Identify the possibility of predication of seismic activity through the ionospheric disturbances by demeter micro satellite
Identify the possibility of predication of seismic activity through the ionospheric disturbances by DEMETER micro satellite (Indroducation and cases studies) by A.M.Rateb Reseacher Assistant [email_address] National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, (NARSS). EGYPT
Contents <ul><li>1- What is the Earthquake? </li></ul><ul><li>1.a-Definition. </li></ul><ul><li>1.b-Plate tectonic theory. </li></ul><ul><li>1.c-Distribuation of earthquakes. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Ionoshere and earthquakes. </li></ul><ul><li>2.a-Electromagnetic emissions theories. </li></ul><ul><li>2-.b- Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LA I) Coupling. </li></ul><ul><li>3-The observation with Satellites. </li></ul><ul><li>4-Demter Micro satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>4.a- Scientific Objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>4.b-Scientific Payload. </li></ul><ul><li>4. c-Science Payload. </li></ul><ul><li>5 – Case Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>5.1-Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the </li></ul><ul><li>DEMETER satellite over seismic regions. </li></ul><ul><li>5.2-Observations made by demeter micrsatellite for ultra low </li></ul><ul><li>frequency and extremely low frequency emissions During </li></ul><ul><li>indonesian earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>6-Conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>7-Recommendations </li></ul>.
1 -What is an earthquake? (1) Earthquake is a result of sudden fault movement. 3 kinds of faults: normal, reverse and strike slip (2) Fault movement is a result of plate motion. Inter-plate and intra-plate earthquakes (3) Plate motion is due to mantle convection. (4) Mantle convection the cooling process of hot earth. (5) Pre-seismic, co-seismic and post –seismic phases. D. Ouzounov: Multisensor approach of analyzing atmospheric signals …Sept 11, 2007
1.b- Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics… … what’s the connection ?
1.c-Distribuation of eartquakes Earthquake locations map narrow plate boundaries, broad plate boundary zones & regions of intraplate deformation even in underwater or remote areas Earthquake locations map narrow plate boundaries, broad plate boundary zones & regions of intraplate deformation even in underwater or remote areas
Ionospheric EM observations 2.a-Theories The sketch of various EM observations and EM signal generation mechanisms 2.a. . 1-Emissions of EM Waves from the ground 2.a..2-The Piezo-electric and tribo-electric effects 2.a.3-The emissions of aerosols (radioactive gas or metallic ions 2.a.4-Propagation of acoustaic gravity waves (AGW)
3-The observation with Satellites Geographic map of EM emissions
Major international dedicated missions to study earthquak Major international dedicated missions to study earthquake precursors in atmosphere and ionosphere <ul><li>DEMETER, CNES/France, Detection of Electro-Magnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions Transmitted from Earthquakes (2004-2008) </li></ul><ul><li>COSMIC – Taiwan/USA, 2006-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Kompass-2, CANOPUS, Russia (2006-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico UNAMSAT-3, (2007-2009) </li></ul><ul><li>SESS, China (2008-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan, (2008-2010) </li></ul>D. Ouzounov: Multisensor approach of analyzing atmospheric signals …Sept 11, 2007 But DEMETER is the only satellite which has the capability to survey on a vast scale the Earth’s electromagnetic environment in the ionosphere
4-Demter Micro satellite Jonathan Space Report No. 530 ; Spacewarn No. 609 ; National Space Science Data Center 's 2004-025C ; CNES Source The Dnepr upper stage releases eight payloads while still firing — successively Demeter, Saudisat-2, SaudiComsat-1, Latinsat-C, SaudiComsat-2, Unisat-3, Amsat-Echo and Latinsat-D — and so they ended up in orbits with 698 km perigees and apogees increasing in order of separation time. At left, the Dnepr launch and, at right, the 8-satellite payload. (Photos: AMSAT ). According to Spacewarn , Celestis 04/SL-24 (2004-25B) is just a monitor that was attached to the final stage of the Dnieper booster to log the performance of that stage. Launch DEMATER is a French minisatellite (125 kg) that monitors the electromagnetic activity in the ionosphere during and after earthquakes . The scientific satellite measures electrical effects generated by seismic events, it studies the ionospheric disturbances related to seismic activity, the ionospheric disturbances related to human activity, the pre- and post-seismic effects in the ionosphere that contribute to understand the mechanisms generating those disturbances, and give global information on the Earth's electromagnetic environment at the satellite altitude. This 130-kg spacecraft is the first project in the Centre National d'Études Spatiales' microsatellite series. Mission: Orbit: Launch: Sponsor: Ranks:. Type:. 2004 payload #27 ; 2004-025C 6247th spacecraft. Earth sciences 241s European spacecraft France's CNES 29June 2004 at 6h30 UTC, from Baykonur 696 km x 722 km x 98.3 Chronologies: Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions Spacecraft:
The micro-satellite DEMETER in launch configuration (CNES document). The dimensions are 60 x 60 x 80 cm3 and the weight is around 110 kg. The solar panel in black can be seen on the right. The scientific payload is located in the upper part. On the left there is a boom supporting the three magnetic sensors and the Langmuir probe. Three of the four spheres for the electric sensors can be seen in green.
