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  • 1. IN-SECURITY - The Nuclear Dilemma Exhibition produced by REAL Exhibition Development and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum, Geneva Exhibition, films, internet, school syllabus, workshops and public debates Contact www.nucleardilemma.org Ashley WOODS “REAL’s contribution to critical thinking is a great way REAL Exhibition Development for young people, and all people, to learn about nuclear ashley@realexpo.org issues in a creative and interactive environment. “ T: +33 (0) 676 499 840 Dr.Kathleen Sullivan, Disarmament educator, ‘Cyberschoolbus.org’, UNODA. Supported by
  • 2. Opening text and image IN-SECURITY The Nuclear Dilemma Not a day goes by without our hearing the word nuclear being associated with energy or defence. Partisans and critics affront each other, analysing the past and presenting future scenarios. Whilst other positive applications of nuclear science should not be ignored, it is difficult to develop an unbiased opinion. This exhibit helps us unravel the nuclear dilemma: the risks we take in the name of progress and human endeavour. It tells of a scientific journey from the discovery of radioactivity and the developments that fol- lowed in the fields of matter, space, energy, health and armament: including emblematic images and pioneers that have transformed the way we live. The use of nuclear weapons in conflict and accidents involving nuclear installations have left indelible scars on our world. Photography allows us to comprehend both immediate and lasting truth and consequences of these events: a subjective insight that deepens our sense of insecurity. The photography also evokes a principal of precaution. Do countries which have chosen nuclear power fully understand the short and long term risks? On the other hand military expenditure has never been so high and those wishing to obtain nuclear weapons is increasing. Important ideas and relevant questions find their connection through the media and organizations that are presently working toward a more stable world. Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer 1904 - 1967 Film clip from the documentary ‘The Decision to Drop the Bomb’ produced in 1965 by Fred Freed, NBC. Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, was Scientific Director of the Manhattan Project, the secret military programme that developed the world’s first atomic bomb. Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S.A. 1
  • 3. Section 1 text + film A Scientific Journey One hundred years ago, a group of scientists unknowingly ushered in the Atomic Age. Driven by curiosity, these men and women explored the nature and functioning of atoms. This short film which will allow you to see and hopefully understand how their research has changed our understanding of the building blocks of matter; and how their discoveries prepared the way for development of new methods and tools, both beneficial and destructive. Film direction: Hervé Colombani Duration : 10mn Produced for the exhibition ‘In-Security, The Nuclear Dilemma’ A 12 minute educational film on the history of radioactivity from Henri Becquerel in 1896 to the present day. Available for viewing on DVD Languages: English, French and Spanish English subtitles. 2
  • 4. Section 2: Truth and Consequences Truth and Consequences Moments of truth captured in time, scars on the landscape, on objects and on the body, reveal the consequences that allow us to decipher events, often long after they happened. Our distance from the subject does not diminish the rhetorical power of the images. Rather it allows us to learn from the past and adds to our feeling of insecurity. NB. Section 2 contains historic images with accompany text and captions. Sections 2 and 3 contain personel essays written by each photographer (see yellow columns in photos). L-R: Emmet Gowin and Guillaume Herbaut L-R: Ricky Davila-Wood and Hiromi Tsuchida L-R: Ricky Davila-Wood and Gerd Ludwig 3
  • 5. Historical images and captions: The Manhattan Project and Trinity Test, Section 2 Trinity Test At 5:29:45 a.m on 16 July 1945, the world’s first atomic bomb — code named the Trinity Test — exploded over a portion of the southern New Mexico de- sert known as the Jornada del Muerto (Journey of the Dead Man). Photograph by Berlyn Brixner Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory The Manhattan Project The bomb was the invention of the the Manhattan Project, a secret military programme created in 1942 to produce the first nuclear weapon. Fears that Nazi Germany would build and use a nuclear weapon during World War II triggered the start of the Manhattan Project, which was originally based in Manhattan, New York. Physicist J.Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie R. Groves served as directors of this project, which recruited some of the best U.S scientists, engineers and ma- thematicians. A number of European scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and Leo Szilard, also participated in the project. Under the auspices of the Manhattan Project, three main research and production facilities were established at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at Hanford, Washington; and at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Oak Ridge Laboratories provided uranium-235 and Hanford produced weapons-grade plutonium. The Los Alamos Laboratory became the site for assembling nuclear weapons, two of which, Little Boy and Fat Man, were used against Japan in August 1945. The Manhattan Project officially ended in 1946 when it became part of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Physicist J.Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie R. Groves inspect Trinity ground zero Photograph taken by the U.S Army Photograph courtesy of the U.S National Archives J.Robert Oppenheimer recalled: “We waited until the blast had passed, walked out of the shelter and then it was extremely solemn. We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried. Most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita: Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and to impress him he takes on his multi-armed form and says, ‘Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds‘. I suppose we all thought that, one way or another.“ Trinity Test Director, Harvard Physicist Kenneth Bainbridge, had a more force- ful response, saying, “Now we are all sons of bitches“. 4
  • 6. Personal text: Changing the Earth by Emmet GOWIN (USA) Emmet Gowin Born in the U.S.A in 1941 Changing the Earth Nevada Test Site, U.S.A, 1996 - 1997 This is the gift of a landscape photograph, that the heart finds a place to stand. In a landscape photograph, both the mind and the heart need to find their proper place. Before the landscape we look for an invitation to stand without premeditation. It is always, in some sense, our home. At times we may also look for an architecture of light and a poetry of atmosphere which welcomes the eye into a landscape of process. It may also be the map — the evidence of the thing itself. May it also and always be a vision of the double world — the world of appearances and the invi- sible world all at once. Even when a landscape is profoundly disfigured or brutalized, it is always deeply animated from within. When we really see these awesome, vast, and terrible places, we may tremble at the feelings we experience as our sense of wholeness is reorganized by what we see. The heart seems 5
  • 7. Captions: Changing the Earth by Emmet GOWIN (USA) Ground Zero and lines of sight for aboveground test, Frenchman Flat Between 1951 and 1962, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site, one hundred of which were aboveground explosions. Sedan Crater, 98 meters deep and 390 meters in diameter, Area 10, northern end of Yucca Flat, looking south Subsidence craters, formed by underground nuclear explosions, looking east from Area 8 Placement trenches where recruited volunteers to observe the nuclear testing Geological fault and other features, Yucca Lake, Area 11 Subsidence crater converted for waste storage of radioactive waste, Area 3 6
  • 8. Historical image and caption: Hiroshima, Section 2 Hiroshima, 6 August 1945 This photograph was taken only hours after the explosion of the atomic bomb code named Little Boy on 6 August 1945. Towards the right and beyond is the center of Hiroshima City engulfed in flames. Both ends of this bridge, which was the longest one in Hiroshima at that time, were filled with victims. Many of them were students of the Hiroshima Prefectural Daiichi Middle School. Photo taken by Yoshito Matsushige, Courtesy of the Chugoku Shimbun, Japan Yoshito Matsushige, who was at the scene reporting later wrote in the Hiroshima Tokuh on 6 August 1980 : “..in front of the police box of Senda township located at the west end of Miyuki Bridge, a policeman took off the lid of an oil can and started to give first-aid treatment to the people with burns, but the number of the injured increased rapidly. I thought this must be photographed and held the camera in position. The scene I saw through the finder was too cruel. Among the hundreds of injured persons of whom you cannot tell the difference between male and female, there were children screaming “It’s hot, it’s hot!“ and infants crying over the body of their mother who appeared to be already dead. I tried to pull myself together by telling myself that I’m a news cameraman, and it is my duty and privilege to take a photograph, even if it is just one, and even if people take me as a devil or a cold-hearted man. I finally managed to press the shutter, but when I looked into the finder for the second time, the object was blurred by tears.“ 7
