PATHOMORPHOLOGY GENERAL1. Histological examination of a 40 yo. mans thymus D. IIrevealed decreased share of parenchymatous gland E. Velements, increased share of adipose and loose connectivetissue, its enrichment with thymus bodies. The organs mass 11. A 22 y.o. woman has enlarged lymph nodes.was unchanged. What phenomenon is it? Histologically: a lymph node contains lymphocytes,A. Age involution histiocytes, reticular cells, small and big Hodgkins cells,B. Accidental involution multinucleated Sternberg cells, isolated foci of caseousC. Hypotrophy necrosis. What disease are these changes typical for?D. Atrophy A. LymphosarcomaE. Dystrophy B. Lymphogranulomatosis C. Chronic leukosis4. A 9 m.o. child has delayed dentition, it is also out of D. Acute leukosisorder. Upper jaw configuration is horizontal ("high"palate); E. Lung cancer metastasismicroscopically irregular mineralization of tooth enamel,wrinkled enamel prisms, some of them are vacuolized. 12. A patient died under conditions of cardiovascularPredentin zone is extended; there are solitary denticles. insufficiency. Autopsy results: postinfarction cardiosclerosis,What disease is it? myocardium hypertrophy and dilatation of its cavities,A. Early rickets especially of its right ventricle. Liver is enlarged, its surfaceB. Hypervitaminosis D is smooth, incision revealed that it was plethoric, withC. Late rickets darkred specks against the background of brownish tissue.D. Gout Histologically: plethora of central parts of lobules;E. Osteomalacia peritheral parts around portal tracts contain hepatocytes in a state of adipose degeneration. How are these liver changes6. A patient ill with diabetes mellitus felt acute pain in his called?right foot. Objectively: foot thumb is black, foot tissues are A. Pseudonutmeg liveredematous, there are foci of epidermis desquamation, B. Amyloidosisstinking discharges. What clinicopathological form of C. C. Nutmeg livernecrosis is it? D. Liver cirrhosisA. Infarction E. Liver steatosisB. SequestrumC. Dry gangrene 13. In the surgical department of a hospital there was anD. Bedsore outbreak of hospital infecti on that showed itself in oftenE. Moist gangrene postoperative wound abscesses. Bacteriological examination of pus revealed aurococcus. What examination shall be8. Autopsy of a man who died from influenza revealed that conducted to find out the source of this causative agenthis heart was slightly enlarged, pastous, myocardium was among the department personnel?dull and had specks. Microscopical examination of A. Microscopical examinationmyocardium revealed signs of parenchymatous adipose and B. Phagotypinghydropic dystrophy; stroma was edematic with poor C. Estimation of antibiotic susceptibilitymacrophagal and lymphocytic infiltration, vessels were D. Biochemical identificationplethoric; perivascular analysis revealed petechial E. Serological identificationhemorrhages. What type of myocarditis was developed inthis case? 17. Autopsy of a man who died from chronic cardiovascularA. Purulent collapse revealed "tiger heart". Sidewards of endocardium aB. Granulomatous yellowishwhite banding can be seen; myocardium is dull,C. Interstitial proliferative darkyellow. What process caused this pathology?D. Serous focal A. Fatty vascularstromal degenerationE. Serous diffuse B. Fatty parenchymatous degeneration C. Carbohydrate degeneration9. Colonoscopy of a patient ill with dysentery revealed D. Hyaline degenerationthat mucous membrane of his large intestine is hyperemic, E. Amyloidosisedematic, its surface was covered with greyandgreencoats. Name the morphological form of dysenteric collitis: 18. A 48 y.o. patient was admitted to the hospital withA. Fibrinous complaints about weakness, irritability, sleep disturbance.B. Necrotic Objectively: skin and scleras are yellow. In blood:C. Purulent conjugated bilirubin, cholalemia. Feces are acholic. UrineD. Ulcerous is of dark colour (bilirubin). What jaundice is it?E. Catarrhal A. Gilberts syndrome B. Parenchymatous10. A woman has been applying a new cosmetic C. Mechanicpreparation for a week that resulted in eyelid inflammation D. Hemolyticaccompanyed by hyperemia, infiltration and painfulness. E. CriglerNajjar syndromeWhat type of allergic reaction was developed?A. I 21. A 56 yo. patient has been suffering from thyreotoxicosisB. IV for a long time. What type of hypoxia can be developed?C. С III A. Tissue
B. Mixed B. PancreasC. Circulatory C. ThyroidD. Hemic D. ThymusE. Respiratory E. Liver22. Microscopical examination of a removed appendix 32. Autopsy of a 58 y.o. man revealed that bicuspid valverevealed an edema, diffuse neutrophilic infiltration of was deformed, thickened and unclosed. Microscopically:appendix wall along with necrosis and defect of mucous foci of collagen fibrilla are eosinophilic, react positivelymembrane with affection of its muscle plate. What to fibrin. The most probably it is:appendicitis form was developed? A. Fibrinous inflammationA. Phlegmonous B. HyalinosisB. Apostematous C. AmyloidosisC. Superficial D. Fibrinoid swellingD. Ulcerophlegmonous E. Mucoid swellingE. Gangrenous 34. A patient with clinical presentations of23. A patient is ill with diabetes mellitus that is immunodeficiency went through immunologicalaccompanied by hyperglycemia of over 7,2 millimole/l on examinations. They revealed significant loss of cells thatan empty stomach. The level of what blood plasma protein form rosettes with erythrocytes of a ram. What conclusionallows to estimate the glycemia rate retrospectively (48 can be made according to the analysis data?weeks before examination)? A. Decrease of natural killer cell rateA. Glycated hemoglobin B. Insufficiency of effector cells of humoral immunityB. Ceruloplasmin C. Decrease of T-lymphocytes rateC. Creactive protein D. Decrease of complement system rateD. Fibrinogen E. Decrease of B-lymphocytes rateE. Albumin 35. Autopsy of a patient who suffered from croupous24. A 45 y.o. patient consulted a doctor about pneumonia and died from pneumococcal sepsis revealedplaqueshaped formation on his neck. Histological 900 ml of turbid greenishyellow liquid in the right pleuralexamination of biopsy skin material revealed tumourous cavity. Pleural leaves are dull, plephoric. Name thecells of round and oval form with thin ring of basophilic clinicopathological form of inflammation in the pleuralcytoplasma that resemble of cells of basal epidermal layer. cavityWhat tumour is it? A. PhlegmonA. Basalioma B. Chronic abscessB. Syringoadenoma C. EmpyemaC. Epidermal cancer D. Fibrinous inflammationD. Hydradenoma E. Acute abscessE. Trichoepithelioma 36. Mucous membrane of the right palatine tonsil has a29. An experimental animal was first sensibilized painless ulcer with smooth lacquer fundus and regularwhereupon an antigen dose was introduced subcutaneously. cartilaginous edges. Microscopically: inflammatoryThis injection resulted in the development of a fibrinous infiltration that consists of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, ainflammation with alteration of vessel walls, basal small number of neutrophils and epithelioid cells;substance and fibrous structures of connective tissue in endovasculitis and perivasculitis. What disease is it?form of mucoid and fibrinoid swelling and necrosis. What A. Pharyngeal diphtheriaimmunological reaction took place? B. Ulcerous necrotic Vincents anginaA. Delayed type hypersensitivity C. ActinomycosisB. Immediate hypersensitivity D. SyphilisC. Reaction of transplantation immunity E. TuberculosisD. Normergic reactionE. Granulomatosis 37. A 27yearsold woman has been suffered by diabetes mellitus since she had been a child. During the last years30. Examination of cell culture got from a patient with the arterial hypertension and proteinuria have occurred. Shelysosomal pathology revealed accumulation of great has died with signs of uremia. What typical changes werequantity of lipids in the lysosomes. What of the following found out in autopsy?diseases is this disturbance typical for? A. “Cor villosum”A. Wilson disease B. “Tiger heart”B. Galactosemia C. “Armor heart”C. TaySachs disease D. Mesenchymal fatty dystrophy of the heartD. Phenylketonuria E. Purulent pericarditisE. Gout 38. A 43yearsold patient has a burn of right hand. The31. A teenager was irradiated with high radiation dose that exfoliation of epidermis and formation of bubbles filled byresulted in serious damages of lymphoid system, lysis of semitransparent fluid is manifested in the palm and the backmany lymphocytes. Restoration of normal hemogram is surface of the hand. What kind of inflammation occurs inpossible due to the functioning of the following gland: that case?A. Adrenal A. A.Serous
B. B.Purulent E. After anemiaC. C.FibrinousD. D.Putrefactive 45. A 23yearsold patient got a lesion of the liver because ofE. E.Catarrhal trauma. In time a structure and functions of that organ was restored completely. What kind of regeneration did occur in39. A patient was admitted in the hospital with diagnosis of that case?trichinellosis. What kind of inflammation develops within A. Restitutionthe muscles around the parasites? B. Pathologic regenerationA. Proliferative granulematous C. Physiologic regenerationB. Exudative fibrinous D. MetaplasiaC. Exudative purulent E. SubstitutionD. Exudative serousE. Proliferative interstitial 46. A 4yearsold girl was operated because of an acute appendicitis. During the operation in the retroperitoneal40. A 22yearsold patient was admitted in hospital with space it was found that the right kidney is less by 1/3 incomplaints on heavy nasal breathing. During the comparison with the left one. The diameter of the rightexamination of nasal cavity it was found the thickened renal artery was 0,3 cm, the left one was 0,4 cm. Whatmucous membrane, a lot of mucus and nodular infiltrates pathologic process did occur in that case?without erosions. It was diagnosed as rhinoscleroma of A. Hypoplasianose. It was took the biopsy. What typical morphological B. Pathologic atrophychanges may be found? C. Physiologic atrophyA. Granulomas with Mikulicz’s cells D. AplasiaB. Granulomas with Virchow’s cells E. AgenesiaC. Granulomas with Langhan’s cellsD. Granulomas with foreign body cells 47. A patient has suffered with mitral insufficiency thatE. Interstitial inflammation complicated by chronic cardiac insufficiency with grossly marked edema of the lower extremities. Suddenly cyanosis41. During the histological examination of the fragment of of the face is manifested with attempt standing up and hemucous membrane of urine bladder of the patient suffered has died. What the most probably complication developedwith chronic cystitis it was found out: the transitional in patient?epithelium focally is replaced by stratified nonkeratinized A. Thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteryepithelium. These changes can manifest development of: B. Venousarterial reactionA. Metaplasia C. Infarction of myocardiumB. Dysplasia D. Chronic venous hyperemiaC. Leukoplakia E. Hypertension strokeD. HyperkeratosisE. Hyperplasia 48. A child fell down the tree and got a simple fracture of the one of hand’s bones. In a time healing occurred. Call the42. A 1/3 of the liver with a multicellular echinococcus was kind of regeneration and cells, which taking part inresected during the operation. What typical changes of the restoration.liver tissue surrounding the parasites were found out by the A. Reparative regeneration, osteoclasts and osteoblastspathologist during the histological examination of the B. Physiological regeneration, octeoclastsresected part of the organ? C. Pathological regeneration, osteoclastsA. Formation of nonspecific granulomas D. Intracellular regeneration, osteocytesB. Flabby consistence of the liver E. Cellular regeneration, osteoclasts and osteoclastsC. Formation of specific granulomasD. Exudative tissue reaction 49. A pilot has died because of depressurization of the cabinE. Hydropic dystrophy of the airplane. In autopsy it was found out a gross marked rigor mortis, emphysema of subcutaneous tissue of the body43. During the autopsy it was found the enlarged firm liver and face. There were also edema and perivascularwith rounded margins; the surface of the cut looks hemorrhages within the lungs. There was a foamy and fluidnutmeglike of yellowbrown colour with darkred spots. blood within the veins. The histological examination wasWhat pathologic process do underlie of those changes? showed a lot of bubbles within the vessels of all innerA. Chronic venous hyperemia organs, a fat dystrophy of the liver and a quantity of smallB. Arterial hyperemia gray softening areas in the brain. Call the more probableC. Arterial ischemia cause of those changes.D. Fat embolism A. Gas embolismE. Chronic bleeding B. Air embolism C. Tissue embolism44. There is a redness of skin above the site of obturation, if D. Thromboembolismthe thrombus obstructed the main artery of upper extremity. E. Fat embolismCall the kind of arterial hyperemia appearing as a result ofdisturbance of bloodstream. 50. A man has died in 8th day since beginning of theA. Collateral disease. It was diagnosed dysentery. During the autopsy itB. Angioneurotic was found out a thickened wall of the sigma and rectum,C. Inflammatory fibrinous membrane on the surface of mucous membrane.D. Physiological Histologically: there is a deep necrosis of mucous
membrane with infiltration of necrotic masses with fibrin. C. HyperplasiaWhat kind of colitis does correspond to those changes? D. Neoplasm of kidneyA. Diphtheritic E. PyelonephritisB. CatarrhalC. Ulcerative 57. A woman suffered with dysfunctional metrorrhagia wasD. Chronic made a diagnostic abortion. Histologically in the scrapeE. Gangrenous there were a lot of small stamped glandulas covered by multirowed epithelium. The lumens of some glandulas were51. A patient suffered with rheumatic fever with a mitral cystically extended. Call the variant of general pathologicvalve disease of the heart for a long time. He has died as a process in the endometrium.result of cardiacpulmonary insufficiency. During the A. Glandularcystic hyperplasia of endometriumautopsy it was found out a brown induration of the lungs. B. Atrophy of endometriumCall kind of hemodynamic disorders causing those changes. C. Metaplasia of endometriumA. Chronic left ventricle failure D. Neoplasm of endometriumB. Chronic right ventricle failure E. Hypertrophic growthC. Acute left ventricle failureD. Acute right ventricle failure 58. A 13yearsold child was admitted into the hospital withE. Portal hypertension complaints of fever, weakness, and intense pain in the right thigh. From anamnesis it was defined that he has bitten by52. A patient suffered by stenosis of mitral valve of 4th stage dog 3 days ago. During the visual examination it was foundhas died as a result of cardiacpulmonary insufficiency. out redness, swelling and acute painfulness along rightAutopsy was showed a hemosiderosis of the lungs. Call the thigh. After excision it was made the histologicalkind of hemodynamic disorder in the lungs. examination, which was showed a considerableA. Local venous hyperemia accumulations of polymorphonucleus leukocytes betweenB. General venous hyperemia the mussel fibers partly undergone by purulent fusion.C. Arterial hyperemia Diagnose that condition.D. Inflammatory hyperemia A. PhlegmonE. Hemorrhage B. Abscess C. Gangrene53. A patient has died as a result of cardiac insufficiency. In D. Empyemaanamnesis he had got a pulmonectomy in account of cyst of E. Croupous inflammationthe right lung. During the autopsy enlarged left one wasfound out. Call the pathologic process in the left lung. 59. A patient with severe fracture of both femoral bones hasA. Replacement hypertrophy died in a 4 hours after trauma. What additional staining ofB. Neurohumoral hypertrophy microscopic sections is it necessary to make for exacterC. Dyscirculatory atrophy diagnosis of the cause of death?D. Dysfunctional atrophy A. The lungs and brain by Sudan IIIE. Physiologic hypertrophy B. The lungs and kidney by Congored C. The lungs and liver by Perl’s reaction54. A patient has undergone to amputation of lower D. The brain and kidney by Congoredextremity. In a time a painful nodules appeared in a stump. E. The kidney and heart by toluidinblueAmputatious neuromas were found out during themicroscopical examination. What kind of pathological 61. A 59yearsold woman was admitted into the hospitalprocesses does those formations relate to? with signs of exicosis being in deep shock. After her deathA. Regeneration it was made autopsy showed presence of vibrio cholerae,B. Dystrophy moderate mononuclear infiltrations in the mucosal laminaC. Inflammation propria of intestine. What kind of shock was the cause ofD. Hyperemia death of the patient?E. Metaplasia A. Hypovolemia B. Cardiogenic55. After deep burns of the skin a patient has got a keloid C. Anaphylacticscarring. What kind of pathologic processes does those D. Traumaticformations relate to? E. ToxicA. Incomplete regeneration (substitution)B. Complete regeneration (restitution) 62. A cattle worker has died with signs of severeC. Atrophy intoxication in a 2nd day after beginning of disease. AutopsyD. Hypertrophy was showed the enlarged flabby spleen, on the surface ofE. Metaplasia the cut of darkcherry coloured; the scrape of the pulp is abundant. The leptomeninges are swelling, infiltrating by56. A patient suffered with urolithiasis has died as a result blood of darkred colour (“a red cap”). It was defined auremia. Autopsy is showed an enlargement of right kidney, microorganism – bacillus anthracis – and diagnosedits parenchyma has been thinned; the pelvis and calices anthrax. What kind of inflammation does occur in thathave been extended, filled with fluid. In the orifice of ureter disease?there has been a calculus. Call the pathologic process in the A. Hemorrhagicright kidney. B. PhlegmonousA. Hydronephrosis C. FibrinousB. Replacement hypertrophy D. Purulent
E. Putrefactive D. Tuberculosis. E. Actinomycosis.63. A 65yearsold patient suffered by thrombophlebitis ofthe deep veins of both legs has died suddenly. Autopsy was 69. The patient with severe intoxication has died. Duringshowed free lying dry friable red masses with a dull the autopsy it was found out: the left tonsil was enlarged,crimped surface within the truncus pulmonalis and firm; in section it contained a lot of cavities filled bybifurcation of the lung artery. What process within the yellow–greenish masses. The tissues of the neck, andvessels did pathologist find? mediastinum were undergoing with suppurative fusion.A. Thromboembolism Microscopically: there were a lot of abscesses, in the centerB. Thrombosis of which intensive basophilic formations were defined.C. Tissue embolism Those formations consist of short sticklike elements,D. Postmortem clot surrounded with radiating projections (“ray fungus”). SuchE. Hemangioma changes characterized: A. Actinomycosis.64. A patient was admitted into the hospital with complaints B. Amebiasis.to feel sick, pains in the epigastria after meal. During the C. Brucellosis.gastroscopy it was found out hyperemia, edema of mucous D. Tuberculosis.membrane of the stomach, an excessive amount of viscous E. Scarlet fever.grayish mucus. What kind of inflammation did develop inthe stomach? 70. A 34yearsold woman has got pain, redness and swellingA. Catarrhal of finger on account of careless use of iron. The blisterB. Fibrinous filled by transparent yellowish fluid appears in someC. Serous minutes. What pathologic process do such signsD. Hemorrhagic characterize?E. Purulent A. Exudative inflammation. B. Traumatic edema.65. During the autopsy it was found out: the lungs are firm, C. Hypertrophy.have brown colour because of accumulation of endogenous D. Proliferative inflammation.pigment. It’s known that the patient has suffered with E. Hydropic dystrophy.venous congestion in the pulmonary circulation. Whatprocess did cause such changes? 71. The patient with chronic glomerulonephritis has diedA. Hemosiderosis with accompanied signs of uremia. The cadaver hadB. Calcinosis specific uremic smell. Macroscopically: there were a lot ofC. Jaundice pilelike whitishgrayish puttings on the surface ofD. Melanosis pericardium. The vessels filled with blood became visibleE. Porphiria after removal of such formations. What process did develop in the pericardium?66. During the autopsy it was found out the cavity 2,5x1,5 A. Fibrinous inflammation.sm within the right frontal part of the brain. It was filled B. Organization.with transparent fluid and its walls were smooth and of C. Proliferative inflammation.brownish colour. What process did develop in the brain? D. Hemorrhagic inflammation.A. Cyst as an outcome of hemorrhage. E. Arterial hyperemia.B. Grey softening of brain.C. Abscess of brain. 72. The patient complains of local pain in the back of theD. Birth defect of brain. head, increasing of the temperature in that area.E. Cyst as a outcome of gray softening Macroscopically: there is a conical infiltrate of purpleblue colour with yellowgreenish apex, which protrudes under the67. During the histological examination of the fragment of surface of the skin. Diagnose it:cervix it was found out the area of inflammatory infiltration A. Furuncle.with involvement of walls of small vessels. The infiltrate B. Phlegmona.was composed of plasma cells, lymphocytes, epithelioid C. Abscess.cells and areas of sclerosis and hyalinosis. What disease D. Fistula.does such picture characterize? E. Empyema.A. Syphilis.B. Tuberculosis. 73. During the histological examination of the biopsy theC. Leukoplakia. pathologist has found out granulomas within the livers.D. Erosion of cervix. They contain mainly Tlymphocytes and epithelioid cells,E. Condyloma. and solitary giant Langhan’s cells. In the center of granulomas there was a small area of caseous necrosis.68 During the histological examination of the biopsy it was What pathologic process is characterized by those changes?found out the granulomas composing of lymphocytes, A. Proliferative inflammation.epithelioid cells, plasma cells, macrophages with foamy B. Coagulative necrosis.pale cytoplasm (Mikulicz’s cells), a lot of hyaline balls. C. Liquefactive necrosis.What disease do you think about? D. Neoplasm.A. Rhinoscleroma. E. Exudative inflammation.B. Leprosy.C. Syphilis.