4.a- Scientific Objectives. The main objectives Search for the presence of electric and magnetic signals, in the high atmosphere, related to seismic and/or volcanic crises on the Earth and more particularly signals related to the seismic break or volcanic eruption preparatory phase; Determine the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere disturbances characteristics equally related to seismic activity after but also before events. Search for cases of particles' precipitations that are related to these events
The Secocd objectives Determine the nature of these signals (closely related to the previous objective) as well as all their spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics . to allow the determination of the signals apparition conditions at high altitude as well as their variability following on one hand the event geophysical characteristics and, on the other hand atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions.This last aspect of the project will constitute an essential contribution to the geophysical Community effort to understand the generating mechanisms as well as these signals propagation conditions.
<ul><li>The science payload is composed of five instruments: </li></ul><ul><li>ICE – a set of electric sensors to measure the 3 components of the electric field from DC to 3.5 MHz; </li></ul><ul><li>IMSC – a three orthogonal search coil magnetometer to measure the magnetic field from a few Hz up to 20 kHz; </li></ul><ul><li>I AP – an ion spectrometer to measure ion composition; </li></ul><ul><li>IDP – an energetic electron detector; </li></ul><ul><li>ISL – two Langmuir probes to measure the dens ity and the temperature of t he electron </li></ul><ul><li>associated with the BANT common electronic module for onboard data processing and handling. </li></ul><ul><li>A large onboard memory (8Gbits) is used to collect the data all around the Earth and a high bit rate telemetry in X band (16 Mb/s) will download these data. </li></ul>4.b-Scientific Payload <ul><li>- Frequency range, B 10 Hz – </li></ul><ul><li>20 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency range, E DC – </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Sensibility B : 2 10-5 nT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Sensibility E : 0.2 μV Hz-1/2 at 500 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Particles: electrons 30 keV - 10 MeV </li></ul><ul><li>Particles: ions 90 keV - 300 MeV </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic density: 5 102 - 5 106 ions/cm3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic temperature: 1000 K - 5000 K </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic composition: H+, He+, O+ </li></ul><ul><li>Electron density: 102 - 5 106 cm-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron temperature: 500 K – 3000k </li></ul>TABLE 2. Experimen capabilities.
Modes of Operations Working Modes DEMETER has two science modes of operation: 1)the Survey mode Collecting averaged data all around the Earth 128 channels from 70 keV to 2.5 MeV, time resolution = 4 sec 2) the Burst mode Collecting data with a high bit rate of 1.7 Mb above the seismic regions 256 channels from 70 keV to 2.5 MeV,time resolution = 1 sec. The triggering of the Burst mode is automatically realized when the satellite crosses a seismic zone defined in the programmation plan. <ul><li>The difference between the Burst and the Survey modes </li></ul><ul><li>Only concerns the time </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution of the data. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of telecommands is estimated to be </li></ul><ul><li>of the order of 600 bytes/3 days. </li></ul>
<ul><li>ICE Experiment – Electric Field Instrument </li></ul>4.c-Science Payload 2-Description of the experiment . 1-Detect and characterize the electromagnetic perturbations in the ionosphere that are associated with seismic activity. 2- Aims at characterizing the electromagnetic effects that can be generate by tropospheric storms in the ionosphere 3- Provide real time observations that can be of use for space weather purposes. 4- Perform a continuous survey of the DC and AC electric field over a wide frequency range and with a high sensitivit Figure 1: Position of the ICE sensors on the spacecraft 3-processing and data storage Data processing and data storage in the mass memory depend on frequency range and on the mode of operation of the spacecraft, Burst or Survey , 1- DC and ULF measurements. 2-ELF measurements. 3-VLF measurements. 4-HF measurements .
