
  14. 14. Functional Equivalence A particular object may perform varying functions or may satisfy different needs in different countries. Eg. Antifreeze is used to prevent freezing of engine coolant in cold countries but prevents overheating in warm countries. Definitional Equivalence The way in which an object is defined or categorized either by consumers or officially by law or government agencies. Eg. Age groupings can’t be a criteria for comparison in two or more countries.
  15. 15. Instrument Equivalence International Marketing Research involving the use of two instruments: Emic & Etic. Emic instruments are tests conducted to study a phenomenon within one culture only. Etic instruments are “culture universal” or culture independent. Eg. CETSCALE instrument is used to measure consumer ethnocentrism. Other scales are Likert scale and semantic differential scale.
  16. 16. Linguistic Equivalence It must be ensured when cross-cultural studies are conducted in different languages. The potential translation problems should be taken care of. According to Sekaran, translators should pay attention to idiomatic vocabulary, grammatical and syntactical differences in languages.
  17. 17. Dr. Atul Parvatiyar, CEO iCRM, USA
  18. 18. The Nut-shell..