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Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
Your Repference And Preparation
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Your Repference And Preparation

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  • Rationale Scientists, technicians and extension officers are skilled in writing scientific and technical papers, and presenting their technical knowledge to colleagues; it is part of their training in science and technology. However, the communication of scientific and technical knowledge requires selection of content and modification of style when the presentation is to a non-technical audience or an audience of scientists from a different discipline. Often scientists, technicians and extension officers are called upon to explain their technical knowledge to a much wider audience: to politicians, senior management of organizations, end-users of the technology, or the general public. In these instances, the communication is with different audiences who come to the session with differing educational backgrounds, varying views of science and technology, and a range of motivations for attendance. Therefore, to obtain impact from their science and technology, officers must be successful presenters of science and technology to this wider audience. The officers must learn how to analyze the audience and prepare a presentation to meet that audience’s needs and backgrounds. This workshop requires at least 4 days, 5 days if the ‘Audience Analysis workshop is to be included. The ‘book’ image at the bottom right of the slide links to a Word document that is the reference manual for this course. Methodology Whilst this slide is displayed, the trainer gives a brief, up to 5 minutes, talk covering the content contained in the ‘rationale’ above. The diagram at the bottom right of the slide links to an icebreaker which the audience should take part in if they have not already done this exercise in another presentation.
  • Ice breaker – each participant introduces him or herself in a 2-minute talk answering the following questions: name; where I work and what kind of work I do; my family; sports I play, and my hobbies! The purpose of this icebreaker is to give every participant experience of addressing the whole group, and to allow participants to get to know a little about their companions. The instructions to the participants are to look at the audience and address the questions in a loud and clear voice when it is their turn to speak. Whilst they are listening to others talk, they should look at the person speaking and try to remember the person’s name and one interesting fact about the person. Display this slide to show participants what is expected of them when they introduce themselves. Participants should be given two minutes to plan what they will say to the workshop! Remind participants that they must stand, look at the audience and speak in a loud, clear voice.
  • Purpose - This slide details the expectations that will be met by this workshop. The workshop will take the participants through the process of preparing and delivering a presentation. Methodology - The presenter gives a brief overview of the workshop and introduces the outcomes whilst this transparency is displayed. The outcomes appear one at a time as the instructor clicks the mouse – as each appears, the instructor should explain the outcome to the participants. The instructor should then ask for questions and ensure that the participants’ expectations will be met by this workshop.
  • Purpose - this slide encourages participants to think about good and bad presentations. After this activity, participants have a list of the bad things that a presenter can do during a presentation. Methodology – The instructor introduces the activity by telling the participants that it is important before studying how to present science better, to focus on some of the bad points of presentations. The instructor plays the video by clicking on the camera icon. Whilst the video is showing, the participants note down all of the bad things about this presentation. Clicking on the “sample” button will show the participants an example of what is expected. After the video, the instructor should collect the ideas from the participants and make a list of the bad points on the board. A complete list of the bad points is included in the notes to the sample slide. The additional video links show different presenters making presentations. Again, if time permits, the participants can make a list of the bad points in each of these videos.
  • Example - Display this example. Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers. The 18 bad points covered in the video are: (1) Came late (2) Dirty/untidy (3) Forgot glasses (4) Swore at equipment (3) Didn’t check equipment before (4) Papers not organized (5) Got angry (6) handwritten transparency not readable (7) too much writing on screen (8) Just presented whole paper on screen (9) Font too small (10) Didn’t look at audience (11) Didn’t make eye contact (12) Stood in front of screen (13) Transparency was upside down (14) Equipment was out of focus (15) Didn’t answer questions appropriately (16) Didn’t end properly.
  • Purpose – This activity gives the participants the opportunity to reflect on the bad points of a presentation and say, from their experience, how they would correct the problems. Methodology – The participants are given a few minutes to write next to each bad point they noted, how they would fix the problem. The instructor then goes through the list on the board and notes how each problem can be fixed. The instructor finishes this activity by noting that the solution to fixing problems in presentations is not a lack of knowledge but just the will to do it! The ‘sample’ slide shows the participants what is expected of them in the activity.
  • Example - Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers.
  • Purpose – This slide is intended to introduce the participants to the level of knowledge of science they can expect from an audience of non-scientists. Methodology - The trainer displays this slide and discusses the information in each point. Given that the US is a well-educated country and the level of science education probably hasn’t changed since this survey was taken, these are reasonable assumptions about any non-scientific audience. The groups then convene and discuss the implications of this level of audience knowledge for their presentation of science. During a plenary each group shares their major ideas. The ideas that should come from the discussion are shown in the notes to the example.