74. A 5yearsold girl suffered from diphtheria. She has died E. Defect of telomere Хchromosomain three days because of asphyxia caused by diphtheria’scroup. During the autopsy it was found out, that mucous 83. During the autopsy the pathologist has marked: themembranes of larynx, trachea and bronchi were thickening, expressed linear shrinkage and thickening of extremitiesswelling, dull, covering by grayish membranes, which with formation on a skin of large tucks. The head iseasily came off. What process did develop in the larynx? increased, nose is saddle, the oral cavity is semiopen,A. Croupous inflammation. tongue is thick, neck is short, bodies of spondyles areB. Serous inflammation dwarfed, hypoplasia of thorax is combined with hypoplasiaC. Diphteritic inflammation of lungs. Which inherent malformation of a musculoskeletalD. Proliferative inflammation system is it characteristic for?E. Suppurative inflammation A. Lethal micromelia B. Chondroplasia75. As a result of a microscopic examination of the C. Imperfect bone formationfragment of the skin the granulomas were found out; they D. Inherent marble bonescomposed of a lot of macrophages with a few amount of E. Inherent Oppenheim myatonialymphocytes and plasma cells. Besides large macrophageswith fat vacuoles occurred, the microorganisms were 84. In the autopsy of 48yearold man [miner which gotpacked in those vacuoles as “cigars in the box” (Virchow’s hematite] the pathologist has found out increased brownredcells). Granulation tissue had a good vascularization. What dense lungs. Microscopic picture is: a moderatedisease are such granulomas characterized for? pneumosclerosis, submiliary and miliary nodules, whichA. Leprosy consist of dust cells with spots (positive reaction to iron). InB. Tuberculosis. lymph nodes there are a lot of dust and considerable diffuseC. Syphilis. sclerosis. Which professional disease is it?D. Rhinoscleroma. A. Red siderosisE. Actinomycosis. B. Black siderosis C. Aluminosis76. During the microscopic examination of bioptic fragment D. Berilliosisof the skin the granulomas were found out containing E. Anthracosisepithelioid cells, surrounded with Tlymphocytes. Betweenthe epithelioid cells the solitary giant polynuclear 85. In the autopsy of a body of the miner, which gotLanghan’s cells located. There were areas of caseous hematite, the pathologist has found out: black lungs, similarnecrosis in the center of some granulomas. Blood vessels on lungs at an anthracosis. Microscopically: moderatewere absent. What disease do such changes characterize? pneumosclerosis, submiliar and miliar nodules, whichA. Tuberculosis. consist of dust cells with spots [positive reacton to iron]. InB. Syphilis. lymph nodes there are a lot of dust and considerable diffuseC. Leprosy. sclerosis. Your diagnosis?D. Rhinoscleroma. A. Black siderosisE. Hodgkin’s disease. B. Red siderosis C. Aluminosis77. In a biopsy of a сervix uteri of a26yearold women the D. Berilliosisdiagnosis following was established: pseudoerosion. What E. Caplan syndromemicroscopical changes has the pathologist revealed?A. Local changes of a stratified squamous epithelium 90. A 45yearold man has died because of on single-layer prismatic one pulmonarycardiac insufficiency. In autopsy the pathologistB. Cellatypia of an epithelium of an mucosal epithelium has found out croupous pneumonia in lower lobe of leftC. Keratinization of an epithelium of an mucosal lung, 350ml of greenishyellow fluid in the left pleural epithelium cavity. Microscopically it contained many neutrophils. CallD. “Carcinomatous pearls” the complication of pneumoniaE. Local inflammation and necrosis in mucosa A. Empyema of pleura B. Fibrinous pleuritis80. Inheritable predilection to development of lung C. Pneumothoraxemphysema is connected with genetic disturbance, which D. Hydrothoraxone shows in decreasing production of: E. HemothoraxA. Alpha1antitrypsinB. Creactive protein 98. A 60yearold miner has died because of chronicC. Antistreptolysin 0 pulmonarycardiac insufficiency. In autopsy the pathologistD. Hyaluronidasa has found out: areas of dystelectasis, induration,E. Complement pneumosclerosis in the both lungs, local emphysema in the apex. Cut surface was slatyblack. Diagnose this disease.82. Gangliosidlipidosis is characterized by deficiency of A. Anthracosisenzyme alpha –hexoaminidaze and accumulation of B. Silicosisgangliosides in lysosomas of nervous cells.It is connected C. Talcosis.with genetical defect, which is determined as: D. AsbestosisA. Defect of one gene E. Aluminosis.B. Translocation of a geneC. Defects of several genes 108. In 56 year –old patient has suffered fromD. Trisomy of 21 chromosoma bronchoectatic disease and hemoptysis, the edema of face
and waist have appeared. The protein (33 mg/l) was found A. Sequestrumin urine. Pulmonary hemorrhage was the cause of patient’s B. Dry gangrenedeath. In autopsy: enlargement of kidneys was found; the C. Wet gangrenekidneys were densed with lardaceus surface of section. D. InfarctionHistologically: the deposition of homogenous eosinophilic E. Caseous necrosismasses colored with Congo red and given of metachromasiawith methyl violet color in glomeruli and canals were 117. The 46year old woman has suffered from rheumaticfound. What pathological process took place in the patient? fever with combined mitral heart disease. In autopsy the1. Amyloidosis leaflets of mitral valve are thicken, intertwisted and haveB. Grainish degeneration; stony dense. What pathological process has led to theseC. Fatty degeneration; changes?D. Mucoid degeneration; A. Amyloidosis;E. ;Hyalinosis; B. Hyaline changes; C. Dystrophyc calcification;111. In 45year old patient died from sudden cardiac death D. Metabolic calcification;the symmetrical type of adipose heart of third degree; the E. Metastatic calcification;rupture of right ventricle’s wall with hemopericardium andredundant accumulation of fat under epicardium were found 118. Patient is suffered from cholera, which is during within autopsy. Microscopically: the adipose tissue grows from dehydratating, cyanosis and convulsions. In result ofepicardium into myocardium with atrophy of fibers of massive infusion therapy the exicosis is diminished, butmuscle. What process is more probable? anuria is remained. Patient is dead of uremia. ChooseA. Adipose heart; correct position for this case.B. Hypertensive disease; A. Necrotic nephrosis with cortical necrosis takes placeC. Ischemic heart disease; in the kidneys,D. Fatty degeneration of myocardium; B. Choleral typhoid is developed,E. Acute myocardial infarction; C. Development of uremia is connected with acute glomerulonephritis,112. The 48yearold patient, suffered from fibrouscavernous D. Fibrinouse colitis is found in autopsy,tuberculosis, has complained of weakness, reduction of E. Exicosis is due to action of virus exotoxin.daily secretion of urine, edema of the body and extremitiesand increasing of blood pressure to 180/90. The increasing 119. Please, choose incorrect statement.of protein, presence of hyaline and grain cylinders and A. Degeneration is characterized by disorder of tissueerythrocytes were found under analysis of urine. The patient nutrition and in every time lead to distraction ofhas died in a month because of the insufficiency of kidney. nucleus and whole cellIn autopsy, the enlargement of the heart and "lardaceus" B. There are extracellular and intracellular accumulationskidneys with mass of more than 240 g were found. What is C. Pathological calcification may be in two forms:the complication of fibrosecavernouse tuberculosis? dystrophic and metastatic calcificationA. Аmyloidosis; D. Degenerations may be caused by hereditary factorsB. Glomerulonephritis; E. Degenerations can appear in one organ or in the wholeC. Nephrotic syndrome; bodyD. Pyelonephritis;E. Nephrosclerosis; 120. In autopsy: enlargement of kidneys was found; the kidneys were densed with lardaceus surface of section.114. In patient with jaundice the following data were Histologically: the deposition of homogenous eosinophilicestablished: in serum the increasing of bilirubin because of masses colored with Congo red and given of metachromasiathe unconjugated form; in faeces and urine increasing of with methyl violet color in glomeruli and canals werestercobilin; the level of conjugated (direct) bilirubin in found. What pathological process took place in the patient?serum is normal. What type of jaundice takes place? A. AmyloidosisA. Haemolytic jaundice; B. Grainish degeneration;B. Jaundice of newborns; C. Fatty degeneration;C. Parenchymatous (hepatic) jaundice; D. Mucoid degeneration;D. Gilbert’s disease; E. ;Hyalinosis;E. Mechanical (posthepatic) jaundice; 121. Choose one incorrect statement:115. In autopsy of the 83yearold patient’s body, has died A. The mechanism of decomposition is a base ofbecause of stomach cancer, the heart and the liver were genetic storage diseases;diminished in size, condensed, with brown color. What B. Decomposition (phanerosis) – disintegration ofpathological process took place in these organs? membranous structures of cells and intercellularA. Sclerosis; matrix;B. Mesemchymal degeneration; C. Infiltration – redundant accumulation (deposition) ofC. Parenchymal degeneration; metabolites into the cells and intercellular matrix;D. Necrosis; D. Perverted synthesis – synthesis of abnormal substancesE. Brown atrophy in the cells and tissues; E. Transformation – formation of one type of metabolism116. Fragment of dead tissue, which can’t be autolized, products from common initial substances for protein,replaced by connective tissue and which is localized among fats and carbohydrates.alive tissue is named…
122. Intracellular accumulation of fat in liver is lowerlobar pneumonia with expectoration of mucus withcharacterized by every statements, except one: pus. In autopsy in 910 segments of the right lung the cavityA. Fat is accumulated in extracellular spaces with dense walls filled with purulent masses, was found.B. There are small fat vacuoles in cytoplasm around the The whitish path comes from the cavity toward the radix of nuclei of hepatocytes the lung. Microscopically in was established that the cavityC. Liver enlarged and becomes yellow is divided from saved lung tissue with thin membrane,D. Its consistency is soft and greasy which consists of two layers: internalgranulation tissue, andE. Fat is stained by special stain Sudan 3, and becomes external –connective tissue. What diagnosis is more orangered color probable? A. Chronic abscess;123. A 55 year old man has died after chronic B. Pulmonary gangrene;glomerulonephritis, chronic renal insufficiency. In the C. Acute pulmonary abscess;autopsy the pathologist has found out characteristic changes D. Chronic pneumonia;in kidneys for this disease, also fibrinous pericarditis, E. Bronchoectatic diseasepleuritis, bronchitis. Call the cause of the fibrinousinflammation in serosal and mucosal layers. 150. Cyanosis, enlargement of the liver, edema of the lowA. Uremia. extremities as a result of insufficiency of the right ventricleB. Hypolipidemia of the heart were found in a patient. What is the cause of theC. Hyperlipidemia development of such insufficiency?D. Arterial hypertension A. Hypertension of the small circle of the bloodE. Arterial plethora circulation B. Functional shunts in lungs140. During autopsy of the patient died from chronic C. Increasing of the venous pressurecardiac insufficiency the enlarged dense rusty colored lungs D. Hypercathecholemiawith growth of gray color connective tissue around bronchi E. Cardiogenic cirrhosis of the liverand vessels were found. How can we call this process inlungs? 153. In 53 yearold patient, who has suffered byА Brown induration of the lung bronchoectatic disease and hemoptysis, the edema of faceВ Hemorrhagic pneumonia and waist have appeared. The protein (33 mg/l) was foundС Interstitial emphysema in urine. Pulmonary hemorrhage was the cause of patient’sD Chronic obstructive emphysema death. In autopsy: enlargement of kidneys was found; theE Primary idiopathic emphysema; kidneys were dense with lardaceous surface of section. Histologically: the deposition of homogenous eosinophilic143. In 77yearold patient suffered with atherosclerosis the masses colored with Congo red and given of metachromasiapain has appeared in the right foot. The foot is enlarged in with methylviolet color in glomeruli and canals were found.size, its skin has black color and is macerated; the What pathological process took place in the patient?demarcation line is not clear. What pathological process A. Amyloidosis;takes place in a patient? B. Fatty degeneration;A. Wet gangrene C. Mucoid degeneration;B. Coagulative necrosis D. Grainish degenerationC. Sequestrum E. HyalinosisD. Dry gangreneE. Noma 155. In the case of rheumatic heart disease, pericarditis is characterized by:145. A 65 year old patient, who suffered from A. “Shaggy heart” (“cor villosum”)arteriosclerosis, has been hospitalized in surgical B. “Cor pulmonale”department because he had purulent peritonitis. Thrombosis C. “Tiger heart”of mesenteric arteries was found during operation. What is D. Fatty changethe most probable cause of peritonitis? E. “Bull heart”A. Hemorrhagic infarctionB. Angiospastic ischemia 156. In a 45yearold patient the ulcerativenecrotic damage ofC. Angioneurotic edema the mucosa of the oral cavity takes place; also the spreadD. Stasis lymphadenopathy, slight spleno and hepatomegaly, diffuseE. Chronic congestion hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes were found out. In blood analysis the increasing of leukocytes (to148. Under microscopic investigation the postinfarction 100 10 per 1 ml) at the account of lymphoblasts takes place.cardiosclerosis has been found out. Around cardiosclerotic What diagnosis is more probable?area myocardiocytes were enlarged in size and had large A. Acute lymphoblastic leukemiahyperchromic nuclei riched in DNA. What process taking B. Chronic myelocytic leukemiaplace in myocardiocytes is more probable? C. Chronic lymphocytic leukemiaA. Regenerative hypertrophy D. PlasmocytosisB. Physiologic regeneration E. Acute promyelocytic leukemia;C. Complete reparative regenerationD. Pathologic regeneration 159. Chronic venous congestion of organs, hypertrophy ofE. Hypertrophy because of increased workload the left heart ventricle with cardiosclerosis, volumetrical white-yellowish plaques in intima of aorta with149. 56yearold patient has suffered from rightside atheromatous masses in the center, which are deeper in the
