Greenhouse Gas Rule Explained


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General explanation of the new federal Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule

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Greenhouse Gas Rule Explained

  1. 1. Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule Andrew D. Shroads, QEP Regional Director, SC&A, Inc. P.O. Box 1276 • Westerville, OH 43086  (614) 432-2557  [email_address] EXPLAINED
  2. 2. Presentation Funding <ul><li>All expenses associated with this training seminar were paid for by a grant from the Ohio Environmental Education Fund, with matching funds from S. Cohen & Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional support provided by: </li></ul>Wood County Park District your natural places for fun
  3. 3. What are Greenhouse Gases? <ul><li>Gases that absorb thermal infrared radiation (heat), making the Earth about 59º F warmer than without the gases </li></ul><ul><li>There are several greenhouse gases (GHGs); six are regulated by this rule: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Methane (CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Perfluorocabons (PFC) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF 6 ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Not All Greenhouse Gases Are Equal <ul><li>Each GHG has a capacity to absorb heat, known as global warming potential (GWP): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ): 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane (CH 4 ): 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O): 310 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC): 11–14,900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfluorocabons (PFC): 6,500–17,340 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF 6 ): 23,900 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total GHG emissions are listed in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions - GHG multiplied by its GWP; 40 CFR 98 Table A-1 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example: GHG & GWP My home burns 100,000 cf/year N.G., emitting: 12,001.12 lbs. CO 2 0.20 lbs. CH 4 0.02 lbs. N 2 O From 40 CFR 98, Tables A-1, C-1, C-2 To calculate the total CO 2 e emissions, multiply each pollutant by its GWP (CO 2 = 1, CH 4 = 21, and N 2 O = 310). 12,001.12 lbs. CO 2 × 1 = 12,001 lbs. 0.20 lbs. CH 4 × 21 = 4 lbs. 0.02 lbs. N 2 O × 310 = 6 lbs. Total CO 2 e 12,011 lbs. (6 U.S. short tons)
  6. 6. Greenhouse Gas Timeline - I <ul><li>1863 </li></ul><ul><li>John Tyndall lectures about Earth’s atmosphere exhibiting a “greenhouse effect” </li></ul><ul><li>1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Svante Arrhenius develops theory relating carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration to temperature changes </li></ul><ul><li>1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Charles Keeling begins measuring atmospheric CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1990 </li></ul><ul><li>International Panel for Climate Change Report: Emissions from humans are substantially increasing greenhouse gas concentration and warming the Earth </li></ul>
  7. 7. Greenhouse Gas Timeline - II <ul><li>1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol ratified – legally binding commitments to reduce GHG emissions </li></ul><ul><li>2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol takes effect </li></ul><ul><li>2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin of Atomic Scientists moves Doomsday clock to 11:55 PM, due to global warming </li></ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes greenhouse gas regulations </li></ul><ul><li>March 31, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>First GHG emissions report (C.Y. 2010) due to EPA </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reason for Regulating – Global Temperature
  9. 9. Federal Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule <ul><li>U.S. EPA was directed by Congress to enact a regulation requiring GHG emissions reports, “above appropriate thresholds in all sectors of the economy of the United States.” FY2008 H.R. 2764; Public Law 110–161 </li></ul><ul><li>Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 98, (40 CFR 98) was issued in December, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar year 2010 will be the first report </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar year emissions will be reported by March 31 of the following year, (i.e. 2010 report due March 31, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>March 31, 2011 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Federal GHG Reporting Rule Overview <ul><li>25 categories of commercial / industrial / institutional sources, with an additional 4 categories proposed </li></ul><ul><li>5 categories for producers / suppliers, with 2 proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Categories specify monitoring and record keeping </li></ul><ul><li>GHG emissions will be reported in each applicable category and as a total for the facility </li></ul><ul><li>GHG reporting rule does not contain emissions restrictions or reduction requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Report will be online; currently unavailable </li></ul><ul><li>GHG reporting rule proposed and data verified by EPA Office of Atmospheric Programs (OAPS), not Office of Air Quality Planning & Standards (OAQPS) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Do I Have to Report? <ul><li>There are four categories of facilities: </li></ul><ul><li>I. Facilities “on the list,” large producers of GHG emissions (e.g. power plants, refineries) </li></ul><ul><li>II. Facilities “on the other list” and emit ≥25,000 metric tons (MT) of CO 2 e/year, (e.g. glass production) </li></ul><ul><li>III. Facilities with a maximum rated heat input capacity of ≥30 MMBTU/hour from stationary combustion units and emissions of ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year </li></ul><ul><li>IV. A supplier, importer, exporter, or producer of natural gas, petroleum products, industrial GHGs (e.g. CO 2 ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reporting Category I – Large Emitters <ul><li>Any of the following operations emitting GHGs: </li></ul><ul><li>- Electricity Generation (Subject to 40 CFR, Part 75) </li></ul><ul><li>- Adipic, Nitric, or Phosphoric Acid Production </li></ul><ul><li>- Aluminum, Cement, HCFC-22, Petrochemical, Silicon Carbide, Soda Ash, and Titanium Dioxide Production </li></ul><ul><li>- Ammonia and Lime Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>- Petroleum Refineries </li></ul><ul><li>- Processes Destroying >2.14 MT HFC-23 per year and not co-located with an HCFC-22 Production Facility </li></ul><ul><li>- Municipal Solid Waste Landfill ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year </li></ul><ul><li>- Manure Management Systems ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year </li></ul><ul><li>Congress prohibited EPA from implementing this part </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reporting Category II – Medium Emitters Facilities emitting ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year combined from all of the following operations: - Stationary Fuel Combustion - Miscellaneous Use of Carbonates - Ferroalloy Production - Glass Production - Hydrogen Production - Iron and Steel Production - Lead Production - Pulp and Paper Manufacturing - Zinc Production
  14. 14. Reporting Category III – Fuel Combustion <ul><li>Facilities emitting ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year from all stationary fuel combustion sources and the aggregate maximum rated heat input capacity of all of the stationary combustion units at the facility is 30 million British thermal units per hour (MMBTU/hour) or greater. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reporting Category IV – Suppliers <ul><li>Suppliers, importers, and exporters of any of the following products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal-to-liquid products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas and natural gas liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial greenhouse gas, including carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importer/Exporter subject only if ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The following production and supply operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum refineries distilling crude oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas fractionators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local natural gas distribution companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial greenhouse gas producers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. GHG Reporting Applicability - I <ul><li>Category I: </li></ul><ul><li>If a process is listed, the rule is applicable </li></ul><ul><li>Category II: </li></ul><ul><li>Rule is applicable if combined emissions from all listed processes are ≥ 25,000 MT CO 2 e/year </li></ul><ul><li>Category III: </li></ul><ul><li>Rule is applicable if stationary fuel combustion are ≥30 MMBTU/hour and emitting ≥ 25,000 MT CO 2 e/year </li></ul><ul><li>Category IV (Importer/Exporter): </li></ul><ul><li>Material supplied must cause ≥ 25,000 MT CO 2 e/year </li></ul><ul><li>Category IV (Producer): </li></ul><ul><li>If material is produced or supplied, rule is applicable </li></ul>
  17. 17. GHG Reporting Applicability - II Source in Category 1? No Yes Source in Category 2? Stationary Combustion? No Yes Yes Emit ≥25,000 MT/year CO 2 e? Maximum Aggregate Heat Input ≥30 MMBTU/hr? Subject to Rule Yes Yes Not Subject to Rule No No No
  18. 18. What Sources Do I Include? <ul><li>Reported GHG emissions may differ from GHG emissions used to determine category applicability </li></ul><ul><li>Category I: </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions report must include any source in all 25 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Category II: </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions report must include any source in all 25 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Category III: </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions report for stationary fuel combustion only </li></ul><ul><li>Category IV: </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions from any material in all 5 supplier categories </li></ul>