The magnetic field experiment IMSC Figure 2 : The magnetic search-coil IMSC and its pre-amplifier. The Strategy to record the data The BURST MODE. To record low bit rate data all around the Earth, During the BURST mode _Waveforms of 3 electric components up to 15 Hz , – Waveforms of the 6 components of the EM field up to 1 kHz , – Waveforms of 2 components (1B + 1E) upto 20 kHz, – Spectrum of one electric component up to 3.5 MHz – Waveform of one electric compone up to 3.5 MHz (snapshots ). IN THE SURVEY MODE. To record high bit rate data above seismic regions • During the Survey mode – Waveforms of 3 electric components up to 15 Hz, – Spectra of 2 components (1B + 1E) up to 20 kHz, – Spectrum of one electric component up to 3.5 MHz, – Results of a neurone network to detect whistlers and sferics.
IAP Experiment – Plasma Analyser Instrument 1- Scientific Objectives . a-characterize the state of the ionospheric plasma, in order to detect perturbations b-provide the plasma parameters that are needed to analyze the data from the plasma wave instruments, ICE and IMSC. c-Real time ionospheric data can be provided for space weather purposes. . 2 .-Description of the experiment . The IAP experiment makes use of two analyzers: 1 -A - PR (for Analyseur à Potentiel Retardateur, Retarding Potential Analyzer ) performs the energy analysis of the rammed ionospheric ions ADV (for Analyseur pour Direction de Vitesse, Velocity -2 Direction Analyzer ) determines the average angles of arrival of the ions. APR measurements allow to determine the density, temperature and bulk energy of the ionospheric ion 3-Modes of operation . IAP has 2 modes of operation in the DEMETER Survey mode, respectively labeled Survey 1 and Survey 2. Survey 1 Corresponds to a medium energy resolution mode for APR with 28 VGR steps 12.8 ms long providing a complete set of plasma parameters every ~ 360 ms. Survey 2 , With 56 VGR steps 12.8 ms long, corresponds to a high energy resolution mode with a lower temporal resolution providing a complete set of measurements every 720 mDensity fluctuations from ADV measurements are available with time resolution of 12.8 ms. There is only one mode of operation in the DEMETER Burst mode featuring high energy and high temporal resolution with 56, 6.4 ms long, VGR steps providing a complete set of plasma parameters every ~ 360 ms. Density fluctuations are available with a time resolution of 6.4 ms.