wall, are found in the result of autopsy of 70year man, who E. Perineuraldied of heart insufficiency and who suffered from anginapectoris, hypercholesterinemia and obesity. Which 170. At the autopsy of 60 yearold male patient, in thepathological process is more possible in aorta? myocardium of the front wall of the left ventricle of theA. Atheromatosis heart a gray dense focus of 5 х 4 cm, of irregular shape withB. Lipoidosis clear borders, fibrous structure has been found out. WhatC. Arteriolosclerosis pathological process in the myocardium has revealed theD. Liposclerosis pathologist?E. Calcification A. Postinfarctional cardiosclerosis B. Diffuse smallfocal myocardiosclerosis161. All statements are correct in the relations of hyalinosis, C. Myocarditisexcept one: D. Petrification of the myocardiumA. The hemorrhage and hemoliysis play important role E. Infarction in the hyalinosis formationB. Hyaline is accumulated in the connective tissue and 171. In 40yearold patient, the tumor, which grew under skin looks like cartilage of spine was resected. The histologic diagnosis: a lipoma.C. Mainly arterioles and arteries undergo to hyalinosis What principle of the tumors’ classification did theD. Hyalinosis is rare reversible process pathologist use when created his conclusion?E. There are not macroscopical changes of the organs A. Gistogenesis usually, but hyalinosis may lead to deformation and B. Of biochemical features wrinkle of the organs C. Of ultrastructural features D. Of physicochemical features166. In 60yearold patient, during examination the cancer of E. Macrostructure of an organa prostate gland with metastases in the lower parts of thecolumn, pelvic bones and pathological fracture of a femur 172. At histologic research of a biopsy specimen from anwas found out. What pathological process is a basis of the auricle of a heart of a patient with rheumatic disease thedevelopment of metastases? foci of a mucoid swelling, fibrinoid necrosis of a connectiveA. Tissue embolism tissue has been found out. What immune response hasB. Bacterial embolism developed in tissues of the auricle of the heart?C. Airembolism A. Hypersensitivity of an immediate typeD. Embolism by foreign matters B. Hypersensitivity of a delayed typeE. Necrosis of tissue C. Reaction of the transplantative immunity D. Normergic reaction167. In patient with chronic cystitis during the investigation E. Exudative reactionof biopsy of a mucosa of urinary bladder the foci of asquamous nonkeratinized epithelium are found out. It can 178. Call a kind of an infarct according to macroscopicbe a sign of development of: signs, which is characteristic in myocardium.A. Metaplasia A. White with a hemorrhagic haloB. Leukoplakia B. HemorrhagicC. Hyperplasia C. AnemicD. Dysplasia D. MixedE. Hyperkeratosis E. Red168. During the laparotomy in 49 yearold male patient, the 179. What type of exudate appears in pericardium cavity attumor has been found out in the field of a sigma with a rheumatic pericarditis?growth through all its layers and an occlusion of the lumen A. Serous-fibrinousof an intestine. The biopsy has been taken and colonostoma B. Putrefactivehas been overlapped. The clinical diagnosis after operation: C. Hemorrhagica cancer of sigma. What kind of tumor is growth in relation D. Purulentto tissues? E. CatarrhalA. InfiltrativeB. Expansive 180. At autopsy of a patient died because of a cerebralC. Endophytic hemorrhage, strongly enlarged dense and anemic kidneysD. Exophytic ( size :6х3х2см weight 60.0,) with a uniformlyE. Multicentric smallgranulated surface and with uniformly thinned cortex on a cutsurface have been found out. The changes in kidney169. In 36 yearold patient a dark brown color patch on skin are a sign of:of a dextral foot has been resected. The histologic research A. Of arteriosclerotic nephrosclerosishas not been carried out. In 5 months in dextral inguinal B. Of atherosclerotic nephrosclerosisarea a conglomeration of lymph nodes has appeared. At C. Secondary shrinkage of kidneyhistologic research of one of them the metastasis of D. Gouty (podagric) kidneysmelanoma has been found out. What pathway of spreading E. Amiloidshrinkaged kidneys (“lardaceous kidneys”)of tumor takes place?A. Limphogenous spread 183. A 50yearold man had rheumatic mitral disease. He hasB. Hematogenous spread arrived in clinic with sings of active rheumatism. On aC. Anaplastic background of increasing cardiovascular insufficiency hasD. Mixed developed lefthand hemyplegia. The patient has died. What
changes of a brain have caused development lefthand E. The type Vhemyplegia?A. Infarction of a brain 207. The 35yearold female was admitted into the hospitalB. Hematoma. with nephrolithiasis. Anaphylactic shock was appeared afterC. Atherosclerosis of brain’s vessels. intravenous injection of contrast medium. Which cells takeD. Edema of a brain. part in development of this reaction?E. Meningitis. A. Tissue’s basophils B. Fibroblasts187. At histologic examination of tuberculoma resected C. Epitheliocytesfrom right lung a necrosis in center is found out. Call a kind D. Myocytesof the necrosis. E. NeutrophilsA. CaseousB. Fatty 208. Histologic investigation of thyroid gland has showedC. Liquefactive destruction and atrophy of follicles, diffuse lymphoidD. Coagulative infiltration with formation of lymphoid follicles in theE. Gangrene stroma. Call the group of diseases with respect to this thyroiditis.194. A woman, which was in a bed in forced position for a A. Autoimmune specificlong time, has died because of a tumoral dissemination B. Autoimmune nonspecific(multiple metastases and carcinomatosis of a peritoneum) of C. Bacterialmucinous cystadenocarcinoma. During the autopsy the D. Infectiousallergiclarge areas of necrosis of the skin and underlying soft E. Viruses infectioustissues of sacral part were found out. Call a kind of anecrosis. 209. Ultrastructural investigation of tissue’s biopsy hasA. Bedsore showed considerable increase of lyzosomes in theB. Infarct cytoplasm of macrophages within the inflammativeC. Sequester infiltrate. What is connected with appearance of thisD. Caseous necrosis morphologic process?E. Waxylike (Zenker’s) necrosis A. Activation of phagocytosis B. Proliferation of cells198. The examination of the child with measles showed the C. Torpid phagocytosisnonclear border edematous fluctuated areas of redblack D. Activation of apoptosiscolor in the soft tissues of the cheeks and perineum. What E. Torpid apoptosiscomplication did develop in the child?A. Wet gangrene (noma) 210. In biopsy of stomach in patient with autoimmuneB. Dry gangrene gastritis it was found out: infiltration by lymphocytes andC. Gas gangrene macrophages in mucous layer. Which type ofD. Bedsore hypersensitivity is connected with these morphologicE. Trophic ulcer changes? A. The type IV202. The presence of the grains of chromatin in a focus of B. The type IIcaseous necrosis is a manifestation of: C. The type VA. Karyorhexis D. The type IB. Karyolysis E. The type IIIC. KaryopyknosisD. Mitotic activity of nuclei 211. In biopsy of lymph node it was found out a lot ofE. Apoptosis lymphoid follicles with large centers of duplication, increasing of mitoses. Which process is characterized by205. In 77yearold patient suffered with atherosclerosis the these morphologic changes?pain in the right foot has appeared. The foot is enlarged in A. Antigenic stimulation with follicularsize, its skin has black color and is macerated; the hyperplasiademarcation line is not clear. What pathological process B. Atrophy of lymphoid tissuetakes place in the patient? C. LymphosarcomaA. Wet gangrene D. Hodgkin’s diseaseB. Coagulative necrosis E. Metastases of cancerC. SequestrumD. Dry gangrene 212. It was found stopping of breathing and bloodE. Noma circulation in patient after traffic accident. Resuscitation was successful. Call the that condition of patient.206. The 30yearold man has had for two months A. Clinical deathlacrination, pruritic palpebras, rhinitis with mucus. All B. Social deathsymptoms disappeared after treatment by desensebilizators. C. Biological deathWhat type of hypersensitivity occurred in patient? D. Physiologic deathA. The type I E. AgonyB. The type IIC. The type III 213. Call the cells of the immune system that secreteD. The type IV immunoglobulins:
A. Plasma cells Goodpasture’s syndrome. Which pathologic process isB. Macrophages characteristic for this syndrome?C. Tlymphocytes A. Autoantibodies to basement membrane of theD. Dendritic cells lungs and kidneysE. Natural killer cells B. Autoantibodies to mitochondrias of the lungs and kidneys214. Which cells are injured in patient with HIVinfection? C. Autoantibodies to DNAA. Tcells-helpers D. Cytotoxic reaction against epithelium of renalB. Blymphocytes tubulesC. Natural killer cells E. Appearance of immune complexes in glomeruli ofD. Macrophages kidneys and lungsE. Eosinophils 225. The patient was remove the firmly – elastic, fixed,215. The 35yearold man has received prolonged painful tumor, it is localized in femor. At pathomorphologicimmunosupressive therapy after transplantation of kidney. research it was found out: yellow tumor without theHe has died because of generalized cytomegaly. Call the capsule, greyish with the locuses of necrosis andkind of immunodeficiency in patient. hemorrhages; histologically is marked the expressedA. Medicamentous polymorphism of cells. What is your diagnosis?B. Xradiating A. LiposarcomaC. Bacterial B. RhabdomyosarcomaD. Primary C. AngiosarcomaE. Ecological D. Lipoma E. Malignant synovioma216. The 30yearold patient with transplanted kidney hasreceived prolonged immunosupressive therapy and he has 226. Under microscopic examination of the increaseddied because of intoxication. Microscopic examination cervical lymph node it was found out: the absence of itsshowed giant cells with large nuclei encircled by ringslike structure and the lymphoid follicles, infiltration by sphericalbrightening, which looked as “owleye”, located in the cells with narrow cytoplasm. It is known from the clinicalkidneys, liver, pancreas, lungs. Call this disease. dates, that other groups of lymph nodules, and lien and liverA. Cytomegalovirus infection are increased also. What disease it is necessary to thinkB. Tuberculosis about?C. Syphilis A. Lymphoid leukosisD. Leprosy B. LymphogranulomatosisE. Bubonic plaque C. Lymphosarcoma D. Myeloid leucosis217. In biopsy of the lymph node it was found out E. Myelomagranuloma with epithelioid and giant cells. Call the originof epithelioid cell’s development. 227. During autopsy of the body of the 30yearsold man hasA. Monocytes been determined the increased lien (weight 900,0),B. Pericytes increased liver (weight 4000,0), increased lymph nodes.C. Neutrophils Bone marrow of a diaphysis of a femur was red color.D. Lymphocytes Microscopically: infiltration of the portal tract of liver byE. Epithelium cells undifferentiated hemopoietic cells with the spherical shape and narrow cytoplasm. What disease it is possible to think222. In biopsy of transplantanted kidney it was found out: about?diffuse infiltration of stroma by lymphocytes, plasma cells, A. Chronic lymphoid leucosislymphoblasts, plasmablasts, necrotic arteriitis. Which B. Chronic myeloid leucosispathologic process was appeared in organ? C. Generalized form of lymphogranulomatosisA. Immune mutilation D. Acute myeloblastic leucosisB. Acute glomerulonephritis E. Acute lymphoblastic leucosisC. Ischemic infarctionD. Tuberculosis 228. At research of a biopsy of the increased cervical lymphE. Acute pyelonephritis node it were found: the absence of structure of lymph nodes, infiltration by proliferated lymphocytes, single223. Pest’s pneumonia and croupous pneumonia in stage of Shternberg’s cells. What do these changes testify about?red hepatization may be differentiated due to presence of A. Lymphogranulomatosis with predominance offollowing elements in the lungs: lymphoid tissue,A. Fibrin B. Lymphogranulomatosis with suppression of lymphoidB. Carnification tissueC. Macrophages C. Mixed cellular variant of lymphogranulomatosisD. Red blood cells D. Nodularsclerotic variant of lymphogranulomatosisE. Edema E. Lymphosarcoma224. In the 30yearold woman it was found: cough, sputum 229. In biopsy of the increased cervical lymph node of a 14with blood, fever, increased blood pressure, decreased urine yearold girl the pathologist has found out: the absence ofoutput, edema of low extremities. All symptoms have structure of lymph nodes, the absence of lymphoid follicles,developed for 6 weeks. Diagnostic renal biopsy showed foci of necrosis and sclerosis, cellular polymorphism.
