Sexual Violence and Exploitation


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Sexual Violence and Exploitation

  1. 1. Sexual Violence and Exploitation<br />Ashley Skorczewski<br />
  2. 2. Trafficking<br />Trafficking in person shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.<br />
  3. 3. Trafficking <br />UNICEF reports that across the world, there are over one million children entering the sex trade every year and that approximately 30 million children have lost their childhood through sexual exploitation over the past 30 years<br />The U.S. Department of State estimates that about 600,000 to 800,000 people - mostly women and children - are trafficked across national borders annually<br />Eleven countries score very high as countries of origin for trafficking victims.  The countries are Belarus, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine (Commonwealth of Independent States), Albania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Romania, China, Thailand, and Nigeria<br />
  4. 4. Trafficking<br />Worldwide, it is estimated that somewhere between 700,000 and four million women, children and men are trafficked each year, and no region is unaffected<br />Sex trafficking is 90% women and girls<br />Sex trafficking is a 58 billion dollar industry, second behind the trafficking of Cocaine<br />2.5 million victims are currently being trafficked, 2 out of 3 of those come from Eastern Europe<br />
  5. 5. Trafficking<br />Besides being lured with promises of a good job, there are other situations in which women can fall into sex trafficking. Sometimes women receive false marriage proposals from men who plan to sell them into bondage. There are also instances when young girls are sold into the sex trade by their parents who are trying to earn some money. And, of course, many times the women are simply kidnapped.<br />
  6. 6. Trafficking<br />
  7. 7. Rape<br />Rape is defined as sexual intercourse forced on a person without his or her permission, either by threat of force or on someone who is unable to give consent. Sexual intercourse may be vaginal, anal, or oral, and may involve the use of a body part or an object.<br />Rape is a violent act, and is most often committed by a male upon a female. However, some cases of rape have been reported in which a woman has raped a man.<br />14,000 of the 331,815 reported crimes committed against women in the Russian Federation were rapes.<br />
  8. 8. Rape<br />In Bosnia and Herzegovina, alone, estimates of the numbers of women raped range from 10,000 to 60,000. (2000)<br />11.6 % of women in the Czech Republic reported experiencing forced sexual contact in their lifetime, and 3.4 % of those women reported they had experienced forced sexual contact on more than one occasion.(2000)<br />In Peru, 90 % of 12 to 16 year old girls giving birth were pregnant from rape, and often incest. (2001)<br />
  9. 9. Rape<br />A 2005 World Health Organization study reported that nearly one third of Ethiopian women had been physically forced by a partner to have sex against their will within the 12 months prior to the study.<br />
  10. 10. War Rape<br />The term war rape labels rape committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war, distinguished from sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in military service .<br />Over 20,000 Muslim women were known to be raped in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Balkan War.<br />
  11. 11. Comfort Women<br />Comfort women is a euphemism for women working in military brothels, especially those women who were forced into prostitution as a form of sexual slavery by the Japanese military during World War II.<br />
  12. 12. Comfort Women<br />One source suggests that the Japanese government organized the comfort stations for a number of reasons:<br />To increase the morale of the troops.<br />To prevent their soldiers from raping women in the territories that they controlled.<br />To more efficiently prevent the spread of STDs.<br />To prevent leakage of military secrets.<br />
  13. 13. Similarities and Differences<br />One thing that rape, war rape, and comfort women all have in common is the fact that there was unwanted sex. The differences are the time and place. Rape is something that happens everywhere and most often by someone you know. War rape is something that happens specifically in a time of conflict and goes largely unpunished. Comfort women were women of brothels that were provided to the men in a time of war.<br />
  14. 14. Prostitution<br />2 million children are forced into prostitution every year. Half of them live in Asia.<br />At this moment there are 40 million prostitutes globally<br />Prostitution is completely legal and regulated in 22 countries including: Austria, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Switzerland, Australia and Columbia.<br />
  15. 15. Prostitution<br />$1 is the median income for a prostitute in South Africa. 1 in 2 South African prostitutes have HIV.<br />Studies show that 1 out of every 10 men in the world have purchased a prostitute.<br />The rate in China is 1 in 4.<br />In Korea 1 in 5 men pay for sex more than 4 times a month.<br />
  16. 16. Prostitution<br />
  17. 17. Sexual Assault and Abuse<br />Globally, at least one in three women and girls is beaten or sexually abused in her lifetime.<br />A recent survey by the Kenyan Women Rights Awareness Program revealed that 70% of those interviewed said they knew neighbors who beat their wives.<br />In Zimbabwe, domestic violence accounts for more than 60% of murder cases that go through the high court in Harare.<br />
  18. 18. Sexual Assault and Abuse<br />Sexual assault can include child sexual abuse, rape, attempted rape, incest, exhibitionism, voyeurism, obscene phone calls, fondling, and sexual harassment.<br />
  19. 19. Sexual Assault and Abuse<br />One preliminary study in eight different countries found a 24.7 % rate of sexual violence in dating relationships (2001)<br />A report of seven different countries found that more than 60% of sexual assault victims know their attackers.<br />A large number of sexual assault victims are less than age 15.<br />In South Africa, a sex crime happens every twenty seconds.<br />
  20. 20. Sexual Assault and Abuse<br />Among 95 women interviewed in Papua New Guinea, about half of them said their husbands had forced them into sex. 1/3 of those forced said they had been beaten into sex, and 1/5 had been manipulated into it by drunken husbands.<br />In a randomly selected study of nearly 1,200 ninth grade students in Geneva, Switzerland, 20% of girls revealed they had experienced at least one incident of sexual abuse.(2002)<br />49 % of the 1,000 women surveyed in Sacatepequez, Guatemala, have been physically, sexually or emotionally abused, 75% by an intimate male partner.<br />
  21. 21. Female Genital Mutilation<br />In Africa an estimated 92 million girls from 10 years of age and above have undergone FGM.<br />Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons.<br />The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women.<br />Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later, potential childbirth complications and newborn deaths.<br />
  22. 22. Female Genital Mutilation<br />An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.<br />It is mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15 years.<br />FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.<br />
  23. 23. Female Genital Mutilation<br />FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.<br />The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. Increasingly, however, FGM is being performed by health care providers.<br />Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15, and occasionally on adult women. In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually <br />The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, and among certain immigrant communities in North America and Europe.<br />
  24. 24. Female Genital Mutilation<br />Long term Consequences can include:<br />recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections<br />Cysts<br />Infertility<br />an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths<br />the need for later surgeries.<br />
  25. 25. Help<br />If you or anyone you know has experienced sexual abuse and is in need of help you can contact the following:<br />Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN)
National Sexual Assault Hotline
2000 L Street, NW, Suite 406
Washington,DC 20036
(202) 544-1034
(800) 656-HOPE (4613)<br />National Alliance to End Sexual Violence
(202) 289-3903<br />National Center for Victims of Crime
2000 M Street NW, Suite 480
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 467-8700
Our helpline is staffed Monday through Friday 8:30am to 8:30pm ET:
Toll-free: 1-800-FYI-CALL (1-800-394-2255)
Fax: (202) 467-8701
TTY/TDD: 1-800-211-7996 
Email:<br />