  • 9. Personal text Remember Hiroshima by Hiromi TSUCHIDA (Japan) Hiromi Tsuchida Born in Japon in 1939 Remember Hiroshima Japan, 1982 - 1995 Why must Hiroshima be remembered in our hearts? Not simply because it was a genocide that instantly took the lives of many thousands of innocent people, but also as a tragedy that marks a turning point in human civilization. The event symbolized how technology, which human beings had feverishly developed, turned on its creators to diminish the beautiful earth to a planet of death. Hiroshima shows to us both the intolerable crime humans have committed in attaining the destructive powers to destroy themsel- ves and the necessity for us to face that truth. Over half a century has passed since Hiroshima, but the danger of nuclear destruction is still very present. We therefore find ourselves on the fringes of human annihilation. This is why Hiroshima must be remembered. Documenting the objects that now make up what is called The Hiroshima Collection has touched me in such a way that I must express myself in this manner. I hope that my account of Hiroshi- ma will provide an opportunity for people to promote peace. Pope John Paul II, said the following words during his visit to the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum in 1981. I would like to share them with you. “War is the work of man. War is destruction of human life. War is death. To remember the past is to commit oneself to the future. To remember Hiroshima is to abhor nuclear war. To remember Hiroshima is to commit oneself to peace.” The Hiroshima Collection Close to 7000 articles of the victim’s belongings and documents on the atomic bombing are stored at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum and a part of that is put on display. The Hiroshima Collection is a photographic documentation of about 150 articles that I have compiled over several years. Text originally translated from Japanese by Kiichiro DeLuca 8
  • 10. Captions: Remember Hiroshima by Hiromi TSUCHIDA (Japan) Suitcase belonging to Tadayori Kihara At 8:15 a.m on 6 August 1945, fifty year old Tadayori Kihara was riding his bike across the Kyobashi Bridge with this suitcase when the atomic bomb Little Boy exploded. Kihara was one among the 199,000 casualties (105,000 deaths). He died in 1967. Binoculars belonging to Masami Tsuchiya Masami Tsuchiya, a 25 year old army officer was being treated in the 1st Army Hospital for an appendectomy, 900 meters from where the bomb exploded. Scheduled to leave the hospital that day, his body, part skeleton was found on August 7th, identifiable only by the name on the towel he still held in his hand. Student lunch box containing burnt remains of food Melted Sake bottles Wristwatch, owner unknown The watch was found in a river, 150 meters from the Motoysau Bridge, on 23 April 1955. It shows the exact time of the bombing as 8 :15 a.m. Student uniform belonging to Akio Tsukuda 13 year old Akio Tsukuda was doing fire prevention work 800 meters from the epicenter. His father found his school uniform hanging from a branch of a tree on 8 August 1945. His body was never found. Geta belonged to Miyoko Inoue 14 year old Miyoko Inoue was doing fire prevention work with other students under the Student Mobilization Order, 500 meters from the epicenter. All the students died. Her mother spent three months searching for remains of her daughter, but all she found was this one sandel. Her body was never found. Damaged pair of glasses belonging to Mrs Moto Mosoro The scalded head of 54 year old Mrs Moto Mosoro was found 1,500 meters from the epicenter one month after the atomic bombing. This one frame was removed from her eye socket. Melted statue of Buddha Belt buckle and name card belonging to Takashi Shimada 13 year old Takashi Shimada was walking near Shirakamisha Shrine, 600 meters from where the bomb exploded. He was severly burned and died the following day. 9
  • 11. Personal text and caption: ‘Atomic Bomb Souvenirs’ by Mutsumi TSUDA (Japan) Mutsumi Tsuda Born in Japan in 1962 Atomic Bomb Souvenirs U.S.A, 2002 In August 1995 on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of World War II, I found myself in France where much media attention was being given to the bombings of Hiroshima and Naga- saki. Living in Japan, we had always seen ourselves on the side of victim and had never really thought about the point of view of the other. I therefore decided to set off in the footsteps of the atomic bomb. Visiting different museums in Japan and America, I was able to see just how much pain the bomb represented. In America the use of the atomic bomb was said to “have brought an end to the war“ and was therefore seen as a just cause. Visiting the shop of the National Atomic Bomb Museum, Albuquerque, I came across these key- rings. I looked at them and hesitated a moment or two before finally deciding to buy them as a souvenir of my trip to New Mexico and America. The key-rings represent the atomic bombs that had been dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, given the names Little Boy and Fat Man. The plane, named Enola Gray had dropped Little Boy on Hiroshima. It is difficult to share the the same view even sixty years after the tragedy, but this is my reason for having photographed these objects with both negative and positive feelings. Key-rings from the National Atomic Bomb Museum, Albuquerque, New Mexico These key-rings show the U.S Airforce B-29 bomber Enola Grey and the atomic bombs Little Boy and Fat Man that were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945. 10