There are lymphocytes, eosinocytes, atypical multinuclear distributed irregular. Described morphological features arecells of the large sizes and uninuclear cells of large sizes characteristic for…:also. Call this disease. a. FibromaA. Lymphogranulomatosis B. RabdomyomaB. Acute lymphoid leucosis C. PapillomaC. Chronic lymphoid leucosis D. PolypsD. Berkit’s lymphoma E. LipomaE. Diffuse nonhodgkin’s lymphoma 235. In an autopsy of the 60yearold woman pathologist230. A 14 yearold boy was found out: the increase of lower has found out: tumor of uterine with growth surroundedthird of femur, local hyperemia, strengthening venous tissue, enlarged regional lymph nodule, hemoperitoneum.structure in a zone of pathological process. Ro: injury of Histologically: cellular polymorphism and tissue atypismsupperficial layer of a femoral bone, joint are saved. In in the endomtrium, necrosis and hemorrhages,biopsy was found out the accumulation of atypical metastasises of adenocarcinoma of lymph nodules. Whatosteoblasts with multiple mitosises and foci of the are secondary appearances of tumors?anomalously formed osteal girders with an invasion in 1. Necrosis and hemorrhagesurraunded tissues. Call this disease. B. Lymphogenous metastasises1. Osteogenic a sarcoma C. Hematogenous metastasisesB. Chondrosarcoma D. Cellular polymorphismC. Fibrous dysplasia E. Tissue atypismD. Osteoid osteomaE. Osteoblastoclastoma 236. In young 18yearold woman the sharp pain during swallowing, enlargement of lymph nodes of the neck and231. A 40 yearold man has been suffered by a chronic increasing of temperature to 39 degrees of Centigrade havebronchitis has died because of cachexy. During the autopsy appeared. The whitishyellowish pellicles have appeared onit was found: in a lumen of bronchuses the endophytic the surface of tonsil’s mucosa. After separation of thesegrowth of light grayish soft tissue. Under the microscopic pellicles the ulceration of tissue was formed. The state ofexamination in a wall of a bronchus among growths of an health of the patient has become progressively worse. Sheatypical squamous epithelium were found the keratinous has died in 8 days of the disease with signs of progressivepearls. What is your diagnosis? heart insufficiency. What histological changes in1. Squamous carcinoma with a keratinization cardiomyocytes can be found?B. Squamous carcinoma without a keratinization A. Fatty degeneration;C. Adenocarcinoma B. Mucousal degeneration;D. Undifferentiated carcinoma C. Hydropic degeneration;E. Apudoma D. Balloon degeneration; E. Hyalinedroplets degeneration.232. At intraoperation biopsy of a female brest it wasfound out: the concentric growth intralobular connective 237. A 55yearold woman has had fever and dyspnea fortissue around of smallsized duct covered by a singlelayer over a month along with a 2 kg weight loss. On physicalepithelium Your presumable diagnosis. examination her temperature is 37.8 C. A chest radiographA. Fibroadenoma shows a reticulonodular pattern along with prominent hilarB. Intraductal papilloma lymphadenopathy. A transbronchial lung biopsy isC. Lobular carcinoma in sity performed, and microscopic examination shows no viralD. Noninvasive intraductul carcinoma inclusions, no fungi, no acid fast bacilli, and no atypicalE. Mastitis cells. Which of the following diseases is she most likely to have?233. At gastroscopical research of patient in area of A. Silicosislesser curvature of the stomach it was found out the B. Sarcoidosisexophytic formation (1,5 cm in diameter). In biopsy C. Asbestosisfrom form it is marked : the growth of atypical D. Tuberculosisglandular structures of different shape and size E. Usual interstitial pneumonitis(stretched, round, with irregular outlines, small orlarge) into mucosa and submucosa; the epithelial 238. A 60yearold man has had a cough without productioncells are atypical too: their nuclei are polymorphous of much sputum for the past week. On physical examinationwith various maintenance of chromatin and mitoses. he is afebrile. There are decreased breath sounds at the rightWhat is your diagnose? lung base. A chest radiograph reveals an area ofA. Adenocarcinoma of stomach consolidation in the right lower lobe. He is given antibioticB. Squamous carcinoma of stomach therapy, but a month later the radiographic picture has notC. Polyp of stomach changed, and his cough continues. A bronchoalveolarD. Fibrous carcinoma (Skyrrus) lavage is performed and yields atypical cells along withE. Chronic ulcer scattered alveolar macrophages. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?234. In the skin it was found out well –encapsulated firm A. Mycoplasma pneumonianode. On the cut it is showed whitish laminated tissue. B. Bronchioloalveolar carcinomaHistologically: the welldifferentiated connective tissue, the C. Sarcoidosisbands of fibers lay in different directions, vessels are D. Pulmonary infarction E. Silicosis
test is negative. By which of the following immunologic239. Following a vehicular accident with blood loss leading mechanisms is her disease most likely produced?to prolonged, severe hypotension, a 30yearold man is A. Local immune complex formationintubated and placed on a ventilator. He has progressively B. Interleukin release from macrophagesdecreasing oxygen saturations despite increasing PEEP and C. Binding of antireceptor antibodyFI02 of 100%. He remains afebrile. He dies 3 days later. At D. Mast cell degranulationautopsy, the lungs show diffuse hyaline membranes in E. Crossreactivity with tissue antigensalveoli, thickened alveolar walls, and many alveolarmacrophages but few neutrophils. Which of the following 252. A bee sting is suffered by a 28yearold man, and hispulmonary diseases most likely complicated his course? wife searches frantically for the medical kit with theA. Bronchopneumonia injectible epinephrine. Which of the following immunologicB. Chronic bronchitis mechanisms are they trying to prevent?C. Bronchiectasis A. Local immune complex formationD. Viral pneumonia B. Interleukin release from macrophagesE. Diffuse alveolar damage D. Systemic anaphylaxis C. Binding of antireceptor antibody240. A 66yearold man has had increasing malaise for the E. Complement activationpast year. On physical examination auscultation of the chestreveals a friction rub. Laboratory studies show a serum urea 253. A 9yearold boy has a sore throat. A throat culturenitrogen of 100 mg/dl and creatinine of 9.8 mg/dl. Which of grows group A hemolytic streptococcus. 17 days laterthe following forms of pericarditis is he most likely to develops darkcoloured urine. A renal biopsy washave? performed. On immunofluoresence staining the biopsyA. Fibrinous shows granular deposition of IgG and complement aroundB. Hemorrhagic glomerular capillary loops. Which of the following immuneC. Purulent hypersensitivity mechanisms is most likely responsible forD. Serous this pattern of findings?E. Constrictive A. Type I B. Type II244. A 45yearold man was rushed to the hospital following C. Type IIIthe sudden onset of an episode of crushing substernal chest D. Type IVpain. He receives advanced life support measures. His E. Type Vcourse was marked by intractable cardiogenic shock and hedied 4 days later. At autopsy, a large transmural 254. A 48yearold man has had a chronic cough with feveranterolateral area of coagulative necrosis was found in the for 2 months. On physical examination his temperature isanterolateral wall of the left ventricle. Which of the 37.9 C. A chest radiograph reveals a diffuse bilateralfollowing microscopic findings is most likely to be present? reticulonodular pattern. A transbronchial biopsy isA. Fibroblasts and collagen performed. On microscopic examination of the biopsy thereB. Granulation tissue are focal areas of inflammation containing epithelioidC. Necrotic muscle and neutrophils macrophages, Langhans giant cells, and lymphocytes.D. Granulomatous inflammation These findings are most typical for which of the followingE. Diffuse chronic inflammation immunologic responses? A. Type I hypersensitivity250. A 41yearold man has a history of drinking 1 to 2 liters B. Type II hypersensitivityof whisky per day for the past 20 years. He has had C. Graft versus host diseasenumerous episodes of nausea and vomiting in the past 5 D. Polyclonal Bcell activationyears. He experiences a bout of prolonged vomiting, E. Type IV hypersensitivityfollowed by massive hematemesis. On physicalexamination in the emergency room, he has vital signs with 255. Twelve hours after going on a hike through denseT 36.8 C, P 110, RR 22, and BP 80/40 mm Hg. His heart foliage, a 40yearold man notices a slightly raised and tenderhas a regular rate and rhythm with no murmurs and his irregular reddish rash on one forearm that was not coveredlungs are clear to auscultation. There is no abdominal by clothing. This rash gradually increases in intensity for 2tenderness or distension and bowel sounds are present. His days and then fades after two weeks. Which of thestool is negative for occult blood. Which of the following is following forms of hypersensitivity is most likelythe most likely diagnosis? demonstrated in this patient?A. Esophageal stricture A Type I hypersensitivityB. Esophageal laceration (MalloryWeiss syndrome) B Type II hypersensitivityC. Esophageal pulsion diverticulum C Type III hypersensitivityD. Barrett esophagus (metaplasia with gastric mucosa) D Type IV hypersensitivityE. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma E. Type V hypersensitivity251. A 45yearold woman has experienced progressive, 256. The examination of ovarium tumor was performed. Onincreasing muscular weakness, particularly toward the end gross inspection of the mass, that was surgically excised,of the day, over the past 2 months. She does not have the surface of the mass is smooth, is not adherent toarthralgias or myalgias. On physical examination her motor surrounding pelvic structure, and is cystic and filled withstrength goes from 5/5 to 4/5 with repetitive movement of hair on sectioning. On microscopic examination there isextremities. A chest CT scan reveals an anterior mediastinal squamous epithelium, tall columnar glandular epithelium,mass. Laboratory studies show that her antinuclear antibody
cartilage, and fibrous connective tissue. Which of the D Increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratiofollowing neoplasms is she most likely to have? E Expansive type of growthA TeratomaB Choristoma 262. A clinical study of patient with pharyngeal infectionsC Hamartoma is performed. Patient experienced fever and chills. OnD Myxoma physical examination, the most common finding is aE Mesothelioma pharyngeal purulent exudate. Which of the following types of inflammation did these patient most likely have?257. A 44yearold woman who has had multiple sexual A. Acute inflammationpartners for the past 30 years has an abnormal Pap smear B. Granulomatous inflammationwith cytologic changes suggesting human papillomavirus C. Abscess formationinfection. Without treatment, she is most likely to develop D. Resolution of inflammationwhich of the following lesions? E. Chronic inflammationA Squamous cell carcinomaB NonHodgkins lymphoma 263. An empyema is a kind of inflammation as:C Kaposis sarcoma A Purulent inflammationD Adenocarcinoma B Serous inflammationE Leiomyoma C Fibrinous inflammation D Chronic inflammation258. A 41yearold woman has an exophytic 3 cm mass E Granulomatous inflammationinvolving the ectocervix. Pap smear testing is performed;she has never had a previous Pap smear. Cytologic changes 264. A 45yearold man has had a fever and dry cough andthat are seen in Pap smears reveals squamous cell his temperature is 38.5 C during last 3 days. A chestcarcinoma. Her serum glucose is 157 mg/dL. She has been radiograph shows a right pleural effusion. A righta commercial sex worker in the past. Which of the thoracentesis is performed. The fluid obtained has a cloudyfollowing is the most likely risk factor for her cervical appearance with a cell count showing 5500 leukocytes percarcinoma? microliter, 98% of which are neutrophils. Which of theA Human papillomavirus infection following terms best describes his pleural process?B Diabetes mellitus, type II A Purulent inflammationC Heavy cigarette smoking B Serous inflammationD Pelvic inflammatory disease C Fibrinous inflammationE Previous cancer chemotherapy D Chronic inflammation E Granulomatous inflammation259. A 27yearold woman in excellent health has a 2 cmfirm, rounded mass is palpable beneath the skin of the left 278. What type of exudates appears in pericardium cavity atforearm. She has no difficulty using the arm and there is no a rheumatic pericarditis?associated pain with the mass, either in movement or on A. Putrefactivepalpation. The overlying skin appears normal. The mass B. Serousfibrinousdoes not change in size over the next year. Which of the C. Hemorrhagicfollowing neoplasms is she most likely to have? D. PurulentA Lipoma E. CatarrhalB Metastatic carcinomaC Melanoma 284. A 90yearold woman has pneumonia. Two weeks laterD Rhabdomyosarcoma a chest radiograph reveals a 3 cm rounded density in theE Leiomyosarcoma right lower lobe whose liquefied contents form a central airfluid level and has a capsule. Which of the following is260. A 35yearold woman had a firm nodule palpable on the the best description for this outcome of her pneumonia?dome of the uterus six years ago recorded on routine A Abscess formationphysical examination. The nodule has slowly increased in B Hypertrophic scarsize and is now appears to be about twice the size it was C Regenerationwhen first discovered. She remains asymptomatic. Which of D Bronchogenic carcinomathe following neoplasms is she most likely to have? E Progression to chronic inflammationA LeiomyomaB Adenocarcinoma 285. A clinical study is peformed of patients withC Leiomyosarcoma pharyngeal infections. The most typical clinical courseD Hematoma averages 3 days from the time of onset until the patient seesE Metastasis the physician. Most of these patients experienced fever and chills. On physical examination, the most common finding261. A study is performed to analyze characteristics of is a pharyngeal purulent exudate. Which of the followingmalignant neoplasms in biopsy specimens. The biopsies types of inflammation did these patients most likely have?were performed on patients who had palpable mass lesions A Acute inflammationon digital rectal examination. Which of the following B Granulomatous inflammationmicroscopic findings are most likely to indicate that the C Abscess formationneoplasm is malignant? D Resolution of inflammationA Invasion E Chronic inflammationB Tissue pleomorphismC Tissue atypia 286. At 38 yearold woman it is observed upperclavicle
multiplied lymphatic nodules. During biopsy research in the gastritis has experienced weight loss and nausea for the pastlymphatic nodules a metastasis of fingerringcellular cancer 8 months. He does not have vomiting or diarrhea. In theis exposed. What organ cancer most probably did develop antrum of stomach endoscopy reveals an ulcerative massat the patient? with elevated margins. Patient undergoes gastrectomy, andA Cancer of stomach the gross appearance shows ulcerated lesion with necrosisB Cancer of thyroid in the center that has extended below the submucosa, intoC Cancer of lungs the muscularis, and has spread more widely extends intoD Cancer of gullet the muscularis propria and beyond. Identify the type ofE Cancer of uterus lesions: A. Early gastric carcinoma289. A 70yearold male with a long history of chronic B. Advanced gastric carcinomaalcoholism has had increasing difficulty with swallowing C. Duodenum carcinomafor the past 2 months. Upper endoscopy reveals an D. Acute gastric ulcerulcerative midesophageal, 3cm mass that partially occludes E. Chronic gastric ulcerthe esophageal lumen. He undergoes esophagectomy, andthe gross appearance shows ulcerated lesion with heaped up 237. An upper gastrointestinal radiographic series revealsmargins and squamous cell atypia of the esophageal advanced gastric carcinoma in a 53yearold female who hasmucosa. Identify the type of lesions: had nausea, vomiting, and midepigastric pain for severalA. Leiomyosarcoma months. Ultrasound investigation reveals an solid tumorousB. Squamous cell carcinoma enlargements of both ovaries 6x5 cm mass. Identify theC. Dense collagenous scar type of lesions in ovaries:D. Adenocarcinoma A. NonHodgkin lymphomaE. Thrombosed vascular channels B. Cystadenoma of ovaries C. Virchows node230. An upper gastrointestinal radiographic series reveals D. Krukenberg tumorsgastric outlet obstruction in a 53yearold female who has had E. Cystadenocarcima of ovariesnausea, vomiting, and midepigastric pain for severalmonths. Upper endoscopy reveals an ulcerated 3x4 cm 238. A 67yearold male with a history of brain hemorrhagemass at the pylorus. The biopsy was performed. Which of has had an episodes of hematemesis at the hospital duringthe following neoplasms is most likely to be seen on biopsy past 2 weeks after hemorrhage. In the mucous shell of theof this mass? stomach body endoscopy reveals an ulcer 2.5cm inA. NonHodgkin lymphoma diameter, round form, with a brown base. Identify the typeB. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of ulcer:C. Squamous cell carcinoma A. CurlingsD. Adenocarcinoma B. VirchowsE. Leiomyosarcoma C. Chronic D. Cushings231. A 67yearold male with a long history of Barrett E. Krukenberg’sesophagus has had increasing difficulty with swallowing forthe past 2 months. In the lower third part of the esophagus 240. During autopsy it was found out croupous pneumoniaupper endoscopy reveals an ulcerative esophageal mass that in lower lobe of the left lung and about 500ml ofpartially occludes the esophageal lumen. Patient undergoes greenishyellow fluid in the pleural cavity. Microscopicallyesophagectomy, and the gross appearance shows ulcerated pleural liquid contained many neutrophils. Identify thelesion with necrosis in the center. Identify the type of complication of pneumonia:lesions: A. HemothoraxA. Leiomyosarcoma B. Fibrinous pleuritisB. Squamous cell carcinoma C. PneumothoraxC. Dense collagenous scar D. HydrothoraxD. Adenocarcinoma E. Empyema of pleuraE. Thrombosed vascular channels 241. 56yearold patient has suffered from rightside235. A barium swallow is performed in a 44yearold female lowerlobar pneumonia with expectoration of mucus withwho has had nausea and vomiting for months. It is known pus. During autopsy in 910 segments of the right lung thethat she had a stomach ulcer for many years. cavity with dense walls filled with purulent masses, wasRadiographically, there is marked dilation of the stomach found. The whitish path comes from the cavity toward thewith "beaking" in the distal portion where marked luminal radix of the lung. Microscopically it was established thatnarrowing exists. A biopsy of the antrum shows ulcer the cavity is separated from notchanged lung tissue withformation with elevated margins and prominent submucosal thin membrane, which consists of two layers:fibrosis without inflammation, epithelium cell atypism. The internalgranulation tissue, and external – connective tissue.most likely cause for these findings is What diagnosis is more probable?A. Chronic duodenum ulcer A. Chronic abscessB. Chronic gastric ulcer B. Pulmonary gangreneC. Acute gastric ulcer C. Acute pulmonary abscessD. Gastric carcinoma D. Chronic pneumoniaE. Duodenum carcinoma E. Bronchoectatic disease236. A 72yearold male with a long history of chronic