DEMETER-IDP 1-Scientific objectives of IDP 1-Measure the angle between the particle velocity vector and the magnetic field During an interaction of a high energy particle from the EarthÆs radiation belt with a wave 2-Understand the chain of physical processes leading to the observations before and after earthquakes. 3-Systematic study of the radiation belt dynamics related to the changing interplanetary environment of the Earth. Figure 3 : Integral fluxes of electrons with E > 40 keV at the DEMETER altitude Figure 4 : Integral fluxes of protons with E > 700 keV at the DEMETE altitude The IDP spectrometer
Figure 5 : Integration of the detector on the satellite during the final tests
GROUND-BASED STATIONS and HOW I.S.E.P. Can be involved ? <ul><li>The ground-based stations of the Demeter programme follow </li></ul><ul><li>Several objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To seek and identify the abnormal variations in the ULF, ELF, and </li></ul><ul><li>VLF frequency domains likely to be generated by a tectonic activity, </li></ul><ul><li>To discriminate the origin of the signals (anthropogenic origin or tectonic) </li></ul><ul><li>3. To evaluate the localization of the source(s) </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate propagation processes of the EM signals </li></ul><ul><li>To seek and identify the abnormal occurrence of Earthquake Cloud and their </li></ul><ul><li>connection with the changes of ULF, ELF Frequency domains likely to be generated </li></ul><ul><li>by a tectonic activity also evaluate the localization of source of the earthquake clouds </li></ul><ul><li>and Their connection with lithospheric events. </li></ul>
<ul><li>5.1 - Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the DEMETER satellite over seismic regions. </li></ul><ul><li>5.2- Observations made by demeter mico </li></ul><ul><li>- satellite for ultra low frequency and extremely low Frequency emissions during indonesian earthquak . </li></ul>5 – Case study
Fig. 1. Orbit of DEMETER above Japan on August 29, 2004. The star indicates the epicenter f a series of two earthquakes which occurs on September 5, 2004 in the region of Kii-Peninsula. The thick line on theorbit corresponds to the period where an ionospheric perturbation isobserved with DEMETER Fig. 3. For the same earthquake as in Fig. 1, another orbit above Japan on August 31, 2004. 5.1- Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the DEMETER satellite over seismic regions.
Fig. 2. From the top to the bottom the panels successively show a spectrogram of the electric component E34 between 0 and 2 kHz, a spectrogram of the magnetic component B3 between 0 and 2 kHz, the ion density given by IAP, the electron density, and the earthquakes seen by DEMETER along the orbit (see text for explanation). The data are presented as a function of the Universal Time (UT). The Local Time (LT), the geographic latitude and longitude, and the L values are also given
Fig. 4 . From the top to the bottom, spectrogram of a magnetic component, spectrogram of an electric component, spectrogram of the energy flux of particles, and positions of the earthquakes along the orbit which is shown in Fig. 8. The data is recorded two days before the earthquake indicated by a bright red triangle. (For interpretation of the references in colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
5.2-Observations made by demeter micrsatellite for ultra low frequency and extremely low frequency emissions During indonesian earthquake. Fig.1. Earthquake location in Irian Jaya region of Indonesia near Enarotali.(courtsey USGS) Fig. 2. DEMETER satellite orbit no. 2153 up on 27-11-2004. We present results for a major earthquake that occurred in the Irian Jaya region of Indonesia (latitude 3.68 °S, longitude 135.46 °E, 07:36:47 hrs. UTC and depth 35 km) on 28 November 2004. Fig.1. shows location of the activity. The pass of DEMETER one day before the activity has been shown in Fig.2.
Fig. 3. Spectrogram results for electric and magnetic field components on 27-11-2004.
Fig. 4. Anomaly in ULF electric field variation on 27-11-2004. Fig. 5. ELF magnetic field variations on 27-11-2004.
C onclusions Data from low orbiting satellite have been employed to present a correlation between seismic activity and electromagnetic emissions. The above observations suggest the presence of electromagnetic anomalies during seismic activity in Indonesian region. It also suggests dominance of ULF and ELF range as compared to other higher frequency emissions . Under such conditions, long term investigations for taking up such studies are felt mandatory to evaluate the electric and magnetic field anomalies associated with earthquakes.
Recommendations Recent years have evidenced large number of disastrous earthquakes, which have inflicted enormous damage to mankind. The various phenomenology associated with earthquakes have acquired specific attention of the scientists. Some of the interesting aspects found to be associated with seismic activities involve variations in ionospheric parameters and the generation of electromagnetic emissions in the large frequency range from Ultra Low Frequency to High Frequency. The experimental investigation on electromagnetic effects refer to the electric and magnetic field perturbations that are associated with major geophysical hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic activities and they could be used as short term precursors for studying the related phenomena. Electro-magnetic emissions are considered to be the most promising tool for studying ionospheric disturbances associated with earthquakes. Demeter Micro satellite was lunched 4 years ago for to study the disturbances of the ionosphere due to the seismo‑electromagnetic effects, and due to anthropogenic activities and give us good Promising results More ecxellent results will come from perform a statistical analysis with many events in order to determine the main characteristics of the seismo-electromagnetic effects. and this work will done through