  19. 19. Example: GHG Sources & Calculations <ul><li>Iron & Steel Production Facility </li></ul><ul><li>1. Applicability: Calculate GHG emissions from steel processing and stationary fuel combustion sources </li></ul><ul><li>2. Report: </li></ul><ul><li>- Integrated Iron & Steel Processing </li></ul><ul><li>- Stationary Combustion Sources </li></ul><ul><li>- Electrical Equipment (proposed) </li></ul><ul><li>- Wastewater Treatment (proposed) </li></ul><ul><li>- Industrial Landfill (proposed) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reporting Exemptions <ul><li>Research & development activities: Activities conducted in process units or at laboratory bench-scale settings whose purpose is to conduct research and development for new processes, technologies, or products and whose purpose is not for the manufacture of products for commercial sale. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Defining Facility <ul><li>Per the GHG reporting rule, a facility is defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical property, plant, building, structure, source, or stationary equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>On contiguous or adjacent properties; </li></ul><ul><li>In actual physical contact or separated solely by public roadway or other public right of way; and </li></ul><ul><li>Under common ownership or common control </li></ul><ul><li>This definition differs from Title V and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant definitions for facilities that include properties several miles apart. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Determine GHG Reporting Applicability - I <ul><li>Emissions Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>What operations are emitting GHGs at the facility? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Review current air permits. Look for sources burning fuel or emitting carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen oxides; these could be GHG sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Review purchase records. If SF 6 , PFC, and HFC are being purchased, they are likely being emitted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. There are 25 categories (subparts) of GHG sources in the rule. Each subpart details what sources in that category are required to report GHG emissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only include if in the rule </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Determine GHG Reporting Applicability - II <ul><li>Emissions Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>What amount of GHGs are being emitted? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Each of the 25 subparts details what types of GHGs are being emitted and how to calculate CO 2 e. Only calculate emission using the emissions factors and calculations included in the rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The online EPA applicability calculator includes calculations for stationary source combustion and municipal solid waste landfills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is not in the rule, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not calculate </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Resource: Fuel Combustion Factors <ul><li>Since stationary fuel combustion is one of the largest source categories, the following are emissions factors for selected fuels: (From 40 CFR 98 Table A-1, C-1, and C-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas: 5.456×10 -5 MT CO 2 e/cubic foot </li></ul><ul><li>#2 Fuel Oil: 1.024×10 -2 MT CO 2 e/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>#6 Fuel Oil: 1.130×10 -2 MT CO 2 e/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>The following amounts of fuels combusted generates 25,000 MT CO 2 e: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas: 458.2 million (MM) cubic feet/year </li></ul><ul><li>#2 Fuel Oil: 2,441,223 gallons/year </li></ul><ul><li>#6 Fuel Oil: 2,212,121 gallons/year </li></ul>
  25. 25. Resource: EPA GHG Applicability Tool -calculator Select source categories from the list, calculate annual CO 2 e emissions, and the results will detail rule applicability and appropriate subparts. EPA GHG hotline: 877-GHG-1188
  26. 26. Discontinuing Reporting Emissions must be reported each year, even if emissions are reduced below 25,000 MT CO 2 e; however, there are three possible methods whereby a facility can reduce emissions and cease reporting: 1. Emissions are less than 25,000 MT CO 2 e for five consecutive years; 2. Emissions are less than 15,000 MT CO 2 e for three consecutive years; or 3. ALL applicable GHG-emitting processes cease to operate; not applicable to municipal solid waste landfills. Instead of a final report, a cessation notification is submitted.
