24500117 India’S Infrastructure
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  • 1. India’s Infrastructure Presented By :- Ashutosh Mishra Ashutosh Kumar Ashwani Kumar Sashank Nair Pratuish Bahadur Siddharth M. 1
  • 2. Content • Introduction • Trends in Infrastructure • Sector wise projected Investment in Infrastructure • Power • Ports • Aviation • Roads & Transportation • Telecommunication • Railways • SEZ • Urban infrastructure • Rural infrastructure • Water resources • References 2
  • 3. Introduction “The link between infrastructure and development is not a once for all affair. It is a continuous process; and progress in development has to be proceeded accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are fulfill our declared objectives of a self accelerating process of economic development.” -Dr. V.K.R.V. Rao 3
  • 4. Conti…………………….. “Expanding investment in infrastructure can play an important counter cyclical role. Projects and programmes [are] to be reviewed in the area of infrastructure development, including pure public private partnerships, to ensure that their implementation is expedited and does not suffer from *the+ fund crunch.” Mr. Manmohan Singh, Indian Prime Minister, (quoted in newspaper reports, October, 2008) 4
  • 5. India today is fast changing – setting the pace for growth and stability… TODAY • One of the fastest growing world economies • Reasonably proactive YESTERDAY • Opening up of sectors for investment • Slow rate of growth • Promising consumer markets • Bureaucratic • Significant investment in • Protected and slow infrastructure creation for • Small consumer industry markets • Underdeveloped infrastructure
  • 6. Reasons to invest in India: • One of the world’s fastest growing economies – and growth expected to continue at 7-7.5% despite the global downturn • Few restrictions on foreign direct investment (FDI) for infrastructure projects • Tax holidays for developers of most types of infrastructure projects, some of which are of limited duration • Opening up of the infrastructure sector through PPPs 6
  • 7. Budget and Infrastructure • 9% of the country’s GDP will be spent on Infrastructure by 2014 from current 5%. One third of this investment would come from private companies. • Investment in Infrastructure 2007 -2012 = $500 bn 2012 -2017 = $1.5 tn
  • 8. Infrastructure • 60% of Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects by Indian Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL); ‘takeout financing’.
  • 9. TRENDS IN INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR Items Unit 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Energy Coal Mn. Production Tones 3.1 3.6 4.6 4.2 5.1 6.8 Electricity generated bn. Kwh 3.6 3.1 3.9 3.9 5.0 6.5 Hydel bn. Kwh 8.5 11.1 -7.6 -13.6 15.6 17.6 Thermal ( including nulcear) bn. Kwh 6.2 5.7 9.3 6.3 3.8 6.1 Petroleum mn crude oil tones 3 -3.4 -2.4 1.5 -1.2 3.7 Refinery mn throughput tones 3.7 20.2 25.4 8.3 7.2 6.7 mn Steel tones 6.3 1.4 15 6.5 12.5 8.1 mn 9 Cement tones 9.1 5.7 14.2 -0.9 7.4 9.7
  • 10. Continue… Items Unit 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Transports & communication Railways revenue mn earning-goods traffic tonnes 5 3.7 4 5.3 7.5 7.7 cargo handled at mn major ports tonnes 10.7 3.4 9.0 9.9 7.5 11.1 New telephone 000 communication number provided s 27.1 16.4 29.7 27.2 23.9 40 Civil Aviation 000 Export cargo handled tonnes 6.2 -3.9 10.3 4.9 -0.2 13.9 Import cargo 000 handled tonnes -5.9 -0.5 15.4 4.9 1.6 20.3 Passengers handled at international terminals mn 4.6 1 2.9 5.4 -2.7 7.4 Passengers handled at domestic terminals mn -1.8 0.9 6.9 8.8 -5.8 8.8 10
  • 11. SECTOR WISE PROJECTED INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE DURING 11TH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2007-12) SECTOR INVESTMENT IN CRORE SECTORAL SHARE ( %) Electricity 616526 30.50 Roads 311816 15.40 Telecom 267001 13.20 Railways 255000 12.60 Irrigation 217722 10.80 Ports 73941 3.70 Airports 34697 1.70 Others 242006 14.34 Total ( including others) 2018709 100 Public sector 1422176 70.4 Private sector 596533 29.6 11
