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  • 1. Developing Managers An Integrated Approach
  • 2. As Indian IT industry grows…
    • A growing shortage of management talent..
    • Will soon become the single greatest constraint to growth of the industry
    • IT industry issues are sometimes quite unique, not easily understood by managers from other industries.
  • 3. What is a manager?
    • Therefore, what does it take to develop one?
    • What is the raw material? The finished product?
    • Therefore..
    • What is the development process?
    • Anyway..
    • Isn’t MBA education good enough?
  • 4. Isn’t MBA education good enough?
    • The short answer is – NO!
    • MBAs from second-tier schools aren’t good enough at anything to earn the respect of experienced technical people
    • IT industry issues are seldom covered in an MBA program
    • MBAs from top tier schools (IIMA, e.g.) are lacking in experience, short on values, high on ambition – though they are also capable of big thinking (which is important)
  • 5. Overall..
    • None of them are worth having, especially given the difficulty in retaining them, managing the dissonance they create
    • IIMA type worth hiring after they have been in field 3-5 years, tasted real life organizations
      • Hire 10 every year as laterals to drive growth of key businesses, practices
    • Focus instead on developing technical people as managers.
  • 6. What is the alternative to MBAs?
  • 7. The Proposition
    • An alternative to MBAs, better and more directly useful
    • A development process for your own people
    • Who have shown the potential to be managers
    • Your very own management school but without the academic trappings
  • 8. To start..
    • We must answer the original question:
    • What makes a manager? How is a manager different from other human beings?
  • 9. What management is about..
    • First and foremost, it is about perspective
      • The ability to look at issues, challenges, from many different points of view
      • Not just a technical view, or a financial view, or a human interest view
      • But all of them, simultaneously
    • The view from the ground as well as the view from 30,000 feet, all at the same time
  • 10. All Views.. At the same time! AND
  • 11. A Manager..
    • Has a bias for action: wants to use every bit of information and insight in doing something with it
    • Has no bias against the source of any information or insight – if it works, it is good enough for him/her.
    • Is always willing to experiment and learn and grow
    • Ultimately cares about results….. as well as about process…and people
  • 12. How does one create such a fabulous creature?
    • Start with people who have shown the will to perform (bias for action)
    • Who are regarded by their peers as leaders
    • Who are willing to invest in themselves (make them share the cost of the development program)
    • ability to earn respect of peers, desire to perform, willingness to learn – these cannot be taught… they should be available as raw material.
  • 13. Put them through a development program
    • Which is fun and exciting
    • Flexible enough not to disrupt their normal work (no rising star can afford to take 2 years off to go to school)
    • Not just classroom based
    • Where they can see themselves grow
  • 14. Principles…
    • People learn whatever they choose to.. Instructor cannot force it
    • Quiet reflection is a necessary condition for learning
    • Life experiences have the most impact on the consciousness
    • People learn best when their mind is made open, by a new situation/context
    • Real-world cases are the best way to develop perspective
    • Focus on developing strengths…
  • 15. The most effective irrigation is.. Drip irrigation! Add some fertilizer appropriately….
  • 16. The Managerial Mind Perspective.. Analysis & Foresight Action on the Ground Values Functional knowledge process strategy
  • 17. Perspective
    • 30,000 feet view
    • Rooted in understanding of self
    • Context: society, nation, culture, industry
  • 18. Analysis and Foresight - the 100 foot view
    • Structure and nature of organizations
    • Tools for analysis and diagnosis , tools for integration (business models, business processes..)
  • 19. Action On the Ground
    • Extreme execution
    • Change
    • Relationships
    • Team Dynamics
    • Skills: communication, negotiation..
  • 20. Structure of the Program
    • Module 1- Perspective Building
    • Module 2 - Analysis and Foresight
    • Module 3 - Management in Action
  • 21. Methodologies.. Module 1
    • Part A: Understanding Self..
    • 360 degree feedback
    • MBTI analysis
    • Quiet Reflection
    • Read prescribed books, including classics: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Don Quixote..
    • Spend weekend at an Aashram
  • 22. Module 1 cont’d
    • Part B: Understanding Context
    • Visits to rural areas, other states, foreign cities
    • Theatre workshop: role playing others..