  27. 27. Signing the Report - I <ul><li>Designated Representative (DR): an individual having responsibility for the overall operation of the facility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant manager; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superintendent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator of a well or a well field; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position of equivalent responsibility; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position having overall responsibility for environmental matters for the company. If subject to 40 CFR 75, must be same individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can delegate alternate designated representative (ADR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be the same as the “responsible official” for Title V </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Signing the Report - II <ul><li>Certificate of Representation: </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted by the DR and ADR to EPA at least 60 days prior to a GHG due date (January 28, 2011); </li></ul><ul><li>Separate from the GHG Report; </li></ul><ul><li>Lists the owners or operators for the facility; </li></ul><ul><li>EPA will be developing a form; </li></ul><ul><li>Certifies that the DR and ADR have a written “document of agreement” with the owners or operators of the facility; </li></ul><ul><li>DR and ADR actions are binding upon the facility owners and operators. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Signing the Report - III <ul><li>Agent: </li></ul><ul><li>The DR or ADR can further delegate to an agent; </li></ul><ul><li>An agent submits the report on behalf of the DR or ADR; </li></ul><ul><li>Agent can be anyone within or outside the organization; </li></ul><ul><li>Agent is given authorization to EPA by DR or ADR; </li></ul><ul><li>EPA will develop a form authorizing agent to submit data to EPA. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Recordkeeping Requirements <ul><li>The following records are required: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every unit for which GHG emissions were calculated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data used in GHG calculations, required in a Subpart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copies of the annual GHG reports submitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any missing data computations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written GHG monitoring plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification results and maintenance records for instruments required in a Subpart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any additional records required in a Subpart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All records must be maintained onsite and readily accessible for three years </li></ul>
  31. 31. Additional Recordkeeping Requirements <ul><li>Each Subpart requires additional recordkeeping specific to the Subpart </li></ul><ul><li>Any information collected to estimate GHG emissions within a Subpart must be maintained with the GHG emissions report for at least three years </li></ul><ul><li>Any instances where data was extrapolated for missing data periods, along with the methodology used to extrapolate the missing data </li></ul>
  32. 32. GHG Monitoring Plan <ul><li>Each facility must develop a written GHG Monitoring Plan (GHGMP) that details the following procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>Positions responsible for collecting GHG data </li></ul><ul><li>Processes / methods for collecting GHG data </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures used for quality assurance, maintenance, and repair of monitoring systems and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation Agreement and Certificate of Representation </li></ul><ul><li>The GHGMP can reference existing documents, provided that the requirements are easily identified. </li></ul><ul><li>EPA can request a copy of the GHGMP or review the GHGMP during an audit. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Enforcement <ul><li>U.S. EPA is the sole enforcer of these regulations; the Ohio EPA or local air agencies have not been given the power to enforce this rule, at this time. Currently, Ohio does not have a GHG reporting requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>EPA will conduct reviews and audits of the GHG emissions reports and applicable facilities and ensures that data submitted as part of the GHG report matches emissions reports. </li></ul>
  34. 34. End of General Subpart Intermission
  35. 35. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - I <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>All stationary units that combust fuels (e.g. boilers, engines, process heaters, incinerators) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency generators (emergency use only; no load reduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flares, unless specified in another Subpart (e.g. Petroleum Refinery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous waste combustion (unless another fuel is used) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA website has an emissions calculator for Subpart C </li></ul>
  36. 36. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - II <ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation Methods (Tiers): </li></ul><ul><li>1. Fuel Usage × Default Heat Factor × GHG Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Default heat factor – average heating value per amount of fuel, (e.g. MMBTU/CF); Table C-1 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fuel Usage × Measured Heat Factor × GHG Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Measured heat factor - heating value per amount of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fuel Usage × Fuel Carbon Content × 44 (CO 2 )/12 (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Measured carbon content - percent of carbon in fuel </li></ul><ul><li>4. Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Measured carbon emissions rate exiting stack </li></ul>