  • 12. SECTOR WISE PROJECTED INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE DURING 11TH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2007-12) 4% 2% 12% 35% Electricity 14% Roads Telecom Railways Irrigation Ports 15% Airports 18% 12
  • 13. POWER 13
  • 14. GROWTH IN GDP & POWER GENERATION 14
  • 15. Distribution of installed capacity as on 31-12-2007 25% 3% Thermal RES 8% 64% Nuclear Hydro 15
  • 16. Power supply position – all-India Period Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Energy Energy Energy Demand met Deficit/ Deficit Requirement availability Deficit/ Deficit Surplus Surplus Surplus Surplus (MW) (MW) (MW) (%) (MU) (MU) (MU) (%) 9th Plan end 81,555 71,262 -10,293 -12.6 5,22,537 4,83,350 -39,187 -7.5 2002-03 81,492 71,547 -9,945 -12.2 5,45,983 4,97,890 -48,093 -8.8 2003-04 84,574 75,066 -9,508 -11.2 5,59,264 5,19,398 -39,866 -7.1 2004-05 87,906 77,652 -10,254 -11.7 5,91,373 5,48,115 -43,258 -7.3 2005-06 93,255 81,792 -11,463 -12.3 6,31,757 5,78,819 -52,938 -8.4 2006-07 1,00,715 86,818 -13,897 -13.8 6,90,587 6,24,495 -66,092 -9.6 Apr-Dec 2007 1,06,624 90,793 -15,831 -14.8 5,43,394 4,97,793 -45,601 -8.4 16
  • 17. Eleventh plan power capacity addition targets (MW & per cent) The National Electricity Policy (NEP),2005 recognizes electricity as a “basic human need” and targets a rise in per capita availability from 631 units to 1,000 units per annum by the end of 2012. Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear Total Share (%) (MW) Central 9,685 26,800 3,380 39,865 50.7 State 3,605 24,347 0 27,952 35.5 Private 3,263 7,497 0 10,760 13.8 Total 16,553 58,644 3,380 78,577 Share (%) 21.1 74.6 4.4 100 17
  • 18. Rajiv Gandhi Garmin Vidhyuti-karan Yojana (RGGVY) : Progress • 27 States and their utilities have signed the memorandum of agreement (MoA) • Four CPSUs— (PGCIL), (NTPC), (NHPC),(DVC)—have been allocated 139 districts for implementation of RGGVY • At present 235 projects are under implementation covering 67,012 unelectrified villages and 83.1 lakh BPL households at the awarded cost of Rs. 12386.03 crore. • 45,430 villages have been electrified and 18,25,508 connections to BPL households have been released. 18
  • 19. PORTS 19
  • 20. MAJOR PORTS OF INDIA • JNPT • Chennai • Cochin • Visakhapatnam • Kandla • Mormugao • Paradip • New Mangalore • Tuticorin • Ennore 20
  • 21. Trends in traffic at major ports commodity 2005-06 2006-07 APRIL-OCT GROWTH (%) MT MT 2006 2007 2006 2007 POL 142.1 154.3 84.6 95.9 8.6 13.4 Iron Ore 79.2 80.6 42.9 47.7 1.8 11.2 Fertilizer & Raw Materials 12.2 14.9 7.5 9.4 22.1 25.3 Foodgrains 2.1 5.0 2.5 1.1 138.1 (-)0.56 Coal 58.8 60.0 32.8 36.8 2.0 12.2 Vegetable Oil 3.9 3.6 2.5 2.5 7.7 - Other Liquids 10.8 10.9 6.0 7.0 0.9 16.6 Containerized Cargo 62.0 73.4 40.8 50.9 18.4 24.8 Others 52.5 61.1 33.9 37.3 16.4 10.0 TOTAL 423.6 463.8 253.5 288.6 9.5 13.9 21
  • 22. Selected performance indicators for major ports Name of Port Average pre-berthing waiting Average Average turnaround time (days) turnaround time (days) time hours - on port A/c 2005-06 2006-07 April-Oct 2007 2005-06 2006-07 Apr-oct 2007 Kolkata ( KDS) 0.09 0.13 - 4.12 3.89 4.51 Kolkata ( haldia 30.37 26.05 27.82 4.0 3.97 4.24 dock complex) Mumbai 4.8 5.22 5.47 4.09 4.63 4.30 JNPT 7.40 5.45 8.88 1.96 1.67 1.79 Chennai 0.90 0.8 1.00 3.30 3.40 3.80 Cochin 2.94 0.29 1.46 2.13 2.19 2.08 Visakhapatnam 1.54 4.78 7.83 3.80 3.65 4.08 Kandla 19.68 35.28 21.12 4.39 5.46 4.62 Mormugao 17.58 19.34 22.60 4.08 4.46 3.74 Paradip 1.48 1.41 23.22 3.55 3.54 6.04 New 0.96 1.87 5.52 3.00 3.14 3.69 Mangalore Tuticorin 3.06 3.22 3.60 2.83 3.67 3.57 En no re 0.36 0.31 0.91 2.23 1.89 2.08 All Major 8.77 10.05 11.17 3.50 3.62 3.79 Ports 22