242. The patient has high temperature, dyspnoe, pain in the D Gangrenousright part of the chest. 700 ml of creamy greenyellowish E Liquefactivefluid was moved off in the result of pleural puncture. Whichof the listed diagnosis is more possible? 315. During hospitalization, a 40yearold woman developsA. Empiema of pleura thrombophlebitis. She recovers and is discharged. SheB. Hemorragic pleuritis returns to her job as an electrician. A couple of monthsC. Serous pleuritis later, which of the following terms would best describe theD. Carcinomatosis of pleura process seen in a femoral vein after recovery from herE. Fibrinous pleuritis thrombophlebitis: A Organization263. At gastroscopical research of patient in area of lesser B Acute inflammationcurvature of the stomach it was found out the exophytic C Ruptureformation (1,5 cm in diameter). In biopsy from form it is D Embolizationmarked: the growth of atypical glandular structures of E Propagationdifferent shape and size (stretched, round, with irregularoutlines, small or large) into mucosa and submucosa; the 318. Sharp pain at the foot appeared in elderly patient withepithelial cells are atypical too: their nuclei are the atherosclerosis of lower extremities. Left extremitypolymorphous with various maintenance of chromatin and became soft and was increased in volume, skin becamemitoses. What is your diagnose? blackbrown color with maceration. The demarcation area isA. Adenocarcinoma of stomach absent. Your diagnosis:B. Squamous carcinoma of stomach A Moist gangrene.C. Polyp of stomach B Mummification of foot.D. Fibrous carcinoma (Skyrrus) C Coagulate necrosis of foot.E. Chronic ulcer D Dry gangrene. E Sequester of the foot.271. During the autopsy it was found out the cavity 2,5x1,5cm within the right frontal part of the brain. It was filled 326. During autopsy it was found out croupous pneumoniawith transparent fluid and its walls were smooth and of in lower lobe of the left lung & about 500ml ofbrownish colour. What process did develop in the brain? greenishyellow fluid in the pleural cavity. Microscopically A. Grey softening of brain. pleural liquid contained many neutrophils. Identify the B. Cyst as an outcome of hemorrhage. complication of pneumonia C. Abscess of brain. A. Empyema of pleura D. Birth defect of brain. B. Fibrinous pleuritis E. Cyst as a outcome of gray softening C. Pneumothorax D. Hydrothorax272. In a biopsy of сervix uteri of a26yearold women the E. Hemothoraxdiagnosis following was established: pseudoerosion. Whatmicroscopical changes has the pathologist revealed? 328. At the autopsy of the patient that has suffered for aA. Local changes of a stratified squamous epithelium on long time on bronchoectatic disease was found: singlelayer prismatic one enlargement of kidneys, they were of the white color & theB. Cellatypia of an epithelium of an mucosal epithelium surface on the cut was lardaceous. HistologicalC. Keratinization of an epithelium of an mucosal investigation: the deposition of homogenous eosinophilic epithelium masses colored with Congo red and given of metachromasiaD. “Carcinomatous pearls” with methyl violet color in glomeruli and canals wereE. Local inflammation and necrosis in mucosa found. What pathological process took place in the patient? A. Amyloidosis299. In the 30yearold woman systemic lupus erythematosus B. Grainish degenerationwas diagnosed. Which tissues do the autoantibodies react C. Fatty degenerationagainst? D. Mucoid degenerationA. Against nuclear constituents of virtually every cell E. Hyalinosis within the organismB. Only against thyroid constituents 329. Patient died from sudden cardiac death. On the autopsyC. Only against basement membrane of kidneys and lungs it was found out the symmetrical type of adipose heart ofD. Only against components of bone marrow third degree; the rupture of right ventricle’s wall withE. Only against thyroid and cardiac constituents hemopericardium and redundant accumulation of fat under epicardium were found in autopsy. Microscopically: the314. In an experiment, a glass bead is embolized to a branch adipose tissue grows from epicardium into myocardiumof the renal artery. A day later there is a focal area in which with atrophy of fibers of muscle. What process is morethe renal parenchymal cells in the distribution of the probable?occluded artery show karyolysis and karyorrhexis. The F. Adipose heart;outlines of the cells are still visible, but the nuclei have lost G. Hypertensive disease;basophilic staining and the cytoplasm is eosinophilic but H. Ischemic heart disease;pale. Which of the following types of cellular necrosis is I. Fatty degeneration of myocardium;most likely present? J. Acute myocardial infarction;A CoagulativeB CaseousC Fatty
330. Death of the patients in early stages of rheumatic fever D – excision biopsybecause of acute cardiac insufficiency is connected with E – surgical removalone of the following manifestations of the rheumatic fever:A. Myocarditis 341. During gynecological examination of young woman itB. Pericarditis was found out that she has had cervical erosion. What typeC. Endocarditis of biopsy allows to confirm gynecological diagnosisD. Septic endocarditis pathomorphologically?E. Cardiosclerosis A – endoscopical biopsy B – excision biopsy 331. The patient died from sudden cardiac death the C – puncture biopsy symmetrical type of adipose heart of third degree; with D – aspiration biopsy redundant accumulation of fat under epicardium were found E – incision biopsy out in autopsy. Microscopically: the adipose tissue grows from epicardium into myocardium with atrophy of fibers of 342. Patient with gastritis was examined by muscle. What process is more probable? fibrogastroendoscopy. During the investigation there wereA. Fatty degeneration of myocardium taken several pieces of stomach mucosa. What type ofB. Ischemic heart disease biopsy was performed?C. Acute myocardial infarction A – endoscopy biopsyD. Adipose heart B – excision biopsyE. Hypertensive disease C – puncure biopsy D – aspiration biopsy332. During autopsy of the patient died from chronic E – incision biopsycardiac insufficiency the enlarged dense rusty colored lungswith growth of gray color connective tissue around bronchi 343. Please, choose incorrect statement.and vessels were found. How can we call this process in A There are extracellular and intracellular accumulations;lungs? B Injury can be reversible;А Brown induration of the lung C Injury may be caused by hereditary factors;В Hemorrhagic pneumonia D Injury is characterized by disorder of tissue nutritionС Interstitial emphysema and every time leads to total distraction of cells;D Chronic obstructive emphysema E Degenerations can appear in one organ or in the wholeE Primary idiopathic emphysema; body 333.An old patient, who suffered on arteriosclerosis, has 344. Young 18yearold woman died because of the been hospitalized in surgical department because he had diphtheritic myocarditis with signs of progressive heart purulent peritonitis. Thrombosis of mesenteric arteries was insufficiency. What histological changes in cardiomyocytes found during operation. What is the most probable cause of can be found? peritonitis? A Mucousal degeneration;A. Hemorrhagic infarction B Hydropic degeneration;B. Angiospastic ischemia C Fatty degeneration;C. Angioneurotic edema D Balloon degeneration;D. Stasis E Hyalinedroplets degenerationE. Chronic congestion 345. Prolonged moderate hypoxia create grossly apparent338. Biopsy it is: bands of yellow myocardium alternating with bands ofA – surgical removal of organ or extremity darker, redbrown, parts of uninvolved myocardium, suchB – intravital taking a piece of tissue with subsequent changers in heart called:microscopic study A “Big yellow heart”;C – taking a piece of tissue with subsequent microscopic B “Goose heart”;study after death C “Tiger’s heart”;D – dissection of cadaver D “Zebra’s heart”;E – everything is right E “Big white heart”339. A sample of thyroid tissue of patient with nodular 346. Choose one incorrect statement:goiter was taken by means of fine needle aspiration. What A. Decomposition – disintegration of membranoustype of biopsy was performed? structures of cells and intercellular matrix;A – puncture biopsy B. Infiltration – redundant accumulation of metabolitesB – endoscopical biopsy into the cells and intercellular matrix;C – excision biopsy C. The mechanism of decomposition is a base of geneticD – autopsy storage diseases;E – incision biopsy D. Perverted synthesis – synthesis of abnormal substances in the cells and tissues;340. What method of pathomorphological investigation E. Transformation – formation of one type of metabolismallows to diagnose morphological features of the disease at products from common initial substances for protein,lifetime, without removal the organ? fats and carbohydrates.A – puncture biopsyB – autopsy 347. Intracellular accumulation of fat in liver isC – experiment characterized by every statement, except one:
A There are small fat vacuoles in cytoplasm around the C. Intracellular protein dystrophynuclei of hepatocytes; D. HyalinosisB Fat is accumulated in extracellular spaces; E. Extracellular carbohydrate dystrophyC Liver enlarged and becomes yellow;D Its consistency is soft and greasy; 355. A punctual biopsy of liver at patient with diabetesE Fat is stained by special stain Sudan IV, and becomes mellitus that has suffered about 7 years was performed.black color Microscopically there can be found changers of liver parenchyma as:348. Morphological changers in liver that is called “goose A small fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm;liver” means: B fat vacuoles are situated around the nucleus ofA intracellular accumulation of lipids in liver cells; hepatocytes;B extracellular accumulation of lipids in liver cells; C hepatocytes are increased in size;C intracellular accumulation of glycogen in liver cells; D – everything is right;D extracellular accumulation of glycogen in liver cells; E – everything is wrongE intracellular accumulation of proteins in liver cells 356. A 40yearold male was diagnosed with an349. Cellular swelling of kidney tubular epithelium at undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung. Despite treatmentprotracted hypoxia can lead to: with chemotherapy, he died of widespread metastases. AtA intracellular accumulation of proteins; autopsy, tumor was found in many organs. HistologicB intracellular accumulation of lipids; examination revealed many foci in which individual tumorC intracellular accumulation of glycogen; cells appeared shrunken and deeply eosinophilic. TheirD focal colliquative necrosis of epithelium; nuclei showed condensed aggregates of chromatin under theE accumulation of lipids in kidney’s stroma nuclear membrane. The process affecting these shrunken tumor cells was triggered by the release of which of the350. What etiologic factors can be most influential at the following proteins into the cytosol?development of intracellular accumulation of lipids in liver? A. LipofuscinA. Insufficiency of vitamins B. Cytochrome CB. Pathology of protein exchange C. CatalaseC. Pathology of pigment exchange D. PhospholipaseD. Influence of hepatotoxic substances E. bcl2E. Pathology of glycogen exchange 357. Many drugs that are used to treat cancer cause death of351. In epithelium of kidney tubules at disorders producing tumor cells by apoptosis. Mutational inactivation of whichproteinuria pinocytotic reabsorption of the protein form of the following genes can render tumor cells resistant todrops, which appear pink color in hematoxylin and eosin the effects of such chemotherapeutic drugs?staining, it is: A. bcl2A Balloon degeneration; B. p53B Mucousal degeneration; C. NFkBC Hydropic degeneration; D. P450D Fatty degeneration; E. Granzyme BE Hyalinedroplets degeneration; 362. Thickened, intertwisted and stony dense aortic valve352. Mechanism of intracellular accumulation of proteins in was discovered at the autopsy of a 72yearold male. Theepithelium of kidney tubules at disorders producing heart weighed 580g, with marked left ventricularproteinuria is: hypertrophy and minimal coronary arterial atherosclerosis.A Infiltration, A serum chemistry panel revealed no abnormalities prior toB Decomposition, death from congestive heart failure. Which of the followingC Perverted synthesis, pathologic processes accounts for the appearance of theD Transformation; valve?E Phanerosis A. Amyloidosis, B. Dystrophic calcification,353. The ultrastructural changes at cellular swelling consist C. Lipofuscin deposition,of the following, except one: D. Hemosiderosis,A blebbing, blunting, and distortion of microvilli at plasma E. Fatty changemembrane;B swelling, rarefaction, and the appearance of 363. Metastatic calcification is most likely to occur inphospholipidrich amorphous densities in mitochondria; which of the following conditions?C dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum with detachment A. Tuberculosis of the lung,and disaggregation of polysomes; B. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis,D nucleolar alterations; C. Aortic stenosis in a 70yearold man,E pinocytotic vesicles are full with proteins D. Vitamin D intoxication, E. Amyloidosis354. At patient with diabetes mellitus it is observed: increased insize liver, increased levels of triglyceride and lipoproteid’s in 364. Deposition of calcium in the renal tubular epitheliumblood. What type of dystrophy can be expected in a liver? in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism is the result ofA. Intracellular fatty dystrophy which of the following processes?B. Cellular swelling A. Dystrophic calcification,
B. Renal tubular atrophy, A. Jaundice of newborns;C. Autophagocytosis, B. Parenchymatous (hepatic) jaundice;D. Metastatic calcification, C. Haemolytic jaundice;E. Cellular aging D. Gilbert’s disease; E. Mechanical (posthepatic) jaundice365. A 35yearold man struck on his leg by a falling palletrack in the region of thigh. The skin is not broken. Within 2 371. A 53yearold patient with insufficiency of mitral valvedays there is a 5x7cm purple color to the site of injury. has a cough with ferruginous sputum. What pigment hasWhich of the following substances has most likely caused such color of sputum?accumulated at the site of injury to produce a yellowbrown А. Hematoidin,color 16 days after the injury? В. Melanin,A. Lipofuscin, С. Hemoglobin,B. Bilirubin, D. Hemomelanin,C. Melanin, Е. HemosiderinD. Hemosiderin,E. Glycogen 372. Hemolysis developed after the bite of snake at a young girl. Jaundice of skin, sclera and mucous was observed.366. At autopsy, the heart of a 63yearold male is only Accumulation of what pigment is the cause of jaundice?250gr, with small right and left ventricles. The myocardium А. Direct bilirubinis firm, a yellowishbrown color. The coronary arteries В. Indirect bilirubindemonstrate very little atherosclerosis. Which of the С. Direct and indirect bilirubinfollowing substances most likely can be found in the D. Ferritinmyocardial fibers of this heart? Е. HemomelaninA. MelaninB. Hemosiderin 373. 77yearold patient suddenly died because of heartC. Glycogen attack of myocardium. During autopsy in heart it was foundD. Lipofuscin out: thrombosis of the left anterior descending coronalE. Bilirubin artery and a focus of yellowish softening with hemorrhagic halo in the left ventricle anterior wall. Which of the367. A 22yearold female has a congenital anemia that following patterns of tissue injury was most likely?required multiple transfusions of red blood cells for many A. Liquefactive necrosisyears. She now has no significant findings on physical B. Caseous necrosisexamination. However, her liver function test results are C. Coagulative necrosisabnormal. Which of the following findings would most D. Fat necrosislikely appear in a liver biopsy? E. Gangrenous necrosisA. Steatosis in hepatocytesB. Bilirubin in canaliculi 374. A 68yearold female suddenly lost consciousness and,C. Glycogen in hepatocytes on awakening an hour later, could not speak or move herD. Amyloid in portal triads right arm and leg. Two months later, a head computedE. Hemosiderin in hepatocytes tomography (CT) scan showed a large cystic area in her left parietal lobe. Which of the following pathologic processes368. Accumulation of lipofuscin granules in cells is most likely occurred in the brain?typically seen in which of the following conditions? A. Fat necrosisA. Atrophy B. Coagulative necrosisB. Hypertrophy C. ApoptosisC. Hyperplasia D. Liquefactive necrosisD. Metaplasia E. KaryolysisE. Apoptosis 375. The pain has appeared in the left foot of 57yearold369. A fight carotid endarterectomy is performed on a patient suffered with diabetes mellitus. After some days the69yearold female who had an audible bruit on auscultation foot became enlarged in size with soft, swollen edematous,of the neck. Examination of the curetted atheromatous putrid, black color and macerated skin; the demarcation lineplaque reveals a grossly yellowtan, firm appearance. is not clear. What pathological process takes place in aMicroscopically, which of the following materials can be patient?found in abundance in the form of crystals producing long, A. Coagulative necrosiscleftlike spaces? B. SequestrumA. Glycogen C. Dry gangreneB. Lipofuscin D. Wet gangreneC. Hemosiderin E. NomaD. ImmunoglobulinE. Cholesterol 376. On day 28 of the menstrual cycle in a 23yearold female, there is menstrual bleeding that lasts for a few days.370. In patient with jaundice the following data were She has had these regular cycles for many years. Which ofestablished: in serum the increasing of bilirubin because of the following processes is most likely happening in thethe unconjugated form; in faeces and urine increasing of endometrium just before the onset of bleeding?stercobilin; the level of conjugated (direct) bilirubin in A. Apoptosisserum is normal. What type of jaundice takes place? B. Caseous necrosis