  • Example - Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers. Major ideas to emerge through this discussion should include: Most people are not familiar with the details of a science Even scientists are not familiar with the details of other sciences The presenter can not assume a basic level of understanding of science The presenter must know what the audience level is and clearly explain the science fo0r that audience.
  • Purpose – This slide introduces the major points that a presenter must remember when presenting science to different audiences. Methodology – As each point appears on the slide, the instructor should discuss the point. The ‘sample’ icon next to the final point, goes to a slide which demonstrates what this point means.
  • Purpose – This slide introduces the participants to the four aspects of ‘preparation’ which they are about to practice. Methodology – The instructor discusses the four parts of preparation when they appear. Each word is hyperlinked to the relevant slide which returns to this slide after completion. The small ‘presentation’ icon on the bottom right of the slide, is linked to a slide which describes the presentation that they are to work on. The instructor goes to this slide and discusses the exercise with the participants.
  • Purpose – This slide describes the presentation that the participants will prepare and give. Two choices are given. If the participants have available a scientific paper of their research, they should prepare a presentation about this science. If not, they should prepare a presentation about their organization, its role and its science. Methodology – The instructor discusses these alternatives and gives participants a few minutes to decide which they will do. The instructor reminds participants that this is an individual activity and each participant will prepare and deliver a presentation.
  • A Key Question ‘ What must you know about an audience?’ is a key question of the workshop. The presentation on ‘Audience Analysis’ teaches participants how to do this activity successfully.
  • Purpose – After the presenter has available a good description of the audience from their ‘audience analysis’, the presenter decides, ‘What is the outcome of the presentation’. This slide raises the question with the participants of why they are doing the presentation and what they expect their audience to know or to understand or to be able to do. Methodology – The instructor discusses the importance of this question when the slide is presented. After the discussion, the instructor brings up the question for the audience to answer. The participants are given about 15 minutes to complete the sentence for their presentation. The instructor should then ask several participants to give their answer and discuss these. It is important that the answer to the question is simple and unambiguous. It must be clear what the outcome is to be and the outcome should be relevant both to the audience and the presenter.
  • Example - Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answer.
  • Purpose – This slide shows participants the overall format for the content of a presentation. The slide also indicates the relative amount of time to be given to each part of the presentation. The participants are then invited to develop the content for their own presentation and discuss it with their group members. Methodology – After reminding the participants of the importance of selecting the content for their audience, the instructor displays the parts of the content – each click brings up the next part – the instructor then discusses each part as it is displayed. As each part is displayed, the instructor should remind the participants to think about the audience when deciding the content. When the content has been discussed, the exercise gives participants an opportunity to develop the content for their own paper. Participants should be given about 30-45 minutes to develop their content. This should be followed by a group discussion session of about 30 minutes in which the participants share their ideas with their group.
  • Example - Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers.
  • Purpose – This slide encourages participants to think about the location of their presentation, whether that be in a lecture room, a laboratory or out in the field. There are many examples to illustrate the importance of location – presenters must ensure that their location is appropriate to the size of their audience and the form of presentation. Presenters must select a location suitable for their form of presentation or, if this is not possible, then they must work out how they will make best use of the space available. Methodology – The instructor can introduce the topic of location by giving examples of inappropriate locations such as: ‘a small room with 50 people packed in’; ‘a lecture for 45 minutes which participants are standing out in the sun’; ‘trying to give a talk whilst just outside the window a large mower is making noise’. Participants are sent into their groups to discuss the location of their talk and how they will use the space available to them to best effect.
  • Example - Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers.
  • Purpose – This slide reminds participants of their journey through a presentation. They have now completed their preparation and have notes on the four aspects of their presentation. These notes will now be used to complete the presentation. Methodology – The instructor discusses where the participants are in their presentation and reminds them to keep their notes from the preparation to build the rest of the presentation. The ‘visual aids’ icon is linked to the activity on preparing visual aids which the instructor should do next.