  37. 37. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - III <ul><li>Using Calculation Method Tier 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Maximum Rated Heat Capacity ≤250 MMBTU/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel used is listed in Table C-1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas, Blast Furnace Gas, Coke Oven Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum Products: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel Oil, Kerosene, LPG, Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal, Municipal Solid Waste, Tires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peat, Rendered Animal Fat, Wood, Biogas, Biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot use if fuel heating value is analyzed </li></ul>
  38. 38. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - IV <ul><li>Using Calculation Method Tier 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Maximum Rated Heat Capacity ≤250 MMBTU/hr or >250 MMBTU/hr, if firing natural gas or distillate fuel oil </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel used is listed in Table C-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) units that produce steam or are rated ≤250 tons per day (tpd) of MSW </li></ul><ul><li>Using Calculation Method Tier 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Any unit that cannot use Method 1 or 2 and is not equipped with a CO 2 CEMS (Method 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Using Calculation Method Tier 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Units equipped with a CO 2 CEMS must use Tier 4 </li></ul>
  39. 39. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - V <ul><li>Fuel Analysis (Tiers 2 & 3): </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic fuel analyses for fuels listed in §98.34(a) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas – Semiannual analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal & Fuel Oil – One from each delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid & Gas (not Fuel Oil or Natural Gas) – Once per calendar quarter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid (not Coal) – Weekly samples analyzed monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Ohio EPA air permit: For each shipment of oil received for burning in this emissions unit, the permittee shall collect … a representative grab sample of oil and maintain records of the … analyses for sulfur content and heat content … </li></ul>
  40. 40. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - VI <ul><li>Additional Fuel Analysis Requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel sampling is only required if the unit operates within the time period for fuel analysis (e.g. calendar quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>For blended fuels, either use a weighted heating value, based on the proportions of fuels within the blend or have a representative blended fuel sample analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>Oil or gas flow meters (Tier 3) must be calibrated </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel billing meters (if provided by a separate owner) can be used in lieu of oil or gas flow meters </li></ul><ul><li>For missing analysis data, use the average of the before and after values. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - VII <ul><li>Miscellaneous Requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>If two or more fuels are fired in the same unit, different Tiers can be used for each fuel, (i.e. Tier 2 for distillate fuel oil and Tier 1 for natural gas) </li></ul><ul><li>If Tier 4 is used, no other Tier may be used </li></ul><ul><li>There are two alternative methods for Tier 4 units that are not subject to Acid Rain provisions or the CO 2 emissions data provisions of 40 CFR 75 </li></ul><ul><li>To calculate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions, use the appropriate GHG emissions factor. Tiers 1 and 3 use the Tier 1 Calculation Method. Tiers 2 and 4 use the Tier 2 Calculation Method </li></ul>
  42. 42. Subpart C: Stationary Fuel Combustion - VIII <ul><li>Sorbent Control Technologies: </li></ul><ul><li>If sorbent injection (fluidized bed, acid-gas emissions control, or wet flue gas desulfurization) is used on the source, sorbent CO 2 emissions must be included </li></ul><ul><li>GHG emissions are calculated by multiplying the amount of sorbent used by the stoichiometric ratio of sulfur reacting with carbon (assumed to be 1:1) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Example – Fuel Burning GHG vs. Next Highest Pollutant
  44. 44. Subpart D: Electricity Generation <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary electricity generating units subject to Acid Rain (Title IV) or 40 CFR 75 requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include portable sources or emergency generators used for emergency purposes only </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O </li></ul>
  45. 45. Subpart K: Ferroalloy Production <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Any facility using pyrometallurgical techniques to produce ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferrovanadium, ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, silicomanganese, or silicon metal </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>For process emissions, a CEMS is required </li></ul><ul><li>For electric arc furnace (EAF) emissions, either a CEMS or a mass balance equation may be used. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Subpart N: Glass Production <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Facility manufacturing flat glass, container glass, pressed & blown glass, or wool fiberglass by melting a mixture of raw materials and forming them into shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental or research & development glass furnaces are not applicable to this Subpart </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O </li></ul>