  • 23. Some facts about Indian Ports • The country’s coastline of 7,517 km, spread over 13 States, is studded with 12 major ports and 200 non-major ports. • The total traffic carried by both the major and minor ports during 2006-07 was estimated at around 650 MT • Despite having adequate capacity and modern handling facilities, the average turnaround time of 3.6 days, compared with 10 hours in Hong Kong, undermines the competitiveness of Indian ports. • The Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT), India’s largest container port, handled roughly 3.3 million TEUs in 2006-07 23
  • 24. AVIATION 24
  • 25. Passenger and cargo traffic by air 25
  • 26. STATISTICS OF INDIAN AIR TRANSPORT 2004-05 2005-06 % Change Fleet Size ( No.) 184 243 32.1 Aircraft Departure per 847 1012 19.5 day ( No.) Passengers carried per 67,866 86,992 28.2 day ( No.) Growth in Passenger 68.4 68.0 -- Traffic ( %) Cargo carried per day 978.9 1010 3.2 ( Tonnes ) 26
  • 27. ROADS & TRANSPOTATION 27
  • 28. Size of the Initiatives • India is the second largest in the world-extensive road network of 3.3 million kilometers • Carry about 61% of the freight and 85% of the passenger traffic. • All the highways and expressways together constitute about 66,000 kilometers (only 2% of all roads), whereas they carry 40% of the road traffic. • Indian Government annually spends about Rs.18000 crores
  • 29. Target • Developing 1000 km of expressways • Developing 8,737 km of roads, including 3,846 km of national highways, in the North East • Four-laning 20, 000 km of national highways • Four-laning 6,736 km on North-South and East- West corridors • Six-laning 6,500 km of the Golden Quadrilateral and selected national highways • Widening 20,000 km of national highways to two lanes
  • 30. Approach • National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is the apex Government body for implementing the NHDP. All contracts whether for construction or BOT are awarded through competitive bidding • Private sector participation is increasing, and is through construction contracts and Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) for some stretches – based on either the lowest annuity or the lowest lump sum payment from the Government • BOT contracts permit tolling on those stretches of the NHDP • A large component of highways is to be developed through public-private partnerships and several high traffic stretches already awarded to private companies on a BOT basis.
  • 31. Policy • 100% FDI under the automatic route is permitted for all road development projects • 100% income tax exemption for a period of 10 years • Grants / Viability gap Funding for marginal projects by NHAI. • Formulation of Model Concession Agreement
  • 32. TELECOMMUNICATION 32
  • 33. Mobile Tariffs in India one of the Lowest 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.1 0.09 USD 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0 Argentina Belgium Italy India China France Malayasia Philippines Thailand Hong Kong Pakistan UK Brazil Taiwan
  • 34. Growth of Telecom in India • 1994 National Telecom Policy – 1994 announced • Aug 1995 Kolkata became the first metro to have a cellular network • 1997 Telecom Regulatory Authority of India was setup • 1999 Tariff rebalancing exercises gets initiated • March 1999 National Telecom Policy – 99 announced
  • 35. • Aug 1999 License fee (revenue share) reduced from provisional 15% to 12%, 10% & 8% on Circle wise basis (A type, B type & C type circles) • 2000 TRAI Act amended & separate tribunal proposed • Jan 2001 TDSAT started functioning • Jan 2001 Policy announced for additional licenses in Basic and Mobile Services • Jan 2001 Limited mobility allowed to Basic Services (CDMA spectrum allotted to Basic Service Operators)
  • 36. • Oct-2002 BSNL entered in to GSM cellular operation w.e.f 19th October, 2002. Made incoming call free & initiated tariff equalization process Tariff for GSM cellular mobiles reduced • Nov 2003 Unified Access (Basic & Cellular) Service License (USAL) introduced as a first step towards Unified License Regime Technology neutral and allows provisioning any kind of service • Apr 2004 License fee reduced by 2% across the board for all the access licenses.