C. Heterophagocytosis B. It is the premature death and destruction of cell’sD. Atrophy organelles in the living organismE. Liquefactive necrosis C. It is cell’s death in the living organism under action of critical damage factors377. A renal biopsy is performed on a 33yearold female D. It is postmortem destruction of cells under action of thewho has had increasing renal failure for the past week. bacteria’s enzymesWhich of the following changes seen with electron E. It is destruction of all components of organs under actionmicroscopy most likely suggests a diagnosis of acute of critical alterationtubular necrosis?A. Mitochondrial swelling 383. During electronic microscopic investigation of brainB. Plasma membrane blebs tissue it was observed cells with chromatin aggregations inC. Chromatin clumping the peripheral zones, under the nuclear membrane, someD. Nuclear fragmentation nucleus break up, producing two or more fragments, someE. Ribosomal disaggregation from endoplasmic reticulure cells with extensive surface blebbing, that undergoes fragmentation into a number of membranebound parts.378. In 87yearold patient suffered with atherosclerosis the What pathological process was seen in the cells?pain has appeared in the right foot. After several days the A. Autolysisfoot decreased in size, skin became dark black color that B. Necrosisresembled the foot of mummy, the demarcation line was C. Phagocytosisclear. Which of the following patterns of tissue injury was D. Apoptosisin patient? E. NecrobiosisA. Coagulative necrosisB. Sequestrum 384. A 40yearold male was diagnosed with anC. Dry gangrene undifferentiated carcinoma of lung. Despite treatment withD. Wet gangrene chemotherapy, he died of widespread metastases. AtE. Noma autopsy, tumor was found in many organs. Histologic examination revealed many foci in which individual tumor379. A 73yearold man had a "stroke." A cerebral angiogram cells appeared shrunken and deeply eosinophilic. Theirdemonstrates occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. nuclei showed condensed aggregates of chromatin under theWhich of the following pathologic alteration from this nuclear membrane. What process does affect theseevent that occurs in pathient’s brain is the most likely? shrunken of tumor cells?A. Cerebral softening from liquefactive necrosis A. AutolysisB. Infarction with coagulative necrosis B. NecrosisC. Predominant loss of glial cells C. PhagocytosisD. Recovering of damaged neurons D. ApoptosisE. Wet gangrene with secondary bacterial infection E. Necrobiosis380. In an experiment, a glass bead is embolized to a branch 385. An elderly patient had an acute violation of cerebralof the renal artery. A day later there is a focal area in which blood circulation that was accomplished with coma andthe renal parenchymal cells in the distribution of the recent patient’s death. During autopsy a large cavity filledoccluded artery show karyolysis and karyorrhexis. The with blood was observed in the right hemisphere of brain.outlines of the cells are still visible, but the nuclei have lost What pathological process was found out in the rightbasophilic staining and the cytoplasm is eosinophilic but hemisphere of brain?pale. Which of the following types of cellular necrosis is A. Haematomamost likely present? B. Hemorrhagic infiltrationA. Coagulative C. Heart attack of brainB. Caseous D. Diapedetic hemorrhageC. Fatty E. Tumor of brainD. GangrenousE. Liquefactive 386. A 55yearold female has had discomfort with swelling of her left leg for the past week. The leg is slightly difficult381. The cavity 3,5x2,5 cm was found out during the to move, but there is no pain on palpation. A venogramautopsy in the right frontal part of the brain. It was filled in reveals thrombosis of deep left leg veins. Which of thewith yellowishwhitish fluid, cavity walls were smooth and following conditions take place?the same color as brain tissue. Name the process that is A. Haematomadeveloped in the brain? B. General congestionA. Cyst as an outcome of hemorrhage C. Local hyperemiaB. Abscess of brain. D. Local congestionC. Hemorrhagic infarction of brain. E. General hyperemiaD. Birth defect of brain.E. Cyst as an outcome of gray softening 387. During autopsy it was found out an increased in size liver, the picture of liver parenchyma on the cut look like382. Choose the correct statement that can characterize muscatel nuts. In hepatic vein nearwall blood clots wereapoptosis: found out (BaddaKiary syndrome). Name the type ofA. It is programmed cell’s death in the living organism violation of blood circulation in liver.with fragmentation of cell into apoptotic bodies at the A. General hyperemiaend the process B. General congestion
C. Local congestion would most likely observed?D. Local hyperemia A. “Goose liver”.E. Haematoma B. “Big white liver”. C. Cirrhosis.388. A 56yearold diabetic male presented with leftsided D. “Nutmeg liver”.chest pain that radiated to the arm. Coronary angiography E. Chronic hepatitis.revealed occlusion of the left anterior descending artery.After some days developed severe breathlessness and was 394. Thickened, intertwisted and stony dense aortic valvediagnosed to have acute left ventricular failure. Which of was discovered at the autopsy of a 72yearold male. Thethe following histological changes in lungs would most heart weighed 580g, with marked left ventricularlikely observed? hypertrophy and postinfarction scaring of left ventricleA. Congestion of alveolar capillaries with fibrin and wall. Acrocyanosis, edema of subcutaneous tissues,neutrophils in alveoli hemosiderosis of lungs and pneumosclerosis, depositing ofB. Congestion of alveolar capillaries with transudate in blood in the parenhymal organs were observed. Which ofthe alveoli the following pathologic processes took place?C. Fibrosis of alveolar walls with heart failure cells in A. Congestive heart failure,alveoli B. Acute right ventricle insufficiency,D. Multiple areas of hemorrhages C. Arterial hypertension,E. A purulent exudate in the pleural space D. General hyperemia, E. Acute left ventricle insufficiency389. A 32yearold patient with chronic ulcer has had avomiting by blood. Name this process: 395. During histological investigation of lymphatic nodulesA. Epistaxis, at patient with hypogammaglobulinemia, generallyB. Haemotenesis, affecting all the AB classes and normal levels of circulatingC. Melaena, Bcells it was observed hyperplasia of the Bcell areas ofD. Metrorrhagia, lymphoid follicles in the nodes. What is your diagnose?E. Hemotorax A. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; B. DiGeorges Syndrome;390. A 76yearold female fell and fractured her left femoral C. Brutons Disease;trochanter. After 2 weeks in the hospital, her left leg is D. Common Variable Immunodeficiency;swollen. She experiences pain on movement of this leg, and E. WiskottAldrich Syndromethere is tenderness to palpation. Angiography revealed deepvenous thrombosis. Which of the following complications 396. 56yearold patient has suffered bronchoectatic diseaseis most likely to occur in the leg? and hemoptysis, the edema of face and waist has appeared.A. Local hyperemia The protein (33 mg/l) was found in urine. PulmonaryB. Local congestion hemorrhage was the cause of patient’s death. At autopsy itC. General congestion was found enlargement of kidneys, on the section they wereD. General hyperemia dense with lardaceous surface. Histologically: theE. Haematoma deposition of homogenous eosinophilic masses colored with Congo red in orange and given of metachromasia with391. After falling in the bathtub and striking her head, a methyl violet color in glomeruli and canals were found.78yearold female becomes increasingly somnolent. A day What pathological process is described?later, a head computed tomography scan demonstrates an A. Hyalinosis;accumulation of fluid beneath the dura, compressing the left B. Grainish degeneration;cerebral hemisphere. What is the best term for this fluid C. Fatty degeneration;collection? D. Mucoid degeneration;A. Hematoma E. AmyloidosisB. PurpuraC. Congestion 397. Histologic investigation of thyroid gland has showedD. Petechia destruction and atrophy of follicles, diffuse lymphoidE. Ecchymosis infiltration with formation of lymphoid follicles in the stroma. Which of the following disease’s type is described?392. Transmural myocardial infarction in the 66yearold A. Autoimmune specific;patient was complicated with edema of the lungs, formation B. Autoimmune nonspecific;of transudes in cavities (hydrothorax and C. Bacterial;hydropericardium). What is the type of heart insufficiency? D. Infectiousallergic;A. Cyanosis, E. Viruses infectiousB. Right ventricle insufficiency,C. Arterial hypertension, 398. Which of the following diseases is not organospecificD. General hyperemia, autoimmune disease in origin?E. Progressive left ventricle insufficiency A. Hashimotos thyroiditis; B. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia;393. A 69yearsold woman suffered from atherosclerosis C. Goodpastures syndrome;and died due to cardiacpulmonary insufficiency. At autopsy D. Systemic Lupus Erythematous;features of congestion in parencymal organs, hypertrophy E. Graves diseaseof left ventricle heart were found out. Which of thefollowing macroscopical changes in liver parenchyma 399. Which of the following diseases can be characterized
as an Xlinked recessive disease with eczema, centers of lymph nodes, Peyers patches, and tonsils werethrombocytopenia, and recurrent infections? underdeveloped, absence of plasma cells throughout theA. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; body. Which of the following disease took place in patient?B. DiGeorges Syndrome; A. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency;C. Brutons Disease; B. DiGeorges Syndrome;D. Common Variable Immunodeficiency; C. Brutons Disease;E. WiskottAldrich Syndrome D. Common Variable Immunodeficiency; E. WiskottAldrich Syndrome400. At 46yearold patient with systemic lupus erythematousduring histological investigation of skin biopsy it was 406. A clinical study of patient with pharyngeal infectionsobserved vasculitis and dermal chronic inflammatory is performed. Patient experienced fever and chills. Oninfiltrates. What type of the disease is revealed? physical examination, the most common finding is aA. Autoimmune specific; pharyngeal purulent exudate. Which of the following typesB. Autoimmune nonspecific; of inflammation did these patient most likely have?C. Bacterial; A. Resolution of inflammation,D. Infectiousallergic; B. Granulomatous inflammation,E. Viruses infectious C. Abscess, formation, D. Acute inflammation,401. Inadequacy of immune answer because of an innate E. Chronic inflammationdefect in the immune system (defect of histogenesis ofimmunocytes, violation of thymus embryogenesis or 407. A 43yearold man has had a fever and dry cough andregulation of the immune system) is named as: his temperature is 38.5 C during last 3 days. A chestA. Primary immunodeficiency syndrome; radiograph shows a right pleural effusion. A rightB. Secondary immunodeficiency syndrome; thoracentesis is performed. The fluid obtained has a cloudyC. Autoimmune specific; appearance with a cell count showing 5500 leukocytes perD. Autoimmune nonspecific; microliter, 98% of which are neutrophils and high level ofE. Infectiousallergic proteins. Which of the following terms best describes his pleural process?402. At 2yearold patient recurrent bacterial infections such A. Granulomatous inflammation,as pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia were B. Serous inflammation,observed during past 10 months. The causative organisms C Fibrinous inflammation,were Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. D. Catarrhal inflammation,The failure of preB cells differentiation into mature B cells E. Purulent inflammationwas distinguished. Identify the type of disease:A. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; 408. A 90yearold woman has pneumonia. Two weeks laterB. DiGeorges Syndrome; a chest radiograph reveals a 3cm rounded density thatC. Brutons Disease; contains liquid with capsule in the right lower lobe. DuringD. Common Variable Immunodeficiency; punctual biopsy there was obtained 100ml ofE. WiskottAldrich Syndrome yellowishcloudy fluid. Which of the following is the best description for this outcome of her pneumonia?403. During autopsy of infant that died because of lung A. Abscess formationfungal infections it was observed rudimentary thymus and B. Phlegmon,absence of Tcells. The serum levels of all classes of C. Furuncle,immunoglobulins and amount of Bcells were normal. D. Carbuncle,Which of the following disease took place in patient? E. EmpyemaA. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency;B. DiGeorges Syndrome; 409. The patient has suffered from rightside lowerlobarC. Brutons Disease; pneumonia with expectoration of mucus with pus. InD. Common Variable Immunodeficiency; autopsy in 910 segments of the right lung the cavity withE. WiskottAldrich Syndrome dense walls filled with purulent masses, was found. The whitish path comes from the cavity toward the radix of the404. A 48yearold patient has had fibrouscavernous lung. Microscopically in was established that the cavity istuberculosis. The increasing of protein, presence of hyaline, divided from saved lung tissue with thin membrane, whichgrain cylinders and erythrocytes were found in urine. The consists of two layers: internalgranulation tissue, andpatient has died in a month because of kidney insufficiency. external – connective tissue. What diagnosis is moreAt autopsy the enlargement of the heart and "lardaceus" probable?kidneys were found. What is the complication of A. Empyema,fibrosecavernouse tuberculosis? B. Pulmonary gangrene,A. Nephrotic syndrome; C. Acute pulmonary abscess,B. Аmyloidosis; D. Phlegmon,C. Hyalinosis; E. Chronic abscessD. Grainish degeneration;E. Mucoid degeneration 410. A 22yearsold patient was admitted into the hospital with heavy nasal breathing. During the examination of nasal405. During postmortem investigation of 1,5yearold child it cavity it was found out the thickened mucous membrane, awas observed: decreased amount of Bcells, the serum levels lot of mucus and nodular infiltrates without erosions. It wasof all classes of immunoglobulins were depressed, germinal diagnosed as rhinoscleroma of nose. Biopsy was performed.
What typical morphological changes may be found? B – hypertrophy of myocardiocytes,A. Granulomas with Virchow’s cells, C – atrophy of myocardiocytes,B. Granulomas with Mikulicz’s cells, D – metaplasia of myocardiocytes,C. Granulomas with Langhan’s cells, E – hypoplasia of myocardiocytesD. Granulomas with foreign body cells,E. Interstitial inflammation 417. During microscopical examination of operative gynecological material of 45yearold woman with clinical411. A man has died in 8th day since beginning of the diagnosis of fibromyoma uteri it was found thatdisease. It was diagnosed dysentery. During the autopsy it endometrium was thickened up to 1 sm, had a lot of glandswas found out a thickened wall of the sigma and rectum, of different shapes, sizes and localization. What processfibrinous membrane on the surface of mucous membrane. was performed in endometrium?Histologically: there is a deep necrosis of mucous A – endometrium hyperplasia,membrane with infiltration of necrotic masses with fibrin. B – endometrium hypertrophy,What kind of colitis does correspond to those changes? C – endometrium atrophy,A. Catarrhal, D – endometrium metaplasia,B. Ulcerative, E – endometrium carcinomaC. Diphtheritic,D. Chronic, 418. Biopsy of upper respiratory tract tissues taken fromE. Gangrenous 45yearold man who smokes during 25 years has revealed that columnar mucussecreting respiratory epithelium was412. After mistaking using of some toxic substance an acute replaced by squamous epithelium. What kind of adaptationtoxic necrosis of liver has developed at 35yearold male. All in epithelium was performed?necrotic mass of liver was surgically removed. Few months A –hypertrophy,later the total mass and normal structure of liver was B –metaplasia,restored. What kind of reparation was represented in liver? C – atrophy,A – restitution, D – hypoplasia,B – substitution, E – hyperplasiaC – physiological regeneration,D – hyperregeneration, 419.In the section of 76yearold woman it was found that herE – metaplasia ovari were small and dense. Microscopically they were represented by prevailing connective tissue. What process413. In the section of 70yearold male who had died from has happened in ovari of this woman?cardiovascular insufficiency it was found an area of A – physiological atrophy,sclerosis in myocardium. What type of regeneration has B – pathological atrophy,developed in myocardium after myocardial infarction? C – aplasia,A – physiological regeneration, D – metaplasia,B – substitution, E – hypotrophyC – restitution,D – hyperregeneration, 420. In the section of 65yearold man who died from septicE – hyporegeneration endocarditis it was found that aortic valve outflow was severely narrowed by disease and the muscle of left414. During cooking young woman suddenly cut her finger ventricle of the heart was thickened up to 2 sm. Whatby knife. She immediately took all necessary measures and process of adaptation was performed in cardiac muscle ofcovered a wound by aseptic bandage. 2 weeks later the left ventricle?wound was healed by first intension. Choose the one which A – involution of myocardium,is not correct for healing by first intension: B – myocardiac hyperplasia,A – wound is clean and uninfected, C – myocardiac hypotrophy,B – wound is at times infected, D – myocardiac hypertrophy,C – wound is surgically incised, E – atrophyD – without much loss of cells and tissue,E – edges of wound are approximated by surgical sutures 421. Macroscopical study of skin formation has found that it looks like bush of branching papillae, the same color as415. Regeneration of endometrium at the beginning of each skin; microscopically it is represented by connective tissuephysiological ovarialmenstrual cycle at women of stem covered by epithelium like with a glove. What type ofreproductive period is an example of: neoplasia is observed?A – restitution, A – adenoma,B – hyperregeneration, B – papilloma,C – physiological regeneration, C – sarcoma,D – substitution, D – skin cancer,E – metaplasia E – adenocarcinoma.416.Microscopical investigation of cardiac muscle around 422. Microscopical study of mucosal formation from nosesclerosis area after infarction had found that cavity showed that it was represented by loose, swollenmyocardiocytes and their nuclei were enlarged in size and stroma, consisting of thin fibers with thinwalled vessels andhad features of increased functional capacity. What process covered with ciliated epithelium. What type of neoplasiadeveloped in myocardium around sclerosis area? may be supposed?A – hyperplasia of myocardiocytes, A – soft papilloma,