  • 12. Historical image and caption: Nagasaki, Section 2 Nagasaki, 9 August 1945 About 30% of Nagasaki, including almost all the industrial district was destroyed by the bomb which took place on 9 August 1945 only three days after that which destroyed Hiroshima. 74,000 were killed and a similar number injured. The bomb, nick-named Fat Man in a reference to Winston Churchill, measured just under 3.5 meters in length, had the power of 22 kilotons of TNT and weighed 4,050 kg. The attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 were the first time atomic bombs had been used in warfare. Residents of both cities still suffer the physical and mental consequences to this day. This image taken only days after the explosion shows the remains of St. Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral which was at the time the largest of its kind in South-East Asia. Photograph taken by the U.S. Army Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum Collection 11
  • 13. Personal text: Hibakusha - Nagasaki by Guillaume HERBAUT (France) Guillaume Herbaut Born in France in 1970 Hibakusha – Nagasaki Japan, 2005 I remember already asking myself about the atomic bomb when I was only fifteen. It was during the Cold War and the Arms Race had already begun. I was very scared. In my history class at school, we hardly learnt anything about the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that marked a end to World War II. We had no idea how the atomic bomb worked and had no understanding of its victims, the Hibakusha as they are referred to in Japanese. I remember the image of a mushroom cloud that was shown to our class; the symbol of Western superiority. I so wanted to meet the victims, to hear their stories and photograph them. Sixty years after the bomb, although the two cities have been rebuilt, the survivors are still living in pain: mutilated bodies, illnesses due to radiation, horrific memories and loss of a loved one as well as rejection from society itself, has kept many Hibakusha silent. We must listen to their testimony in order to fully un- derstand that using a nuclear weapon is a crime against humanity. 12
  • 14. Captions: Hibakusha - Nagasaki by Guillaume HERBAUT (France) Mr Sumiteru Taniguchi, Hibakusha Sumiteru Taniguchi was pedalling his bicycle down the street when at 11:02 a.m. 9 August 1945 the atomic bomb code named Fat Man exploded over Nagasaki. He was 16 years old at the time. “When I looked up, some small children who had been playing nearby had been blown away like dust,” Mr Sumiteru Taniguchi, Hibakusha The injuries by the atomic bomb resulted from the combined effect of blast wind, heat rays and radiation. According to the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, 74,884 people died immediately whilst a further 74,999 people were injured by the explosion. Organs of victims removed by American scientists after the bombing and returned to Japan in the 1970’s, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Victim’s medical data, Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Plaster cast belonging to Senji Yamaguchi showing keloid scarring to the face and neck 13
  • 15. Historical image and caption Tchernobyl, Section 2 Chernobyl, 26 April 1986 Just twenty years ago, the world was in shock. An accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant at 1:23 a.m on 26 April 1986, sent a plume of radioactive fallout over parts of the Western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia and Eastern North America. Approximately 350,000 people were displaced and scientists estimate up to 233,000 square kilometers of land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia (all part of the Soviet Union at the time) were contaminated with unhealthy levels of radioactive elements. The accident, which was blamed on design deficiencies and lax operating procedures, released radioactivity equivalent to 400 times that of the Hiroshima bomb. It is regar- ded as the worst accident ever in the history of nuclear power. A report released by the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) puts the total number of people who could eventually die due to radiation exposure at 4,000, while the environmental group Greenpeace put the possible death toll close to 140,000 as well as 270,000 cancer sufferers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases. The Greenpeace report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovas- cular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations. This photo was taken at 4:00 p.m on 27 April 1986 from the window of the first helicopter to fly over the disaster zone to evaluate radiation levels above the site, fourteen hours after the explosion. The overview of the exploded reactor is foggy due to radiation, which also explains why the shot was not taken too close to the window. Later, radiation experts estimated that levels reached 1,500 rems, 200 meters above the reactor, despite the fact that their Geiger counters did not exceed 500 rems. Photograph by Igor Kostine Courtesy of Corbis Images 14
