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Water crisis in many urban areas in India is result of mismangement and misuse said CSE's RK Sriniasan an expert on Urban water in a seminar organised by Chandigarh Chapter of Indian Media Centre on ...

Water crisis in many urban areas in India is result of mismangement and misuse said CSE's RK Sriniasan an expert on Urban water in a seminar organised by Chandigarh Chapter of Indian Media Centre on June 14, 2009

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Water Community Media Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Urban water management: A primer on the crisis R K Srinivasan Centre for Science & Environment, New Delhi
  • 2. Dainik Bhaskar launches 'Jal Hai to Kal Hai' initiative in Bhopal
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Demand-supply gap (cases, etc.)
    • Urban bias: Water supply from rural areas
    • Water-waste connection (cost; reuse, etc.)
    • Managing groundwater (govt. & community initiatives)
    • From sewerage to sanitation: Understanding the paradigm shift for India
  • 5.  
  • 6. Problem in management not availability
    • City receives 87 mgd (397 mld)
    • City requires 115 mgd (525 mld)
    • CPHEEO norm for metro city 172.5 lpcd
    • (150 + 15 % leakage loss)
    • 2006 population - 1.09 million
    • 2011 population - 1.33 million
    • 2006 demand - 188 mld (1.09 x 172.5)
    • 2011 demand - 229 mld ( 1.33 x 172.5)
    • 2006 per capita supply - 364 lpcd
    • 2011 per capita supply - 298 lpcd
  • 7. In the case of Delhi
  • 8. Demand, Supply, and increasing investment Source: City Development plan of Chandigarh
  • 9. Actual demand and shortage Source: City Development plan of Chandigarh
  • 10. How is water supply need calculated ? Source: Ministry of Urban Development, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, Third Edition -Revised and Updated (May 1999), New Delhi. Sno Classification of towns/cities Recommended maximum water supply levels (lpcd) 1 Towns provided with piped water supply but without sewerage system 70 2 Cities provided with piped water supply where sewerage system is exists 135 3 Metropolitan and Mega cities provided with piped water supply where sewerage systems existing 150
  • 11. 140 Pune 175 Nagpur 200 Ludhinana 250 Lucknow 240 Greater Mumbai 225 Delhi 150 Coimbatore 110 Chennai 227 Kolkata 150 Bhopal 140 Bangalore 170 Ahmedabad Own Norms of cities (lpcd) City
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Exploding water demand> percapita consumption less Source: Household survey of consumption in select cities as of March 2005, TISS LPCD Remember, the national average per capita consumption (supply) is 135 LPCD!
  • 15. Alarming > Chennai only 56.7 LPCD Rich extract more groundwater
  • 16.
    • Case > Delhi
    • Availability 211 lpcd
    • 2011 Master plan targets 363 lpcd
    All Indian cities want more. But why increase supply? Why not manage our water better?
  • 17.  