  • 37. Teledensity-Rural & Urban T e le d e n s ity 70 60 R ural Urban T otal 6 0 .0 4 50 4 8 .5 2 40 3 9 .4 5 30 2 6 .8 8 2 3 .2 1 20 2 0 .7 4 1 8 .3 1 1 4 .3 2 1 2 .7 4 1 0 .3 7 1 2 .2 10 8 .3 6 8 .9 5 7 .9 6 .9 4 7 .0 2 5 .8 8 4 .2 9 5 .1 1 2 .3 2 2 .8 6 3 .5 8 0 .5 2 0 .6 8 0 .9 3 1 .2 1 1 .4 9 1 .5 7 1 .7 3 1 .8 6 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2 0 0 7 (N o v ) Ye a r
  • 38. Mobile Services : Fuelling the growth Nov-06 Nov-07 39.31 15% 40.35 22% Fixed Line Fixed Line Wireless Wireless 143.11 225.46 78% 85% Total telephone connections as on November 2006: 183.46 million November 2007: 264.77 million
  • 39. Subscribers (in millions) Year Fixed line Mobile Total Tele including (GSM+WL density WLL(F) L(M) March-97 14.54 0.34 14.8 1.57 March-00 26.65 1.9 28.55 2.81 March-01 32.71 3.58 36.29 3.52 March-02 38.33 6.54 44.87 4.28 March-03 41.48 13 54.48 5.1 March-04 42.84 33.69 76.53 7.04 March-05 46.19 52.22 98.41 9.11 March-06 50.18 90.14 140.32 12.8 March-07 48.87 157.96 206.83 18.46 Dec. 2007 43.3 226 269.3 24.04
  • 40. Exponential Growth Growth of Telephone Connections Wireline Wireless Total 250 206.83 No. of Connections (in 200 142.07 05 Millions) 150 6. 16 56 98.37 85 76.53 1. 100 10 54.63 5 44.97 .9 36.29 28.53 22.81 50 38.29 41.33 40.92 41.42 40.22 40.78 26.65 32.71 21.61 1 0 .6 .3 35 58 20 0 88 68 13 3. 1. 1. 6. 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year as on 31st March
  • 41. Number of fixed and wireless telephones 41
  • 42. Number of telephones (end of month) Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Dec-07 Fixed lines 40.92 41.42 40.23 40.77 39.25 CDMA 9.46 15.92 32.67 44.62 61.40 GSM 26.15 41.03 69.19 120.47 172.23 Wireless (CDMA & 35.61 56.95 101.86 165.09 233.63 GSM) Gross Total 76.53 98.37 142.09 205.86 272.88 Annual growth 40.0 28.5 44.4 44.8 (%) • Figures in million • Source : Department of Telecommunication 42
  • 43. Railways 43
  • 44. Railways • World’s second largest rail network. • Contributing industrial and economic development. • Since more than 150 years • Two major segments 1.Freight traffic 2.Passenger traffic 44
  • 45. Growth of manufacturing and rail freight traffic 45
  • 46. Analysis • Improvement in performance • From 2005-06 and 2006-07 • Increased wagon load • Faster turn around time • More rational policy • 95mn tones of incremental traffic per year • 1100 revenue earning freight traffic • By the end of 11th Five year plan. 46
  • 47. Performance of the Indian Railways April-December Change overprevious year (per cent) Particulars 2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08 2006-07 2007-08 Total revenue earning 1. freight traffic (mill.tonnes) 666.51 727.75 527.95 571.35 9.2 8.2 i)Coal 294.25 313.33 226.17 245.26 6.5 8.4 ii) Raw mat from steel 51.35 53.22 39.12 40.35 3.6 3.1 plant(excl. coal) iii)Pig iron & finished steel from steel plants 17.74 21.04 15 16.24 18.6 8.3 iv)Iron ore for export 41.24 38.84 28.57 38.28 -5.8 34.0 47
  • 48. Contd... v)Cement 61.19 73.13 53.94 56.66 19.5 5.0 vi)Foodgrains 41.64 41.84 29.08 25.65 0.5 -11.8 vii)Fertilizers 32.65 34.26 26.61 28.01 4.9 5.3 viii)POL 33.45 31.69 25.89 26.27 -5.3 1.5 ix)Balance 93 120.4 83.57 94.3 29.5 12.8 (other goods) Net tonne 2.kilometres 439.6 480.99 346.26 367.6 9.4 6.2 (billion) Net tonne kms./ 3. 2,960 3,242 3,075 3,266 9.5 6.2 wagon/day( BG) Passenger 4.traffic orig. 5,725 6,219 4,642 4,900 8.6 5.6 (million) Passenger 5.kilometres 616 695 520 551 12.8 6.0 (billion) 48