  • Purpose - The preparation of visual aids to support your delivery is an important part of any presentation. Good visual aids are a wonderful addition to a presentation and help the audience remember the presentation. Poor visual aids can make a presentation appear poor and not worthy of remembering. Most people remember through mental images and not words. As the presenter it is your role to stimulate more than one sense in your audience. Using visual aids can help do this. Before deciding on what visuals you are going to use you need to ask yourself which ones are the most relevant to your presentation? Once this has been decided make sure your images are of good quality. You do not want your presentation to be let down by cheap looking visuals. Never rely on your visuals to take you through your presentation. Always prepare and practice enough so you can carry on with your presentation should anything go wrong Methodology – The instructor introduces the idea of visual aids with the first quote. The instructor balances this view with the second quote. The information above is then discussed with the participants to prepare them for the visual aids exercise.
  • Purpose – This slide introduces the major guidelines about visual aid preparation. The use of visual aids helps the presenter ‘tell the story’ – they do not replace the presenter nor do they ‘tell the whole story’. Visual aids may be slides like these, posters, pictures or demonstration items such as a rice mill. Methodology – The instructor introduces the idea of guidelines that the participants should use whenever they are preparing visual aids. As each guideline is displayed the instructor should discuss it with the participants – examples of bad visual aids in each case can be used to illustrate the importance of the guideline. At the end, the instructor reminds participants to use these guidelines whenever they are appropriate – some guidelines apply only to certain types of visual aid.
  • Purpose – This slide provides participants with an exercise in preparing visual aids for their presentation. Methodology – The instructor introduces the exercise. The participants should be given about 45 minutes to prepare their visual aids. The instructor then introduces the next part of the exercise – discussing their aids with their group and modifying the aids as a result of the group input – this should take about 30 minutes.
  • Purpose – This slide reminds participants of their journey through a presentation. They have now completed their preparation and prepared some visual aids. Methodology – The instructor discusses where the participants are in their presentation and reminds them to keep their notes from the preparation to build the rest of the presentation. The ‘handout’ icon is linked to the activity on preparing handouts which the instructor should do next.
  • Purpose – This activity gives participants experience in preparing effective handouts. Handouts that capture the essence of the presentation, summarize the main points, and detail the actions that are expected from the audience. Handouts are intended to be a reminder to the audience of the main points of a presentation and reinforce the actions that a presenter expects from the audience. Handouts are not text versions of the presentation nor are they a printout of the visual aids. Handouts must be designed with the audience in mind and the main message of the presentation. Methodology – The instructor obtains answers to the key question on the slide and after discussing these answers, displays the answer that is generally true. Usually participants don’t read handouts – they throw them away, file them or put them in their in-tray. The instructor introduces the idea that handouts have to overcome this disadvantage by their content and presentation. The instructor discusses what handouts are not and then discusses what handouts should be .
  • Purpose – This activity gives participants the opportunity to design an effective handout to accompany their presentation. Methodology – The instructor introduces the activity to the participants and then uses the next part of the slide to discuss the main ideas behind successful handouts. Participants are given about 30 minutes to complete their design and then a further 30 minutes to discuss it within their groups and modify it. Remember that participants are require only to design a handout not complete one – completing a handout generally requires time and resources not readily available during a workshop.
  • Example - There are many possible handout formats – there is no special rule. The purpose of this slide is to illustrate that the traditional science paper is seldom the best form! You do not have to use a ‘science paper’. Display this example. Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers.
  • Purpose – This slide reminds participants of their journey through a presentation. They have now completed their preparation, prepared some visual aids and designed a handout. Methodology – The instructor discusses where the participants are in their presentation. The instructor introduces the next step in the life cycle of a presentation – rehearsal of the presentation and the actual delivery. The next slide introduces this part of the presentation.
  • Purpose - Finally, the delivery! When a presentation is well planned, the presenter can confidently stand in front of the audience knowing that everything will work well and the materials are suited for that audience. Firstly, remember to ensure that both you and your audience are comfortable – ensure that the audience is not too cold or too hot, that they can see you and your aids, and that they can hear you. Now you are ready start! Remember to introduce yourself – even if you have already been introduced, tell the audience something more about you – it helps to create a bond between you and your audience. If time and numbers permit, you can ask audience members to introduce themselves – this is especially useful when the group will be working together for sometime. Try and use colorful language. Let your audience visualize your presentation, by doing this you can make the most boring subject seem enjoyable. If you come across as being enthusiastic and interesting your audience will be too. Methodology – The instructor discusses the information above about the rehearsal and the presentation. As each point on the slide is revealed, the instructor discusses it and illustrates the point by way of negative examples.