B – adenoma, 428. 35yearold woman paid attention that skin of the leftC – hard papilloma, nipple and areola had become crusted, fissured andD – cancer “in situ”, ulcerated with oozing of serousanguineous fluid from theE – adenocarcinoma. erosions. Histological study of tissues taken from lesion area found out thickened squamous multilayered epithelium423. Microscopical study of ovarium has found out and enlarged spherical cells with hyperchromatic nucleienlarged cavity covered by cylindric epithelium inside and with cytoplasmic halo, stained positively with mucicarmine,filled with serous fluid. What type of formation has been it also was found invasive duct carcinoma. What type offound in ovarium? breast tumor is performed?A – cystoadenoma, A – colloid carcinoma,B – adenocarcinoma, B – lobular carcinoma “in situ”,C – white body, C – Paget’s disease,D – cyst of yellow body. D – carcinoma noninvasive,E – normal folicullus. E – infiltrating ductal carcinoma – NOS423. Microscopical study of biopsy taken from stomach has 429. 56yearold man who had been smoking during 35 yearsrevealed growth of glandular atypical cells with submucosal was operated because of neoplasia in the left lung.invasion. What type of neoplasia has been found? Histological study of removed tissue revealed in the area ofA – early gastric carcinoma, neoplasia enlarged cells with large nuclei, prominentB – advanced gastric carcinoma, nucleoli, abundant cytoplasm and welldefined cell borders.C – adenoma, Tumor cells lacked specific features that could assignedD – soft papilloma, them into squamouscell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma.E fungating carcinoma. What kind of tumor of lung may be supposed? A – large cell carcinoma,424. 42yearold man suddenly found out enlarged round B – small cell carcinoma,formation at the left supraclavicular region. Biopsy and C – oatcell carcinoma,further histological study showed that it was lymphnode D – papillary adenocarcinoma,with blood and lymphatic vessels full of tumor cells. What E – combined oatcell carcinoma.process is performed?A – metastasis called Virchov’s gland, 430.Macroscopical study of surgically subtotal removedB – Shnitsler’s metastasis, stomach has revealed localized growth in pyloric antrumC – Krukenberg’s metastasis, represented by thickened stomach wall due to extensiveD – Paget’s disease, desmoplasia giving the appearance as “leather bottleE – Wilms tumor stomach”. What type of stomach cancer may be supposed? A – scirrhous carcinoma,425. Histological study of node of the thyroid gland found B – colloid carcinoma,out encapsulated growth of atypical cells with capsulas C – fungating carcinoma,invasion. What process has developed in the thyroid gland? D – ulcerative carcinoma,A – Hashimotos thyroiditis, E – ulcercancerB – follicular adenocarcinoma,C – Graves disease, 431. In the autopsy of 46yearold woman it was found tumorD – nodular colloid goiter, nodes in both enlarged ovaries. Histological studyE – Bcells adenoma of the thyroid gland established “Krukenberg’s” cancer of ovaries. What is the primary localization of basic tumor growth?426. Microscopical study of skin biopsy taken from A – lung,unhealing ulcer of the leg found out nestlike accumulations B – bone,of atypical cells of multilayer squamous epithelium with C – urinary bladder,characteristic “pearls”. What is the type of tumor? D – breast,A – adenocarcinoma, E – stomachB – colloid cancer,C – solid cancer, 432. Histological study of endometrium of 68yearoldD – squamouscell kratinishing cancer of skin, woman has revealed abundant quantity of abnormal glandsE – scirrhous cancer with papillar structures formed by atypical cells. What process is performed?427. Macroscopical study of surgically removed esophagus A – hyperplasia of endometrium,found out annularlike stenosing narrowing of its lumen due B – adenocarcinoma of endometrium,to infiltrative growth into the wall of esophagus. C – soft papilloma of endometrium,Microscopically it was established squamouscell carcinoma D – metaplasia of endometrium,of esophagus. What type of carcinoma growth was E – atrophy of endometriumrepresented?A – polypoid fungating type, 433. Histological study of biopsy pattern of stomach tissuesB – ulcerating type, has found enlarged oval malignant cells, optically empty atC – diffuse infiltrating type, hematoxilineosin staining, but SHIKpositive cytoplasmD – adenoid cystic type, with peripheral localization of nuclei. What type of gastricE – intestinal type carcinoma may be supposed? A – papillary adenoma, B – papillary adenocarcinoma,
C – signetring cell carcinoma, surgical removal. Some time later it was found thatD – scirrhous carcinoma, remained kidney had increased in size and weight. WhatE – solid carcinoma has happened with remained kidney? A – tumor hyperplasia,434. At bronchoscopy it was found malignant tumor growth B – compensatory hypertrophy,into lumen of bronchi. What kind of tumor growth takes C – compensatory hyperplasia,place in relation to the lumen of bronchi? D – metaplasia,A – expansive growth, E – dysplasiaB – endophytic growth,C – exophytic growth, 441. A 11yearsold child was admitted into the hospital withD – invasive growth, complaints of fever, weakness, and intense pain in the rightE – apposition growth thigh. It was defined that he has bitten by dog 3 days ago. During the visual examination it was found out redness,435. During dinner young boy was in a hurry and took a swelling and acute painfulness along right thigh. Afterspoon of very hot soup thus made a burn of mucosa of excision it was made the histological examination, whichtongue. Few days later no marks of burn were found. was showed a considerable accumulations ofEpithelial tissue of tongue return to norm. What process polymorphonucleus leukocytes between the mussel fiberswas performed in epithelial tissue of tongue? with purulent fusion. Which of the following terms bestA – reparative regeneration, describes such process?B – substitution, A. Abscess,C – metaplasia, B. Phlegmon,D – physiological regeneration, C. Gangrene,E – pathological regeneration D. Empyema, E. Croupous inflammation436. 23yearold woman paid attention at appearance ofnodular formations in her breast after 6months using of 442. A 27yearsold woman has been suffered diabeteshormone contraceptives without doctor’s control. What mellitus since she had been a child. During the last yearsprocess may be supposed in breast? the arterial hypertension and proteinuria have occurred. SheA – nodular hypertrophy, has died with signs of uremia. During autopsy it was foundB – nodular hyperplasia, out increased in size heart and fibrinous membrane on theC – nodular metaplasia, surface of epicardium and pericardium. Which of theD – diffuse hyperplasia, following terms best describes such process in the heart?E – nodular atrophy A. “Cor villosum”, B. “Tiger heart”,437. 67yearold patient suffered from arterial hypertension C. “Armor heart”,during 25 years. Progress of cardiovascular insufficiency D. Adipose heart,leaded to death. In autopsy it was found that heart was E. Purulent pericarditisincreased in size, its chambers were dilated, myocardium ofheart wall was thickened up to 2,5 sm. What kind of 443. A 44yearsold patient has a burn of right hand. Thechanges were found in heart? exfoliation of epidermis and formation of bubbles filled byA– eccentric hypertrophy, semitransparent fluid is manifested in the palm and the backB – concentric hypertrophy, surface of the hand. What kind of inflammation does occurC – myocardial hyperplasia, in that case?D – involution of myocardium, A. Purulent,E – myocardial hypotrophy B. Fibrinous, C. Putrefactive,438. 25yearold person had diagnosed fracture of left D. Serous,femoral bone. What kind of changes in skeletal muscles of E. Catarrhalleft leg may developed after 1 month of immobilization?A – denervation atrophy, 444. A patient was admitted in the hospital with diagnosisB – atrophy due to physical influence, of trichinellosis. What kind of inflammation developsC – ischemic atrophy, within the muscles around the parasites?D – atrophy due to pressure, A. Exudative fibrinous,E – disuse atrophy B. Exudative purulent, C. Proliferative granulematous,439. A patient with arterial hypertension has clinical D. Exudative serous,manifestation of cardiovascular insufficiency with E. Proliferative interstitialhemodynamic deterioration. What kind of changes inmyocardium may be found? 445. A 1/3 of the liver with a multicellular echinococcusA – concentric hypertrophy, was resected during the operation. What typical changes inB – eccentric hypertrophy, the liver tissue surrounding the parasites were found out byC – myocardial hyperplasia, the pathologist during the histological examination of theD – myocardial atrophy, resected part of the organ?E – myocardiac hyperplasia A. Formation of noninfectional granulomas, B. Flabby consistence of the liver,440. Young man got into accident and had multiplied C. Exudative tissue reaction,trauma. Serious damage of one of the kidney leaded to its D. Formation of infectional granulomas,
E. Hydropic dystrophy E. WiskottAldrich Syndrome446. A 43yearold male has experienced midepigastric 451. An 3yearold child was vulnerable to all forms of viralabdominal pain for the past 3 months. Upper endoscopy and bacterial infections, during clinical investigation it wasreveals a 2cm ulceration of the gastric antrum. A biopsy of revealed that he has had a normal thymus. He wasthe ulcer shows angiogenesis with fibrosis and mononuclear successfully treated by transplantation of normalcell infiltrates with lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma histocompatible bone marrow cells. Which of the followingcells. The best term for this pathologic process is: disease took place in patient?A. Acute inflammation, A. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency;B. Serous inflammation, B. DiGeorges Syndrome;C. Granulomatous inflammation, C. Brutons Disease;D. Fibrinous inflammation, D. Common Variable Immunodeficiency;E. Chronic inflammation E. WiskottAldrich Syndrome447. A month after an appendectomy, a 25yearold woman 452. Acquired inadequacy of immune answer because ofpalpates a small nodule beneath the skin at the site of the fatigue or damage of the normally formed immune systemhealed right lower quadrant incision. The nodule is excised is named as:and microscopically shows macrophages, collagen, a few A. Primary immunodeficiency syndrome;small lymphocytes, and giant cells. Polarizable, refractile B. Secondary immunodeficiency syndrome;material is in the nodule. Which of the following C. Autoimmune specific;complications of her surgery best accounts for these D. Autoimmune nonspecific;findings? E. InfectiousallergicA. Chronic inflammation,B. Abscess formation, 453. During autopsy it was found out firm in consistencyC. Foreign body granuloma, spleen, on the cut surface it was pale and gray. The depositsD. Ulceration, of amyloid affect principally the splenic sinuses and extendE. Edema to the splenic pulp, forming large, sheetlike deposits. What is the name of such spleen?448. A 45yearold male has had a cough with fever for the A. Big white amyloid spleen;previous 2 months. A chest radiograph reveals nodular B. Goose spleen;densities, some with calcification, located mainly in the C. Sago spleen;upper lobes. The microscopic appearance of a lung biopsy D. Small white amyloid spleen;reveals granulomatous inflammation within the nodes, E. Lardaceous spleenmarked by the presence of giant cells with peripherallocalization of nucleas and caseous necrosis in the central 454. A 27yearold male is on a scuba diving trip to thepart of granuloma. What is the type of such granuloma? Caribbean. After descending to 50 m in the Blue Hole, heA. Granulomas with Virchow’s cells, returns to the boat. About an hour later, he develops severe,B. Granulomas with Langhan’s cells, painful myalgias and arthralgias. These symptoms abateC. Granulomas with Mikulicz’s cells, over the next day. His symptoms are most likely the resultD. Granulomas with foreign body cells, of :E. Interstitial inflammation A. Disseminated intravascular coagulation, B. Systemic vasodilatation,449. A 5yearold child reaches up to the stove and touches a C. Venous thrombosis,pot of boiling soup. Within several hours, there is marked D. Tissue nitrogen emboli,erythema of the skin of the fingers on the fight hand, and E. Fat globules in arteriolessmall blisters appear on the finger pads. Which of thefollowing terms best describes this process? 455. The left breast of a 39yearold female is slightlyA. Fibrinous inflammation, enlarged compared with the right. The skin overlying thisB. Purulent inflammation, breast is thickened, reddishorange, and pitted.C. Ulceration, Mammography reveals a 3cm underlying density. AD. Serous inflammation, fineneedle aspirate of this mass reveals carcinoma. How isE. Granulomatous inflammation the gross appearance of the left breast best explained? A. Venous thrombosis,450. Which of the following diseases can represents a B. Lymphatic obstruction,constellation of syndromes having in common variable C. Ischemia,defects in both humoral and cellmediated immune D. Chronic passive congestion,responses as: marked lymphopenia with a deficiency of E. Chronic inflammationboth T and B cells, normal numbers of B cells, which arenonfunctional owing to lack of Thelpers, normal numbers 456. A 70yearold male is ambulating for the first time in 3of circulating lymphocytes that bear the cell surface weeks after hospitalization for a cerebral infarction. Withinmarkers of very immature intra thymic T cells, thymus is minutes of returning to his hospital room, he has a suddenhypoplastic and fetal in type, or it may be absent, lymph onset of dyspnea. He cannot be resuscitated. At autopsy, thenodes are reduced in size? gross appearance of the left lung is big and red. Which ofA. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; the following risk factors contributed the most to thisB. DiGeorges Syndrome; finding?C. Brutons Disease; A. Venous stasis,D. Common Variable Immunodeficiency; B. Pulmonary arterial atherosclerosis,
C. Chronic inflammation, E – Tay – Sachs diseaseD. Bronchopneumonia,E. Ischemia 464. Choose the one, which is not included into group of chromosomes’ abnormalities :457. A 76yearold female fell and fractured her left femoral A – Klinefelter’s syndrome,trochanter. After 2 weeks in the hospital, her left leg is B – Downsyndrome,swollen, particularly her lower leg below the knee. She C – Patau syndrome,experiences pain on movement of this leg, and there is D – DoubinJhonson syndrome,tenderness to palpation. A venogram reveals thrombosis of E – Turner syndromedeep left leg veins. Which of the following complications ismost likely to occur after these events? 465. Hereditary albinism develops due to:A. Gangrenous necrosis of the foot, A – deficiency of glucose6phosphatase,B. Hematoma of the thigh, B – tyrosinase deficiency,C. Disseminated intravascular coagulation, C – excess of glycogen in tissues,D. Pulmonary thromboembolism, D – phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency,E. Fat embolism E – uric acid excess in blood458. 55yearold female has had discomfort with swelling of 466. Disturbance of nucleoproteins’ metabolism withher left leg for the past week. The leg is slightly difficult to abundant production of uric acid and its salts leads tomove, but there is no pain on palpation. A venogram development of:reveals thrombosis of deep left leg veins. Which of the A – albinism,following complications is most likely to occur in this B – melanoderma,patient? C – gout,A. Gangrenous necrosis of the foot, D – Gilbert disease,B. Hematoma of the thigh, E – phenylketonuriaC. Disseminated intravascular coagulation,D. Pulmonary thromboembolism, 467. Porphyria is characterized by:E. Fat embolism A – disturbance of porphyrin metabolism, B – increased amount of porphyrin in blood,459. The author of «Cellular Pathology» is: C – porphyrinuria,A – K. Rokitansky, D – hypersensivity to ultraviolet radiation,B – R.Virchow, E – everything is rightC – A. Beily,D – J. Morgagni, 468. Choose the one which may lead to developedE – T.Schwann (secondary) porphyria : A – pellagra,460. Choose the one which is not molecularmorphological B – cardiovascular insufficiency,display of cell organelles damage, caused by hypoxia: C – disturbance of nucleoproteins’ metabolism,A – nucleus swelling and nucleolus disorganisation, D – disturbance of lipopigments’ metabolism,B – destruction and fragmentation of mitochondria’s E – generalized hemosiderosiscrystae,C – increasing of primary lisosomes’ amount, 469. Young man 25years old has a permanent jaundice ofD – decreasing of primary lisosomes’ quantity, skin, sclera and mucosa, periodical dyspeptic syndromeE – desagregation of ribosomes and polysomes and hepatomegaly, increased levels of conjugated and nonconjugated bilirubin in blood, while another markers of461. What reasons may lead to pathological changes and liver function stay in norm. What hereditary disease may beviolation of cell organelles? supposed?A – hypoxia, A – Pompe’s disease,B – intoxications, B – Wilson’s disease,C – viral infections, C – DoubinJhonson disease,D – tumor process, D – hereditary albinism,E – everything is right E – gout462. Choose the one which is not a storage disease: 470. WilsonConovalov disease develops due to disturbanceA – Pompe’s disease, of:B – Tay – Sachs disease, A – porphyrin metabolism,C – Downsyndrome, B – copper metabolism,D – Gaucher’s disease, C – iron metabolism,E – NiemannPick disease D – melanin metabolism, C – bilirubin metabolism463. It was found that 8thmonths baby had an enormoushepatomegaly, hypoglycaemia, glycogen accumulations in 471. Choose the feature of WilsonConovalov disease:tissues and organs. What storage disease may be supposed? A – glycogen accumulation in tissues and organs.A – Gaucher’s disease, B – KayserFleischer rings,B – Gierke’s disease, C – leukoderma,C – phenylketonuria, D – uric acid excess in blood and tissues,D – mucopolysacchaidoses, E – porphyrinemia
B – Hemochromatosis,472. Choose incorrect statement according to C – Hematin,WilsonConovalov disease: D – Billirubin,A – it is a hereditary disease, E MelaninB – it is characterized by copper accumulations in organsand tissues, 479. A 25yearold male with panctopenia has had increasingC – there are hepatic and lenticular forms, pain in bones and pathologic fractures. There was observedD – there are cerebral and renal forms, storage of glycocerebrosides in spleen cells, liver, boneE – outcome is unfavorable marrow and lymph nodules. Which of the following disease is most likely to observe?473. Choose the one which is not included into group of A – Gaucher’s disease type I,pigmental hepatoses: B Gaucher’s disease type II,A – DoubinJhonson syndrome, C Gaucher’s disease type III,B – CriglerNajjar syndrome, D NiemannPick disease,C – Tay – Sachs disease, E Gilbert diseaseD – Gilbert syndrome,E – Rotor syndrome 480. A 37yearold male had painful muscle crump, especially after exercise. For the past week, he has had474. Choose incorrect statement according to primary myoglobinuria. Which of the following disease is mosthemochromatosis : likely to observe?A – it is found bronze color of skin, A – Gaucher’s disease type I,B – it is accompanied by generalized hypomelanosis, B – Mc Ardle’s disease type IV,C –bronze diabetes develops, C Gaucher’s disease type III,D – pigment cirrhosis of liver develops, D NiemannPick disease,E – pigment cardiomyopathia and cardiovascular E DoubinJhonson diseaseinsufficiency may develop 481. At 43yearold male with a history of chronic hepatitis475. A fight carotid endarterectomy is performed on a was observed greenbrown ring on the margin of the cornea.69yearold female. Examination of the curetted During laboratory investigation it was observed increasedatheromatous plaque reveals a grossly yellowtan, firm levels of serum copper, urine and hepatic copper, atappearance. Microscopically, which of the following decreased levels of serum ceruloplasmin. What disease domaterials can be found in abundance in the form of crystals you think about?producing long, cleftlike spaces? A – Pompe’s disease,A – Glycogen, B – Wilson’s disease,B – Lipofuscin, C – DoubinJhonson disease,C – Hemosiderin, D – hereditary albinism,D – Immunoglobulin, E – GoutE Cholesterol 482. During the induction of immediate hypersensitivity476. A 40yearold female with chronic congestive heart response, which of the following cells secretes cytokinesfailure has a cough productive of rustcolored sputum. A that stimulate IgE production by B cells, promotes mast cellsputum cytology specimen shows numerous growth, and recruits and activates eosinophils?hemosiderinladen macrophages. Which of the following A. CD4+ lymphocytes,subcellular structures in macrophages is most important for B. Natural killer (NK) cells,the accumulation of this pigment? C. Macrophages,A – Lysosome, D. Dendritic cells,B Endoplasmic reticulum, E. NeutrophilsC – Ribosome,D Golgi apparatus, 483. A 45year old female with Graves’s disease during lastE Chromosome two years has had increased level of thyroid hormones and AB against the thyroidstimulating hormone receptor. Which477. A 55yearold female has dementia worsening over the of the following types of hypersensitivity occurred inpast year. She also has avitaminosis and red, scaling skin in patient?sunexposed areas. A watery diarrhea has been present for A. The type I,the past month. B. The type II,A – Beriberi, C. The type III,B – Cheilosis, D. The type IV,C Diabetes mellitus, E. The type VD – Pellagra,E Anemia 484. A young male walks into an elevator full of people who are coughing and sneezing, all of whom appear to have478. A 50yearold male with a history of chronic alcoholism colds or the flu. The influenza viral particles that he inhaleshas had increasing congestive heart failure for the past year. attach to respiratory epithelium, and viral transformationFor the past month, he has experienced liver insufficiency reduces the class I major histocompatibility complexand diabetes mellitus. The level of ferritin in blood is molecules on these epithelial cells. Which of the followingincreased. These findings point to a pigment pathology as: cells then responds to destroy the infected cells?A – Hemosiderosis, A. Macrophage,
