Developing Managers


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a unique approach, for working managers, an alternative to an MBA

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Developing Managers

  1. 1. Developing Managers An Integrated Approach
  2. 2. As Indian IT industry grows… <ul><li>A growing shortage of management talent.. </li></ul><ul><li>Will soon become the single greatest constraint to growth of the industry </li></ul><ul><li>IT industry issues are sometimes quite unique, not easily understood by managers from other industries. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a manager? <ul><li>Therefore, what does it take to develop one? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the raw material? The finished product? </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore.. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the development process? </li></ul><ul><li>Anyway.. </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t MBA education good enough? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Isn’t MBA education good enough? <ul><li>The short answer is – NO! </li></ul><ul><li>MBAs from second-tier schools aren’t good enough at anything to earn the respect of experienced technical people </li></ul><ul><li>IT industry issues are seldom covered in an MBA program </li></ul><ul><li>MBAs from top tier schools (IIMA, e.g.) are lacking in experience, short on values, high on ambition – though they are also capable of big thinking (which is important) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overall.. <ul><li>None of them are worth having, especially given the difficulty in retaining them, managing the dissonance they create </li></ul><ul><li>IIMA type worth hiring after they have been in field 3-5 years, tasted real life organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire 10 every year as laterals to drive growth of key businesses, practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus instead on developing technical people as managers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is the alternative to MBAs?
  7. 7. The Proposition <ul><li>An alternative to MBAs, better and more directly useful </li></ul><ul><li>A development process for your own people </li></ul><ul><li>Who have shown the potential to be managers </li></ul><ul><li>Your very own management school but without the academic trappings </li></ul>
  8. 8. To start.. <ul><li>We must answer the original question: </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a manager? How is a manager different from other human beings? </li></ul>
  9. 9. What management is about.. <ul><li>First and foremost, it is about perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to look at issues, challenges, from many different points of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just a technical view, or a financial view, or a human interest view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But all of them, simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The view from the ground as well as the view from 30,000 feet, all at the same time </li></ul>
  10. 10. All Views.. At the same time! AND
  11. 11. A Manager.. <ul><li>Has a bias for action: wants to use every bit of information and insight in doing something with it </li></ul><ul><li>Has no bias against the source of any information or insight – if it works, it is good enough for him/her. </li></ul><ul><li>Is always willing to experiment and learn and grow </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately cares about results….. as well as about process…and people </li></ul>
  12. 12. How does one create such a fabulous creature? <ul><li>Start with people who have shown the will to perform (bias for action) </li></ul><ul><li>Who are regarded by their peers as leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Who are willing to invest in themselves (make them share the cost of the development program) </li></ul><ul><li>ability to earn respect of peers, desire to perform, willingness to learn – these cannot be taught… they should be available as raw material. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Put them through a development program <ul><li>Which is fun and exciting </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible enough not to disrupt their normal work (no rising star can afford to take 2 years off to go to school) </li></ul><ul><li>Not just classroom based </li></ul><ul><li>Where they can see themselves grow </li></ul>
  14. 14. Principles… <ul><li>People learn whatever they choose to.. Instructor cannot force it </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet reflection is a necessary condition for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Life experiences have the most impact on the consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>People learn best when their mind is made open, by a new situation/context </li></ul><ul><li>Real-world cases are the best way to develop perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on developing strengths… </li></ul>
  15. 15. The most effective irrigation is.. Drip irrigation! Add some fertilizer appropriately….
  16. 16. The Managerial Mind Perspective.. Analysis & Foresight Action on the Ground Values Functional knowledge process strategy
  17. 17. Perspective <ul><li>30,000 feet view </li></ul><ul><li>Rooted in understanding of self </li></ul><ul><li>Context: society, nation, culture, industry </li></ul>
  18. 18. Analysis and Foresight - the 100 foot view <ul><li>Structure and nature of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for analysis and diagnosis , tools for integration (business models, business processes..) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Action On the Ground <ul><li>Extreme execution </li></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Team Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Skills: communication, negotiation.. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Structure of the Program <ul><li>Module 1- Perspective Building </li></ul><ul><li>Module 2 - Analysis and Foresight </li></ul><ul><li>Module 3 - Management in Action </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methodologies.. Module 1 <ul><li>Part A: Understanding Self.. </li></ul><ul><li>360 degree feedback </li></ul><ul><li>MBTI analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Read prescribed books, including classics: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Don Quixote.. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend weekend at an Aashram </li></ul>