  • Purpose – This activity allows the participants to practice their presentation before an audience. Their group members make up the audience and prepare comments about the presentation. It is important for participants to always rehearse their presentation. If they have given the presentation previously or if they are very experienced presenters, the rehearsal may be very short and done only by thinking through what will happen rather than actually delivering the presentation. Methodology – The instructor introduces the exercise and reminds participants of the importance of rehearsal. The instructor also tells the participants of the need to rehearse even if they have given the presentation before. Participants are given 2 hours to rehearse and revise their presentation. The example shows the type of notes that group members should record as they watch each presentation.
  • Example - Remind participants that this is only an example and they should not copy these answers. They should think of their own answers.
  • Purpose – This exercise allows the participants to experience a presentation to a group of people in an environment similar to what they would normally encounter. Methodology – The participants deliver their presentation to the whole group whilst an evaluator watches and makes notes. After each presentation the evaluator provides feedback to the presenter. If the group is too large for whole workshop presentations to happen, each group selects their best presenter from the rehearsal and this person delivers their presentation to the whole workshop.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Presentation Skills [communicating science effectively]
    • 2. Introductions <ul><li>Hi!, My name is David shires, please call me David. I work for the international rice research institute (IRRI) in Los Banos, Philippines. I design and deliver management training and conduct in-country training programs </li></ul><ul><li>I am married and my wife, Susan, and I have three children – Kristy (29), Quentin (25) and Katharine (17) </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy watching football, proper Australian rules] and I play golf. My favorite hobby is scuba diving </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>What are the important things for this group to know about me to make my work with them more effective? How shall I give them the information to make them more comfortable with me? Will they relate to me as a person?
    • 3. You Will Learn . . . <ul><li>Create an exciting and relevant presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Tailor the presentation to an ‘audience’ </li></ul><ul><li>Develop visual aids and handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Confidently deliver your presentation. </li></ul>
    • 4. Presentations In your group. . . Watch the video of a presentation and make a list of the things the presenter did badly during the presentation. Video Sample
    • 5. Bad points: Couldn’t understand his language He was far too loud Lost his place in the presentation The equipment didn’t work when he started He got angry with other people etc
    • 6. Your Experience In your group. . . Think about the good presentations you have seen. Use this knowledge to say how the bad points could be corrected. Sample
    • 7. Bad points: Correction Couldn’t understand speak slowly and clearly his language He was far too loud moderate voice Lost his place in presentation have notes in order The equipment didn’t work check equipment before when he started He got angry with people don’t show anger etc
    • 8. Science in Society A survey of the public showed that: “ 50 percent of the public thinks that people and dinosaurs lived on Earth at the same time.” “ Less than 50 percent of the public knows that it takes the Earth a year to go around the Sun.” “ Only 30 percent can define DNA, the recipe book for all life.” “ Only about 13 percent can define a molecule.” In your group. . . Think about these survey results. Make a list of what this means to a science presenter. Sample
    • 9. The survey tells me: Many people have little understanding of basic science Technical terms are misunderstood generally There may be little interest in science There is some understanding of science in the community Biological science is generally a mystery to the public etc
    • 10. Science Presenters <ul><li>Can't just report; They must teach </li></ul><ul><li>Must keep it simple </li></ul><ul><li>Make the science appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Should use visual images </li></ul>
    • 11. A Presentation & Delivery Visual aids Handout Audience Outcome Content Location Rehearsal Preparation
    • 12. Your Presentation A 10-minute presentation on the topic of either ‘ The importance of my latest science research’ or ‘ The role of my organization and its science’ Individually. . . To practice the process on the previous slide, you will prepare and deliver a presentation to the workshop:
    • 13. Your Audience? Knowing your audience helps you decide: What to say How to say it In what order to say it In your group. . . Discuss the audience for your presentation and decide an approach that is appropriate to this audience. Sample
    • 14. What Is the Outcome? To start preparing a presentation decide what your audience should ‘know’, ‘understand’ or ‘be able to do’ after your presentation. Complete the following sentence: At the end of the presentation, my audience will . . . . Individually. . . Sample
    • 15. At the end of my presentation, the audience will understand that pesticides should only be used twice in the growth cycle. or At the end of my presentation, the audience will be able to identify the four common pests found in this region.
    • 16. The Content Individually. . . Develop an outline of the content for your own paper and discuss it with members of your group. Sample Title : Short and ‘attention grabbing’ Introduction : [20% of time] Set the scene & state the main message Answer questions like &quot;What does it do?&quot; &quot;What is it for?“ Try using a picture, quote or key question. Body of presentation : [60% of time] Select small, relevant parts Describe each part of your topic. Focus on what is most important to the audience.. Conclusion : [20% of time] A memorable summary!!! Re-state the main message.