B, Neutrophil, lymphoid follicles with large reproduction centers,C. CD4 cell, increased number of mitoses. Which of the followingD. NK cell, processes is characterized by such morphologic changes?E. Dendritic cell A. Atrophy of lymphoid tissue, B. Lymphosarcoma,485. A laboratory worker who was known to be "allergic" C. Antigenic stimulation with follicular hyperplasia,to fungal spores was accidentally exposed to culture of the D. Hodgkin’s disease,incriminating fungus on a Friday afternoon. Within 60 E. Metastases of cancerminutes, he developed bouts of sneezing, watering of eyes,and nasal discharge. The next morning, while he was still at 491. At Myasthenia gravis AB react with acetylcholinehome, his symptoms reappeared, although the laboratory receptors in the motor endplates of skeletal muscles impairfungus was not present in his environment. His symptoms neuromuscular transmission and therefore cause musclepersisted through the weekend, and he went to see a doctor weakness that can be seen at patient. What is the type ofon Monday morning. If the physician examines a nasal immune mechanism of the disease development?discharge under the microscope, which of the following A. Complement and Fc receptormediated inflammation,cells are likely to be seen? B. Antibodymediated cellular dysfunction,A. Mast cells and neutrophils, C. Opsonization and phagocytosis,B. Lymphocytes and macrophages, D. Tcell mediated cytolysis,C. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and CD4+ lymphocytes, E. Deposition of antigenantibody complexes andD. Neutrophils and CDf+ lymphocytes, complement activationE. Mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages 492. At biopsy of stomach in patient with autoimmune486. In response to infection with Mycobacterium gastritis it was found out: infiltration by lymphocytes andtuberculosis, a granuloma forms in the lung. Within the macrophages in mucous layer. Which type of thegranuloma are cells expressing class II MHC antigens. hypersensitivity reactions is connected with theseThese cells elaborate cytokines that promote fibroblastic morphologic changes? A. The type I, B. The type II, C. Theproduction of collagen within the granuloma. From which type III, D. The type IV, E. The type Vof the following peripheral blood leukocytes are these classII antigenbearing cells derived? 493. A 9yearold boy has a sore throat. A throat cultureA. Neutrophil, grows group A hemolytic streptococcus. 17 days laterB. Monocyte, develops darkcolored urine. A renal biopsy was performed.C. B cell, On immunefluoresence staining the biopsy shows granularD. NK cell, deposition of IgG and complement around glomerularE. Basophil capillary loops. Which of the following immune hypersensitivity mechanisms is most likely responsible for487. A 15yearold female has the sudden onset of difficulty this pattern of findings?breathing within minutes after a bee sting. She also A. The type I,manifests marked urticaria, and there is marked edema of B. The type II,the hand that was stung. What type of hypersensitivity C. The type III,occurred in patient? D. The type IV,A. The type I, E. The type VB. The type II,C. The type III, 494. A 48yearold man has had a chronic cough with feverD. The type IV, for 2 months. On physical examination his temperature isE. The type V 37.9 C. A chest radiograph reveals a diffuse bilateral reticulonodular pattern. A transbronchial biopsy is488. The 35yearold female was admitted into the hospital performed. On microscopic examination of the biopsy therewith nephrolithiasis. Anaphylactic shock was appeared after are focal areas of inflammation containing epithelioidintravenous injection of contrast medium. Which cells take macrophages, Langhans giant cells, and lymphocytes.part in development of this reaction? These findings are most typical for which of the followingA. Fibroblasts, immunologic responses?B. Epitheliocytes, A. The type I,C. Myocytes, B. The type II,D. Tissue’s basophils, C. The type III,E. Neutrophils D. The type IV, E. The type V489. The 29yearold male was admitted into the hospitalwith appendicitis. Anaphylactic shock was appeared after 495. Twelve hours after going on a hike through denseintravenous injection of anesthetic. What type of foliage, a 40yearold man notices a slightly raised and tenderhypersensitivity occurred in patient? irregular reddish rash on one forearm that was not coveredA. The type I, by clothing. This rash gradually increases in intensity for 2B. The type II, days and then fades after two weeks. Which of theC. The type III, following forms of hypersensitivity is most likelyD. The type IV, demonstrated in this patient?E. The type V A. The type I, B. The type II,490. At biopsy of lymph node it was found out a lot of C. The type III,
D. The type IV, E – Rotor syndromeE. The type V 502. A patient with severe fracture of both femoral bones496. Approximately 10 days after AG administration, at has died in a 4 hours after trauma. What is the cause of25year patient clinical symptoms as urticaria, arthralgias, patient’s death and what kind of additional staining oflymph node enlargement and proteinuria were revealed. microscopic sections is it necessary to perform in order toWhich of the following forms of hypersensitivity is most prove the diagnose?likely demonstrated in this patient? A The lungs and brain by Sudan III,A. The type I, B The lungs and kidney by Congored,B. The type II, C The lungs and liver by Perl’s reaction,C. The type III, D The brain and kidney by Congored,D. The type IV, E The kidney and heart by toluidinblueE. The type V 503. During examination of 9yearold patient with cystine497. In 60yearold patient, during examination the cancer of nephropathy it was observed rickets, growth retardation,a prostate gland with metastases in the lower parts of the patchy retinal depigmentation, sparkling crystals in corneacolumn, pelvic bones and pathological fracture of a femur and abundant crystals in conjunctiva. Which of thewas found out. What pathological process is a basis of the following storage disease is observed?development of metastases? A – Phenylketonuria,A Tissue embolism, B – Cystinosis,B Bacterial embolism, C Pompe’s disease,C Airembolism, D NiemannPick disease,D Embolism by foreign matters, E NormanLanding diseaseE Necrosis of tissue 504. In 60yearold patient, during examination the cancer of498. The left breast of a 39yearold female is slightly a prostate gland with metastases in the lower parts of theenlarged compared with the right. The skin overlying this column, pelvic bones and pathological fracture of a femurbreast is thickened, reddishorange, and pitted. was found out. What pathological process is a basis of theMammography reveals a 3cm underlying density. A development of metastases?fineneedle aspirate of this mass reveals carcinoma. How is A. Tissue embolism,the gross appearance of the left breast best explained? B. Bacterial embolism,A Venous thrombosis, C. Airembolism,B Lymphatic obstrnction, D. Embolism by foreign matters,C – lschemia, E. Necrosis of tissueD Chronic passive congestion,E Chronic inflammation 505. A patient with severe fracture of both femoral bones has died in a 4 hours after trauma. What is the cause of499. During autopsy of 46yearold patient, died because patient’s death and what kind of additional staining ofbrain hemorrhage, it was found out liver cirrhosis, microscopic sections is it necessary to perform in order todegenerative symmetrical changers in the area of lens prove the diagnose?nuclei, caudal body, pale globe and cortex of brain. Such A. The lungs and brain by Sudan III,kind of injury is known as: B. The lungs and kidney by Congored,A – Pompe’s disease, C. The lungs and liver by Perl’s reaction,B – Wilson’s disease, D. The brain and kidney by Congored,C – DoubinJhonson disease, E. The kidney and heart by toluidinblueD – hereditary albinism,E – Gout 506. At microscopic research of the blood clot removed from the vein, it was revealed, that blood clot is substituted500. In 67yearold female, with increased levels of urine and by connective tissue with zones of cracks and formation ofuric acid in blood, deformation of small joints of feet and ducts covered by endothelial cells. Identify type ofhands were observed. During biopsy investigations of joints thrombosis outcome:it was observed accumulation of salts in zones of tissue A. Organization and recanalization of thrombus,necrosis with agranulomatous and giant cells reaction, B. Aseptic autolysis,proliferation of connective tissue with formation of nodules. C. Transformation into thromboemboli,Which of the following disease is more possible? D. Septic autolysis,A – Pompe’s disease, E. Calcification of blood clotB – Wilson’s disease,C – DoubinJhonson disease, 507. A 54yearold patient died at septic shock withD – hereditary albinism, expressed DICsyndrome. What are the most specificE – Gout morphological changers characterized DIC syndrome can be found out by pathologist at autopsy:501. Deposition of cystine can cause proximal renal tubular A. Plural ischemic microinfarctions in brain, lungs,acidosis. Such station is most likely to occur at: kidneys due to fibrin thrombi in small arteries,A – DoubinJhonson syndrome, B. Blood clots in large vessels,B – CriglerNajjar syndrome, C. Dilatation blood clot in the cavity of right auricle,C – Fanconi syndrome, D. Hemosiderosis of lungs,D – Gilbert syndrome, E. Generalized lymphadenopathy
508. A 35yearold woman died because of obstetric 514. 46yearold woman has suffered rheumatic fever withcomplications accompanied by polyorgan insufficiency. combined mitral heart disease. She died because ofDuring autopsy it was revealed numerous blood clods in pneumocardial insufficiency. On dissection there was foundsmall arteries of brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, and hearth of out brown induration of lungs. Name the type of violationhemorrhage in mucous and serous membranes of organs. of blood circulation.What process is exposed in this case? A. Chronic left ventricle insufficiency.A. Disseminated intravascular coagulation, B. Chronic right ventricle insufficiency.B. Systemic vasodilatation, C. Acute left ventricle insufficiency.C. Venous thrombosis, D. Acute right ventricle insufficiencyD. Disseminated stasis, E. Portal гипертензия.E. Disseminated acute ischemia 515. During endoscopical investigation of stomach at509. Diver died 2 hours after quick decompression. At 32yearold patient it was found out chronic ulcer with clearautopsy it was revealed crepitating of skin, anemia of edges and brownblack bottom, the signs of the gastricinternal organs, foamy blood in the cavities of heart and bleeding were present. Identify the mechanism oflarge vessels. Microscopically numerous emboli were found development of gastric bleeding.in the capillaries of brain, liver and kidneys, and also A. Diapedesisnumerous foci of ischemia and necrosis in organs; lungs B. Spasmwere swollen, with hemorrhage. Identify, what embolism C. Corrosion of the vessel wallwas exposed in this case? D. Rupture of the vessel wallA. Gas, E. Increased permeabilityB. Tissue,C. Air, 516. At 45yearold patient, who suffered rheumatic feverD. Fatty, with combined mitral heart disease and dying of heartE. By foreign bodies decompensation, at autopsy many pointlike hemorrhages were found out in brain tissue. Identify the mechanism of510. A 27yearold man hurt veins of the neck; he died development of hemorrhages?suddenly because of acute respiratory insufficiency. At A. Increased permeability.autopsy it was found out foamy blood in the cavities of B. Spasm.right parts of the heart and large vessels foamy. C. Rupture of the vessel wall.Microscopically numerous emboli were found out in the D. Swollening of the vessel wall.pulmonary arteries and capillaries. Identify, what embolism E. Corrosion of the vessel wall.was exposed in this case?A. Air. 517. Intracellular accumulation of proteins in liver cellsB. Tissue. named:C. Gas. A Mellory bodies;D. Thromboembolism. B Russell bodies;E. Fatty C Keratin bodies; D Cellular swelling;511. At autopsy during investigation of lungs it was found E “Goose” liverout numerous hemorrhagic infarcts and dense brown colormasses in vessels. Veins of lower extremities are varicose 518. A collapse and hyperemia of peritoneum developed atextended with darkbrown color masses inside. What a patient after deleting of 12 liters of ascytic liquid frompathological process is described? abdominal cavity. What is the type of arterial hyperemia ofA. Thromboembolism of pulmonary arteries. peritoneum?B. Fatty embolism of pulmonary artery. A. Vacant hyperemia,C. Tissue embolism of pulmonary artery. B. Inflammatory hyperemia,D. Brown induration of lungs. C. Hyperemia after anemiaE. Hemorragic infiltration D. Collateral hyperemia E. Angioneurotic hyperemia512. During histological investigation of soft tissue it wasfound out closed by mass of blood clot vessel. Identify type 519. While shaving one morning, a 23yearold male nicksof blood clot according to the vessel wall’s relation: his upper lip with the razor. Within a second after thisA. Nearwall, injury, blood loss from a small dermal arteriole is reducedB. Obstructive, through:C. Dilatational, A Activated protein C.D. Axial, B Vasoconstriction.E. Spherical C Platelet aggregation. D Neutrophil chemotaxis.513. Main factors that participate in thrombus formation E Fibrin polymerizationare:A. All include, 520. Shock can be characterized as:B. Endothelial integrity, A. Clinical state of cardiovascular collapse that developsC. Abnormal blood flow, under the influence of extrapowerful stimuliD. Hupercoagulability, B. Acute disorders of blood circulation during acuteE. Everything is wrong arrhythmia and myocardial insufficiency.
C. Chronic disorders of blood circulation during acute D. Bilirubinarrhythmia and myocardial insufficiency. Е. Haematin hydrochloridD. Morphological changers at cardiovascular collapse thatdevelops under the influence of extrapowerful stimuli. 527. At histologic examination of tuberculoma resectedE. Local acute disorders of blood circulation at trauma. from right lung a necrosis in center is found out. Call a kind of the necrosis.521. Necrosis of organ it is: A. FattyA. It is programmed cell’s death in the living organism with B. Liquefactivefragmentation of cell into apoptotic bodies at the end the C. Caseousprocess D. CoagulativeB. It is the premature death and destruction of cell’s E. Gangreneorganelles in the living organismC. It is cell’s death in the living organism under action of 528. Acute pain at the foot appeared in elderly patient withcritical damage factors the atherosclerosis of lower extremities. Left extremityD. It is postmortem destruction of cells under action of the became soft and was increased in volume, skin becamebacteria’s enzymes blackbrown color with maceration. The demarcation area isE. It is destruction of all components of organ under absent. Your diagnosis:action of critical alteration A Moist gangrene B Mummification of foot522. A 3cm, right middle lobe lung nodule was seen on a C Coagulate necrosis of foot.chest radiograph of an asymptomatic 37yearold male. The D Dry gangrenenodule was excised with a pulmonary wedge resection by E Sequester of the footthe thoracic surgeon. On sectioning by the pathologist, thenodule was sharply circumscribed and had a soft, white 529. Intracellular fatty vacuoles at “goose” liver are coloredcenter. Culture of tissue from the nodule grew in orangered color by staining:Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A – hematoxylin at eosin staining;A. Fat necrosis B. Caseous necrosis C. Liquefactive B – Sudan III,necrosis D. Gangrenous necrosis E. Coagulative necrosis C – VanGison; D – PAS reaction;523. During an operation in spleen it was seen wedgeshaped E – Prussian bluewhiteyellowish color foci of necrosis with a base on theorgan capsule. The cause of this process is thrombosis of 530. During surgical operation in patient with stomacharteries. Identify the pathological process in organ: profuse haemorrhage it was found a tumor growth. WhatA. Ischemic infarction method of urgent study allows to diagnose the character ofB. Hemorrhagic infarction pathological process?C. White infarction with hemorrhagic halo A – endoscopic biopsyD. Gangrine B – express biopsy (intraoperative)E. Bedsores C – puncture biopsy D – aspiration biopsy524. At patient with syphilis an areas of skin E – excision biopsydepigmentation appeared on the upper parts of the back.What pathological process is observed on the skin? 531. What pathomorphological method doesn’t allowА. Parakeratosis investigation of morphological changes atВ. Metaplasia molecularsubcellular level?С. Leukoplakia A – light microscopy;D. Dysplasia B – electronic microscopy;Е. Leukoderma C – immunohistochemical analysis D – autoradiography525. Surgical operation was performed at patient with brain E – cytochemical analysistumor. At histological investigation it was revealedroundform tumor that is consists of cells with intracellular 532. Pathoanatomical diagnosis includes:accumulation of brown pigment, Prussian blue reaction is A – main disease;negative? What kind of pigment accumulates in tumor B – concomitant diseases;cells? C – complications of disease;А. Hematoidin D – everything is rightВ. Melanin E – everything is wrongC. HemosiderinD. Porfirin 533.Pathoanatomical diagnosis begins from:Е. Haematin A main disease that has leaded to death; B – immediate cause that has leaded to death;526. During endoscopical investigation of stomach at C – concomitant diseases32yearold patient it was found out acute ulcer with clear D – clinical diagnosisedges and brownblack bottom. What pigment is formed in E – complication of disease that has leaded to deaththe bottom of ulcer?А. FerritinВ. MelaninC. Porfirin