Each GHG has a capacity to absorb heat, known as global warming potential (GWP):
Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ): 1
Methane (CH 4 ): 21
Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O): 310
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC): 11–14,900
Perfluorocabons (PFC): 6,500–17,340
Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF 6 ): 23,900
Total GHG emissions are listed in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions - GHG multiplied by its GWP; 40 CFR 98 Table A-1
Example: GHG & GWP My home burns 100,000 cf/year N.G., emitting: 12,001.12 lbs. CO 2 0.20 lbs. CH 4 0.02 lbs. N 2 O From 40 CFR 98, Tables A-1, C-1, C-2 To calculate the total CO 2 e emissions, multiply each pollutant by its GWP (CO 2 = 1, CH 4 = 21, and N 2 O = 310). 12,001.12 lbs. CO 2 × 1 = 12,001 lbs. 0.20 lbs. CH 4 × 21 = 4 lbs. 0.02 lbs. N 2 O × 310 = 6 lbs. Total CO 2 e 12,011 lbs. (6 U.S. short tons)
U.S. EPA was directed by Congress to enact a regulation requiring GHG emissions reports, “above appropriate thresholds in all sectors of the economy of the United States.” FY2008 H.R. 2764; Public Law 110–161
Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 98, (40 CFR 98) was issued in December, 2009
Calendar year 2010 will be the first report
Calendar year emissions will be reported by March 31 of the following year, (i.e. 2010 report due March 31, 2011)
- Electricity Generation (Subject to 40 CFR, Part 75)
- Adipic, Nitric, or Phosphoric Acid Production
- Aluminum, Cement, HCFC-22, Petrochemical, Silicon Carbide, Soda Ash, and Titanium Dioxide Production
- Ammonia and Lime Manufacturing
- Petroleum Refineries
- Processes Destroying >2.14 MT HFC-23 per year and not co-located with an HCFC-22 Production Facility
- Municipal Solid Waste Landfill ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year
- Manure Management Systems ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year
Congress prohibited EPA from implementing this part
Reporting Category II – Medium Emitters Facilities emitting ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year combined from all of the following operations: - Stationary Fuel Combustion - Miscellaneous Use of Carbonates - Ferroalloy Production - Glass Production - Hydrogen Production - Iron and Steel Production - Lead Production - Pulp and Paper Manufacturing - Zinc Production
Facilities emitting ≥25,000 MT CO 2 e/year from all stationary fuel combustion sources and the aggregate maximum rated heat input capacity of all of the stationary combustion units at the facility is 30 million British thermal units per hour (MMBTU/hour) or greater.
Rule is applicable if combined emissions from all listed processes are ≥ 25,000 MT CO 2 e/year
Rule is applicable if stationary fuel combustion are ≥30 MMBTU/hour and emitting ≥ 25,000 MT CO 2 e/year
Category IV (Importer/Exporter):
Material supplied must cause ≥ 25,000 MT CO 2 e/year
Category IV (Producer):
If material is produced or supplied, rule is applicable
GHG Reporting Applicability - II Source in Category 1? No Yes Source in Category 2? Stationary Combustion? No Yes Yes Emit ≥25,000 MT/year CO 2 e? Maximum Aggregate Heat Input ≥30 MMBTU/hr? Subject to Rule Yes Yes Not Subject to Rule No No No
Research & development activities: Activities conducted in process units or at laboratory bench-scale settings whose purpose is to conduct research and development for new processes, technologies, or products and whose purpose is not for the manufacture of products for commercial sale.
Since stationary fuel combustion is one of the largest source categories, the following are emissions factors for selected fuels: (From 40 CFR 98 Table A-1, C-1, and C-2)
Natural Gas: 5.456×10 -5 MT CO 2 e/cubic foot
#2 Fuel Oil: 1.024×10 -2 MT CO 2 e/gallon
#6 Fuel Oil: 1.130×10 -2 MT CO 2 e/gallon
The following amounts of fuels combusted generates 25,000 MT CO 2 e:
Natural Gas: 458.2 million (MM) cubic feet/year
#2 Fuel Oil: 2,441,223 gallons/year
#6 Fuel Oil: 2,212,121 gallons/year
Resource: EPA GHG Applicability Tool www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/GHG -calculator Select source categories from the list, calculate annual CO 2 e emissions, and the results will detail rule applicability and appropriate subparts. EPA GHG hotline: 877-GHG-1188
Discontinuing Reporting Emissions must be reported each year, even if emissions are reduced below 25,000 MT CO 2 e; however, there are three possible methods whereby a facility can reduce emissions and cease reporting: 1. Emissions are less than 25,000 MT CO 2 e for five consecutive years; 2. Emissions are less than 15,000 MT CO 2 e for three consecutive years; or 3. ALL applicable GHG-emitting processes cease to operate; not applicable to municipal solid waste landfills. Instead of a final report, a cessation notification is submitted.
U.S. EPA is the sole enforcer of these regulations; the Ohio EPA or local air agencies have not been given the power to enforce this rule, at this time. Currently, Ohio does not have a GHG reporting requirement.
EPA will conduct reviews and audits of the GHG emissions reports and applicable facilities and ensures that data submitted as part of the GHG report matches emissions reports.
From Ohio EPA air permit: For each shipment of oil received for burning in this emissions unit, the permittee shall collect … a representative grab sample of oil and maintain records of the … analyses for sulfur content and heat content …
Any facility using pyrometallurgical techniques to produce ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferrovanadium, ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, silicomanganese, or silicon metal
GHG to report: CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O
For process emissions, a CEMS is required
For electric arc furnace (EAF) emissions, either a CEMS or a mass balance equation may be used.
Mass balance - carbonate in raw materials (% by weight) multiplied by amount of carbonate containing raw material charged in each furnace multiplied by the GHG emissions factor and the calcination fraction
Mass balance - GHG emissions from stationary fuel combustion in glass furnaces - use Subpart C
Employ a CEMS
Raw material suppliers or chemical analysis provides the carbonate fraction of raw materials
Mass Balance - calculate CO 2 emissions from each applicable process by multiplying all process inputs by carbon content for each material, excluding carbon in product, waste materials, and collected by air pollution control equipment
Site-specific emissions factor - conduct an air emissions test to measure CO 2 emissions from all applicable process exhaust stacks, based on feed or production rate. Emissions factor is emissions rate divided by feed or production rate.
Does not include carbonates used in the manufacture of cement, glass, ferroalloys, iron & steel, lead, lime, soda ash, phosphoric acid, pulp & paper, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, zinc, or sorbent control technology.
Facilities that produce “market” pulp, manufacture pulp and paper, produce paper products from purchased pulp, produce secondary fiber from recycled paper, convert paper into paperboard products, or operate coating and laminating processes
GHG emissions calculated from chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills, sulfite facilities, stand-alone semi-chemical facilities; pulp-mill kilns and kraft and soda facilities; and systems for adding makeup chemicals at chemical pulp mills.
For gas collection systems, the amount of CH 4 destroyed is calculated with data obtained either from a continuous gas collection monitoring system or personnel monitored parameters obtained on a weekly basis
The amount of CH 4 recovered is calculated from the daily average CH 4 concentration in the gas recovered, converted into daily CH 4 recovery values
Total CH 4 emissions are the generation rate minus the oxidation rate (assumed to be 10%) minus CH 4 recovery