    • 17. Title : Quality rice for 50% less input in 20% less time Introduction : Would you like to achieve the same yields of the same quality rice 20% quicker Using only half the inputs? Yes! We all would! This is possible by better management of pesticide input. The research shows that the correct amount of the right pesticide at the right time requires half the inputs and improves efficiency. Body of presentation : Where I did the research The results of the research show. . . . The research suggests that . . . . Conclusion : Quality rice for 50% less input in 20% less time – do it now!
    • 18. Location In your group. . . Discuss the location that you will use. Consider: Temperature Lighting Space Sounds Technology Sample
    • 19. Location : Main lecture room. Room for 50 people – sit participants at the front. Make sure room is air-conditioned before presentation Organize grass cutting not to occur during presentation OHP available but check it works first – spare bulb in machine? Room lights on but front lights off over projector
    • 20. A Presentation & Delivery Visual aids Handout Preparation Audience Outcome Content Location Rehearsal
    • 21. Visual Aids Good visual aids are a wonderful addition to your presentation and help the audience understand and remember the main points! Poor visual aids make your presentation appear poor and not worthy of remembering!
    • 22. Guidelines for Aids Relevant & simple Don’t have too many Use appropriate colors for text and background Use reasonable font size Maximum: 4-5 points each of 6 or less words Make images appropriate to the audience
    • 23. Visual Aids Share your visual aids with your group for critique Use the group comments to modify your visual aids Individually. . . Develop up to three (3) visual aids to accompany your presentation
    • 24. A Presentation & Delivery Visual aids Handout Preparation Audience Outcome Content Location Rehearsal
    • 25. Handouts Question : When do people read handouts? They don't !! <ul><li>Handouts are not a: </li></ul><ul><li>text version of your talk </li></ul><ul><li>copy of your visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>your science paper </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts are a: </li></ul><ul><li>reminder of your main message </li></ul><ul><li>important notes to take away </li></ul><ul><li>a call to action </li></ul><ul><li>instructions for follow-up action </li></ul>
    • 26. Handouts Individually. . . Plan a handout to accompany your presentation. Sample An eye-catching design Helpful layout One idea per part Simple language Remember, to be successful handouts must use:
    • 27. Title An eye-catching picture! Describe the picture? Introduction List key points! What technical words need explanation? The body of the text. Up to 3 paragraphs List the major content ideas! Contact name phone, email
    • 28. A Presentation & Delivery Visual aids Handout Preparation Audience Outcome Content Location Rehearsal
    • 29. The Presentation and the rehearsal Use eye contact; look at the audience Be clear but vary your voice Be natural and relaxed Be enthusiastic, friendly and confident Use a conversational tone – don’t try to be formal Allow comments and questions Dress appropriately, in keeping with the audience Use simple words and avoid long sentences.
    • 30. Engaging the Audience The aim of a presentation is not just to talk about a topic, show pictures or play an audio tape but……. to provide the audience with an experience to remember.
    • 31. Things Not to Do <ul><li>Use jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Overwhelm with detail </li></ul><ul><li>Go over time </li></ul><ul><li>Use text that can’t be read </li></ul><ul><li>Stand in the way of your visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Distract (e.G., Gestures) </li></ul><ul><li>Say: Ummmmm, ahhhhhh </li></ul><ul><li>Stare at one point </li></ul><ul><li>Slouch </li></ul>
    • 32. Nervousness [butterflies in the stomach] When you are nervous, you body adjusts by changing your blood pressure and increasing your adrenaline level. You turn red, shake or perspire…….. To compensate, try some physical actions to relax – take a deep breath. Make sure you know the room, audience and materials. Avoid using unfamiliar equipment especially if it needs precision motions. Visualize yourself giving the presentation, memorize your introduction and practice, practice, practice!
    • 33. The Rehearsal Individually. . . Rehearse the presentation with your group. Have the group make suggestions for improvement. Sample
    • 34. A form for evaluating presentations can be seen by clicking the link below: This document also contains instructions on how to use this form. This form will be used in the evaluation of your presentation.
    • 35. The Presentation Individually. . . Deliver your presentation to the workshop Remember: Talks should be relaxed and move along well The audience should be involved Aids were well presented. You are an actor – dominate the space you are working in.
    • 36. Presentation Skills Thank you!

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