  • 18. Relentless search for water
  • 19. Vaitarna cum Tansa 90 km 105 km Mumbai Bhatsa
  • 20. Manjira dam Hyderabad Nagurjuna 105 km 100 km
  • 21. Ajai 3 Ajai 2 Ajai 1 Nyari dam 1 Nyari dam 2 Bhadar dam – 75 km
  • 22. Bisalpur dam 120 km – 1088 cr
  • 23. Kajauli water works (BML)- 28 km Phase 5 and 6 will bring additional 123 mld) Ganguwal - 70 km -402 crore - 2026
  • 24. 6.70 20 and 55 km Neersagar and Malaprabha reservoir Hubli-Dharwad 5.30 116 km Nagarjuna sagar and Majira dam Hyderabad 8.40 100 to 120 km Bhatsa, Vihar, Tulsi, Tansa, Upper Vaitarna Mumbai 18.13 6 to 7 km down Springwater Bhilaru, Jinsi, Khandighat, Murray rose and Dhobighat Mussorrie 8.70 240 km Rajiv Gandhi Lift Canal Jodhpur 11.00 70 km Narmada river Indore 9.90 Across the city Yamuna river, Bhakra storage and groundwater Delhi 14.00 60 to 245 km Lakes, Groundwater and Veeranam lake. Chennai 12.00 95 km from the city Cauvery Bangalore Rs 53.93 1000 metres down the valley, 18 km away Tlwang river Aizwal Per kl cost to supply Distance Source City
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. Expense vs Revenue in Chandigarh Source: City Development plan of Chandigarh
  • 28.   0 0   61 -536 1500 236 60 30 -154 300 118 30 15 36 38 59 15 1 Chandigarh (3.93)   0 0   201 -89 2000 1060 200 30 -13 180 159 30 1 Hyderabad (5.3)   0 0   101 -116 2600 1204 100 75 -58 1425 903 75 50 42 350 602 50 25 71 88 301 25 1 Bangalore (12.04)         31 -8 75 70 30 15 46 19 35 15 1 Faridabad (2.32)         41 68 80 247 40 15 68 30 93 15 1 Jaipur (6.18)         31 30 210 298 30 20 80 40 199 20 6   120 60 6 1 Delhi (9.93) Higher slab Lower slab % of subsidy Bill amount in Rs Production cost based on consumption Monthly water consumption (per kl) Cities
  • 29. Compounded by inefficiencies
    • Huge distribution losses in water supply: 20 – 50%
    • Increased pollution in source water adds to cost of treatment
    • Cannot invest in efficiencies and clean water for all
    • Cost recovery is difficult because of the huge distribution losses and inequities in supply
  • 30. Only half the story > Groundwater the victim
    • Most cities highly dependent on groundwater
    • No estimate : Groundwater accounts for 50-90% of water needs
    • Public utilities and private companies plunder groundwater
    • Not accounted for. But show up in water-waste map
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. Delhi’s alarming dip in water table Dipping watertable
  • 34. In the northern parts -sector 10 - fall of more than 16 meters fall in the last 15 years. In sector 31, the fall is almost 10 meters whereas in the remaining part of the city it ranged between 5 and 8 meters.
  • 35. In Kolkata, groundwater flow reversed
  • 36. Mumbai’s > Salinity ingress & contamination Study by SCOLEEN (NGO) > Mumbai’s piped water is contaminated by Coliforms Colaba, Dharvi, Khar, Anderi, Chembur, Malad
  • 37. In Chennai, sea water intrusion
  • 38. CSE’s research on bottled water in Delhi and Mumbai shows dramatic correlation between source (mostly groundwater) and bottled water contaminants With dipping water tables, quality getting worse
  • 39. Wetlands to store & recharge rainwater…
  • 40. 1925 1994 Wet land Built up Green cover Mumbai > 0.3 ac per 1000 persons (should be 4 ac)
  • 41. Sukhna lake reduced from 230 ha to 154 ha Water level reduced from 5 m in 1958 to 2 m in 2004.
  • 42. Traditional water management in Jodhpur
  • 43. Indira Gandhi canal 204 km Rajivgandhi lift canal
  • 44. Jodhpur > unleash the potential of canals
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48. Sewage generation vs treatment
  • 49. Three immediate options to save our cities
    • Urban rainwater harvesting
    • Use different ‘types’ of water for various purposes (Conjunctive use, e.g. Dual pipe system in Dwarka, New Delhi)
    • Recycle wastewater
  • 50.  
  • 51. Rainwater harvesting potential
    • Total area : 114 sq km
    • Average annual rainfall : 1114 mm
    • Total rainwater available : 348 mld
    • Forest cover as per FSI report : 35 per cent
    • Even if we assume that rooftop rainwater is harvested from the rest of 65 per cent of the built up area, which is about 74 sq km then the volume of rainwater that can be harvested works out to be around 226 mld.
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54. Anaerobic baffled reactor >Secondary treatment > Planted filter Planted filter
  • 55. A paradigm that must change, urgently