  47. 47. Subpart N: Glass Production - II <ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Mass balance - carbonate in raw materials (% by weight) multiplied by amount of carbonate containing raw material charged in each furnace multiplied by the GHG emissions factor and the calcination fraction </li></ul><ul><li>Mass balance - GHG emissions from stationary fuel combustion in glass furnaces - use Subpart C </li></ul><ul><li>Employ a CEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection: </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material suppliers or chemical analysis provides the carbonate fraction of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray fluorescence test for calcination fraction </li></ul>
  48. 48. Subpart P: Hydrogen Production <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities that produce hydrogen for commercial sale </li></ul><ul><li>Units producing hydrogen by reforming, gasification, oxidation, reaction, or other feedstock transformation </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 CH 4 and N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Employ a CEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mass balance - feedstock volume multiplied by average carbon content </li></ul>H 2
  49. 49. Subpart Q: Iron & Steel Production - I <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Taconite iron ore processing, integrated iron and steel manufacturing, and cokemaking or electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking not co-located with integrated iron and steel manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated iron and steel manufacturing includes Basic Oxygen Furnaces (BOF), sinter process, decarburization vessel, and direct reduction furnace </li></ul><ul><li>Blast furnace / coke oven gas flares, report as stationary fuel combustion, calculated using Subparts C & Y </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 </li></ul>
  50. 50. Subpart Q: Iron & Steel Production - II <ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Employ a CEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Balance - calculate CO 2 emissions from each applicable process by multiplying all process inputs by carbon content for each material, excluding carbon in product, waste materials, and collected by air pollution control equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Site-specific emissions factor - conduct an air emissions test to measure CO 2 emissions from all applicable process exhaust stacks, based on feed or production rate. Emissions factor is emissions rate divided by feed or production rate. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Subpart U: Miscellaneous Carbonate Use - I <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Processes consuming ≥2,000 tons per year of carbonates, heated to allow a calcination reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone • Dolomite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ankerite • Magnesite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siderite • Rhodochrosite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Carbonate • Barium & Potassium Carbonates (proposed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not include carbonates used in the manufacture of cement, glass, ferroalloys, iron & steel, lead, lime, soda ash, phosphoric acid, pulp & paper, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, zinc, or sorbent control technology. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Subpart U: Miscellaneous Carbonate Use - II <ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Calcination fraction - mass of carbonate consumed multiplied by GHG emissions factor (Table U-1) multiplied by fractionation calcination for carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Balance – mass of output carbonate multiplied by GHG emissions factor (Table U-1) subtracted from mass of input carbonate multiplied by GHG emissions factor (Table U-1) </li></ul>
  53. 53. Subpart AA: Pulp & Paper Manufacturing-I <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities that produce “market” pulp, manufacture pulp and paper, produce paper products from purchased pulp, produce secondary fiber from recycled paper, convert paper into paperboard products, or operate coating and laminating processes </li></ul><ul><li>GHG emissions calculated from chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills, sulfite facilities, stand-alone semi-chemical facilities; pulp-mill kilns and kraft and soda facilities; and systems for adding makeup chemicals at chemical pulp mills. </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O </li></ul>
  54. 54. Subpart AA: Pulp & Paper Manufacturing-II <ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>All Facilities - Subpart C, Tier I for fossil-fuel combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Kraft or Soda Facilities – Calculate biomass emissions by multiplying spent liquor solids mass combusted by its heating value and GHG emissions factor (Table AA-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfite or Stand-alone Semi-chemical - Calculate biogenic emissions by multiplying spent liquor solids mass combusted by carbon content </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp mill lime kiln - Biogenic emissions are included in chemical recovery furnace emissions calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup chemical use - amount of makeup chemicals added multiplied by ratios of molecular weight of calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate to CO 2 </li></ul>