    • Dialogues with people from different countries, backgrounds
    • Classroom sessions: Theories of History, Megatrends, Macroeconomics
    • Keep daily learning diary, share selectively with other participants
  • 23. Methodologies.. Module 2
    • Tools for analysis
    • Classroom sessions- all case discussion
      • Industry analysis
      • Market analysis
      • Financial analysis
      • Analyzing Operations
      • High reliance on self-study
      • Selected functional programs at IIM, ISB
  • 24. Module 2 cont’d
    • Tools for Synthesis
      • Understanding how organizations work
      • Classroom sessions: organization case studies
      • Classroom sessions: Business Process reengineering, six sigma, balanced score card
      • Constructing Scenarios
      • Designing Business Models
      • Visits to, study of, other organizations: factories, hospitals, NGOs, museums
      • Spend time with an architect
      • Project: construct business plan
  • 25. Module 3 Action Stations!
    • Visits to organizations going through change
    • Building resilience: reflection through case study of self
    • Classroom sessions: use of metrics
    • Role play: Argyris’ dialogue process
    • Role plays: negotiation
    • Communication:
      • Internship with dancers, theatre workshop
    • Action project: bringing about a change in one’s organization
  • 26. Course Duration
    • Flexible but likely to be minimum 50 weeks
      • Can be spread out over 2 years calendar time
    • Each participant to invest average 6 hours a week including self-study time
    • Classroom sessions on weekends
    • Some modules will require full-time engagement for a few days (such as site visits etc.), not necessarily on weekends.
  • 27. Before and After
    • Before:
      • Observation of candidate in action
      • Self-rating, 360 degree feedback
    • After:
      • Participant to maintain diary for 1 year
      • Unscheduled discussions with facilitator
      • Jointly with supervisor, observe and coach on next major assignment
  • 28. Target Group for Development
    • High performers with minimum 5 years experience who
      • Have distinguished themselves in their work
      • Are identified as future leaders
      • Do not have MBAs
    • Up to but excluding COO, CEO
  • 29. Program..
    • To handle 20 participants per study group
  • 30. Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 0 weeks 4 30 50 Broad Time-Line
  • 31. Schedule for Module 1 Classroom sessions 2 hours a week Self-study (4-6 books) 36 hours over 6 weeks Offsite visits 6 full days Minimum time: 6 weeks Maximum: 9 weeks
  • 32. Schedule for Module 2 Classroom sessions 30 sessions @ 90 minutes Self-study 30 hours Offsite visits 4 full days Minimum time: 15 weeks Maximum: 25 weeks
  • 33. Schedule for Module 3 Classroom sessions 10 sessions @ 90 minutes Self-study 20 hours Offsite visits 6 full days Action Projects 40 hours over 8 weeks Minimum time: 20 weeks Maximum: 25 weeks
  • 34. Strategy for Scaling
    • Roll it out in Waves
    • Start with 2 batches of 20 people, preferably the senior-most in the organization
    • Module 1: after 4 weeks, form ‘teaching groups’ of 2 participants each: 20 groups.
      • 2 participants can support each other, build on each others’ understanding.
    • Each group rolls out Module 1 to class of 20 one level below them
      • Total 400 participants can be covered in second wave
  • 35. Further..
    • Module II to be videotaped in the first wave.
      • Videotapes to be used to run classes for the second wave
      • Teaching groups to ‘run’ the videotapes and add comments to fine tune the material for issues relevant to the second wave participants
      • After each session in Module II, Facilitator to guide the teaching group on how to run the session, including possible teaching methods, possible questions, references etc.
  • 36. Over time..
    • ‘teaching groups’ will bring their own insights into the teaching process and the second wave sessions may diverge from the first wave.
      • Which is perfectly fine! Knowledge and experience of participants must be leveraged!
      • Facilitator to check at random to ensure that deviations do not fundamentally damage the course.
  • 37. Module III
    • Primarily projects and change management. Class sessions relatively few.
    • Teaching groups can be supplemented again by facilitator and other top managers who are experienced at change strategies.
  • 38. Initially..
    • Two Waves to ensure process works
    • After Module II rolls out in Wave II, further waves can be added if we have confidence in Wave II participants and in the process.
    • Ideally, for credibility, managers should ‘teach’ people one level below them in the hierarchy, rather than their own peers.