  22. 22. Module 1 cont’d <ul><li>Part B: Understanding Context </li></ul><ul><li>Visits to rural areas, other states, foreign cities </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre workshop: role playing others.. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogues with people from different countries, backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom sessions: Theories of History, Megatrends, Macroeconomics </li></ul><ul><li>Keep daily learning diary, share selectively with other participants </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methodologies.. Module 2 <ul><li>Tools for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom sessions- all case discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High reliance on self-study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected functional programs at IIM, ISB </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Module 2 cont’d <ul><li>Tools for Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding how organizations work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom sessions: organization case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom sessions: Business Process reengineering, six sigma, balanced score card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing Scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing Business Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visits to, study of, other organizations: factories, hospitals, NGOs, museums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time with an architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: construct business plan </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Module 3 Action Stations! <ul><li>Visits to organizations going through change </li></ul><ul><li>Building resilience: reflection through case study of self </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom sessions: use of metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Role play: Argyris’ dialogue process </li></ul><ul><li>Role plays: negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internship with dancers, theatre workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action project: bringing about a change in one’s organization </li></ul>
  26. 26. Course Duration <ul><li>Flexible but likely to be minimum 50 weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be spread out over 2 years calendar time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each participant to invest average 6 hours a week including self-study time </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom sessions on weekends </li></ul><ul><li>Some modules will require full-time engagement for a few days (such as site visits etc.), not necessarily on weekends. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Before and After <ul><li>Before: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of candidate in action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-rating, 360 degree feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant to maintain diary for 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unscheduled discussions with facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jointly with supervisor, observe and coach on next major assignment </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Target Group for Development <ul><li>High performers with minimum 5 years experience who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have distinguished themselves in their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are identified as future leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have MBAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to but excluding COO, CEO </li></ul>
  29. 29. Program.. <ul><li>To handle 20 participants per study group </li></ul>
  30. 30. Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 0 weeks 4 30 50 Broad Time-Line
  31. 31. Schedule for Module 1 Classroom sessions 2 hours a week Self-study (4-6 books) 36 hours over 6 weeks Offsite visits 6 full days Minimum time: 6 weeks Maximum: 9 weeks
  32. 32. Schedule for Module 2 Classroom sessions 30 sessions @ 90 minutes Self-study 30 hours Offsite visits 4 full days Minimum time: 15 weeks Maximum: 25 weeks
  33. 33. Schedule for Module 3 Classroom sessions 10 sessions @ 90 minutes Self-study 20 hours Offsite visits 6 full days Action Projects 40 hours over 8 weeks Minimum time: 20 weeks Maximum: 25 weeks
  34. 34. Strategy for Scaling <ul><li>Roll it out in Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Start with 2 batches of 20 people, preferably the senior-most in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Module 1: after 4 weeks, form ‘teaching groups’ of 2 participants each: 20 groups. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 participants can support each other, build on each others’ understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each group rolls out Module 1 to class of 20 one level below them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total 400 participants can be covered in second wave </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Further.. <ul><li>Module II to be videotaped in the first wave. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videotapes to be used to run classes for the second wave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching groups to ‘run’ the videotapes and add comments to fine tune the material for issues relevant to the second wave participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After each session in Module II, Facilitator to guide the teaching group on how to run the session, including possible teaching methods, possible questions, references etc. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Over time.. <ul><li>‘teaching groups’ will bring their own insights into the teaching process and the second wave sessions may diverge from the first wave. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is perfectly fine! Knowledge and experience of participants must be leveraged! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator to check at random to ensure that deviations do not fundamentally damage the course. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Module III <ul><li>Primarily projects and change management. Class sessions relatively few. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching groups can be supplemented again by facilitator and other top managers who are experienced at change strategies. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Initially.. <ul><li>Two Waves to ensure process works </li></ul><ul><li>After Module II rolls out in Wave II, further waves can be added if we have confidence in Wave II participants and in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, for credibility, managers should ‘teach’ people one level below them in the hierarchy, rather than their own peers. </li></ul>