  55. 55. Subpart HH: Landfills - I <ul><li>Applicability: </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted waste on or after January 1, 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include hazardous waste landfills, dedicated construction and demolition landfills, or industrial landfills </li></ul><ul><li>Process include landfills, landfill gas collection systems, and landfill gas destruction devices (including flares) </li></ul><ul><li>GHG to report: CO 2 , N 2 O, CH 4 and CH 4 destruction </li></ul>
  56. 56. Subpart HH: Landfills - II <ul><li>Calculation Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions are reported as modeled emissions rates, based on length of time landfill has operated </li></ul><ul><li>If tipping fee receipts or other historical records are unavailable, the landfill can estimate amount of waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume waste is equivalent to the first year quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the population served and utilize national waste generation averages (Table HH-2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume a constant average annual waste disposed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emissions factors and other data for the air emissions model are provided in Table HH-1 </li></ul>
  57. 57. Subpart HH: Landfills - III <ul><li>Calculation Methods (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>For gas collection systems, the amount of CH 4 destroyed is calculated with data obtained either from a continuous gas collection monitoring system or personnel monitored parameters obtained on a weekly basis </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of CH 4 recovered is calculated from the daily average CH 4 concentration in the gas recovered, converted into daily CH 4 recovery values </li></ul><ul><li>Total CH 4 emissions are the generation rate minus the oxidation rate (assumed to be 10%) minus CH 4 recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Flare CO 2 emissions are not counted </li></ul>
  58. 58. Overview <ul><li>Five things to remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Only calculate emissions for processes in the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate GHG emissions by using the methods outlined in the rule ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>The GHG emissions calculated to determine rule applicability (i.e. 25,000 metric tons CO 2 e) may be different from GHG emissions calculated for the report </li></ul><ul><li>New sources of air pollution are regulated; SF 6 , PFC, and HFC are new regulated air pollutants from this rule </li></ul><ul><li>Document, record, and save </li></ul>
  59. 59. Any Questions?
  60. 60. More GHG Regulations-I
  61. 61. More GHG Regulations - II <ul><li>Proposed Subparts for the GHG Reporting Rule: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Subpart W - Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Subpart RR - Carbon Dioxide Injection and Geologic Sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>3. Subpart I - Electronics Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>4. Subpart L - Fluorinated Gas Production </li></ul><ul><li>5. Subpart QQ - Imports and Exports of Equipment Pre-charged with Fluorinated GHGs or Closed-cell Foams </li></ul><ul><li>6. Subpart DD – Use of Electric Transmission and Distribution Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>7. Subpart SS - Manufacture of Electric Transmission and Distribution Equipment </li></ul>
  62. 62. More GHG Regulations - III <ul><li>June 15 Modifications to GHG Reporting Rule: </li></ul><ul><li>Affected Subparts: E, H, K, N, O, P, Q, S, V, Z, CC, EE, GG, HH, LL, MM, and NN </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to correct cross references </li></ul><ul><li>Additional information to better or more fully understand compliance obligations in a specific provision </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments to certain equations to better reflect actual operating conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections to terms and definitions in certain equations </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections to data reporting requirements so that they more closely conform to the information used to perform emission calculations </li></ul>
  63. 63. More GHG Regulations - IV <ul><li>Tailoring Rule (GHG under Clean Air Act): </li></ul><ul><li>EPA has issued a final rule regulating GHGs as air pollutants and requiring permits to emit them </li></ul><ul><li>GHGs will be regulated in the federal permits: Title V (operating permit) & Prevention of Significant Deterioration (installation permit) </li></ul><ul><li>If there are sources of GHG at the facility, sources will become part of permit(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Permits will be required for sources that are not currently in issued permits </li></ul><ul><li>Review existing sources and ensure all air pollution sources categorized appropriately </li></ul>
  64. 64. More GHG Regulations - V <ul><li>Congressional Reaction: </li></ul><ul><li>On June 10, the Senate defeated a proposal from Sen. Lisa Murkowski, disapproving of EPA ruling that CO 2 poses a threat to human health </li></ul><ul><li>Sen. John Rockefeller has proposed a bill in the Senate delaying EPA from enforcing its Tailoring Rule for two years. A companion bill was proposed in the House </li></ul><ul><li>Sen. Joe Lieberman and Sen. John Kerry proposed a bill where GHG would be regulated separate from the Clean Air Act </li></ul>
  65. 65. Thank You <ul><li>The End </li></ul>