  • 49. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE (SEZ) 49
  • 50. SEZ • Special economic zones • Geographical area created with extended benefits • Broadened Horizons 50
  • 51. 51
  • 52. Salient Features • Opportunities for all • Provisions for sector Specific SEZ • 100% FDI Permitted • Net foreign exchange earner • Treatment of goods from DTA’s 52
  • 53. 53
  • 54. 54
  • 55. URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE 55
  • 56. Urban Infrastructure • Includes three major components 1) Urban water and sanitation 2) Solid waste management 3) Urban transport • Most services are provided by Municipal Corporations and Municipalities • 2001:- 285.35 mn total people- 28% • Expected to grow to 40% by 2020-21 56
  • 57. Projects during 1998-2008 Project Total cost Year of Year of (bn) approval completion Urban water and sanitation Kerala water supply 24.15 2004-05 2009-10 Brihan Mumbai storm water drainage 18.00 2006-07 2009-10 Urban and environmental infrastructure 16.99 1999-00 2004-05 facility Rajasthan urban infrastructure 15.41 1998-99 2009-10 development Solid waste management Kolkata improvement project 1.77 2005-06 2010-11 Cuttack urban services improvement 0.84 1997-98 2002-03 Urban transport Delhi Metro project (phase1) 105.71 1997-98 2006-07 IT corridor in Chennai 17.00 2004-05 2008-09 Kerala state transport project 16.39 2002-03 2008-09 57
  • 58. 80 70 60 50 40 Central plan outlay Actual expenditure 30 20 10 0 58 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
  • 59. Analysis • Budgetary support to MoUD • Increased by about two and a half times • From 1998-99 to 2007-08 • External assistance led to major increase 59
  • 60. RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE 60
  • 61. Rural Infrastructure and Services Commons • Two levels 1. Infrastructure 2. Services • I-level includes power,telecom,physical plant • S-level includes market,education,health,informational 61
  • 62. Rural electrification pending status as on 31.12.07 Percentage 70 60 50 40 30 Percentage 20 10 0 62
  • 63. Analysis • 1,06,381 villages yet to be electrified • Mission power for all by 2012 • Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana • Access to electricity to every village by 2009 63
  • 64. WATER RESOURCES 64
  • 65. Water Resources • Problems 1.Poorly maintained pipe network 2.Inadequate assets 3.Low quality of water 4.Lack of clearly defined traffic policy 5.Lack of financing mechanism 65
  • 66. Cont. • Responsibility of urban local bodies • Fiscal authority rest with state govt. • Govt launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in 2005 • In 1947 we had 6000 metric cubes of water now 1,250 • Dependent on ground water than surface water 66
  • 67. Cont. • Irrigation and water resources finance corporation to be set up. • With initial corpus of 100 crore • Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka have signed • $738 mn agreement with world bank • To repair renovate and restore water bodies. 67
  • 68. REFERENCES • Indian economy by - Ruddar Datt, K.P.M Sundharam • Indian Infrastructure reports • Indian Economy surveys • India Infrastructure 68
  • 69. THANK YOU There was a time to die for the nation , now it is the time to live for the nation. 69