  • 16. Personal text: Hibakusha - Chernobyl by Guillaume HERBAUT (France) Guillaume Herbaut Born in France in 1970 Hibakusha – Chernobyl Ukraine, 2001 - 2005 In 1999, I went to Belarus in connection with a report on the Suvorov Military Academy, Minsk, where children as young as eleven years old were being schooled. When I met some of the parents and asked them what they wished for their children’s future, they replied “ good health “. I was quite surprised by their response. I would have expected them to think of education or a better life. Some of them told me that they had served as liquidators during the Chernobyl catastrophe. Prior to my trip, the French Embassy had ad- vised me to be careful of what I ate and especially that mushrooms could contain high doses of radiation. I realised that this awful event had effected the daily lives of people and their relationship with the environ- ment. Since 2001 I have returned many times to the region of Chernobyl. Each time I’ve entered the contaminated zones, I’ve been terrified of the invisibility of the pollution. Relying only upon your eyes everything looks normal, but the natural savage beauty of the landscape is disturbingly artificial. The only way of knowing whether an area was dangerous or not, was to use my Geiger counter, which I kept with me at all time. My encounter with this region haunts me to an extent that I think of Chernobyl each and every day. 15
  • 17. Captions: Hibakusha - Chernobyl by Guillaume HERBAUT (France) Louri Patch and his 14 year old son, Yvan was born after the accident and is physi- cally handicapped and partially blind, Kiev A discarded gas mask lies on the floor of an abandoned gymnasium in Pripyat, situated 3 km away from Chernobyl where 49 000 inhabitants once lived Public swimming bath, Pripyat Portraits of initial victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the so-called liquidators whose task it was to clean up the debris and radioactive waste, Slavoutich Cultural Centre The Vala family live in Kiev like many other Chernobyl families 16
  • 18. Personal text and captions: From Chernobyl to Tarará by Ricky DAVILA-WOOD (Spain) Ricky Davila-Wood Born in Spain in 1964 From Chernobyl to Tarará Cuba, 1992 Since 1990 more than 20,000 children suffering from skin disorders, cancer, leukaemia and other illnesses believed linked to the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Ukraine have received treatment in Cuba. Many of the children are orphans or come from poor families that cannot afford medical treatment in Ukraine. They are taken care of at the Tarará Paediatric Hospital east of Havana, where Cuba pays for all medical treatment, housing the children in bungalows built as beach houses by rich Cubans before Fidel Castro’s 1959 revolution. Cuba began helping when Ukraine was a Soviet republic and communist ally. The programme was maintained after Soviet communism collapsed, plunging Cuba into deep economic crisis from which it has not recovered. The radioactive contamination from Chernobyl will take decades to break down and genetic defects among Ukrainian children are expected to continue occurring for many years. A patient from the Tarará Paediatric Hospital plays in the sun as part of his therapy A patient receives infra-red treatment at the Tarará Paediatric Hospital Nurse and patient 17
  • 19. Personal text: Lethal Legacy by Gerd LUDWIG (Germany) Gerd Ludwig Born in Germany in 1947 Lethal Legacy Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, 1993 For years Soviet rulers, professing concern for workers and respect for nature, destroyed both with their environmental recklessness and flagrant neglect for human health. This negligence reached its peak on at 1:23 a.m on 26 April 1986, when the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant’s Reactor N°4 blew up after operators botched a safety test, triggering the world’s worst nuclear disaster to date. An invisible danger spread over vast regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia — in total seven million people were exposed to the fall-out, creating a lethal inheritance that continues to darken lives — physically, socially, and environmentally. To document this defiled world, I explored one of our planet’s most contaminated places, shed tears over the needless suffering of innocent children born deformed into a world without hope, saw the town of Prypyat in Ukraine, once inhabited by some 50,000 people, transformed into what is today a chilling ghost town. I visited the isolated and dispossessed elderly returnees in the 30 km zone, who chose to return to their own contaminated soil rather than live out their lives in cold and unfamiliar cities. Not only was the emotional strain overwhelming, but I also struggled with the delicate question of personal safety. Working in radioactive environments I often donned protective gear – respirators, safety overalls, rubber gloves, boots and Geiger counters. But, in some places I was asked not to wear any of it, since the people who lived and labored in these areas did not have any protection themselves. While I was well aware that my explora- tion was not without personal risk, I also knew that the calculated chances I took were on behalf of unwit- ting and otherwise voiceless victims, and the hope that environmental irresponsibility and tragedies like Chernobyl be prevented in the future. 18
  • 20. Captions: Lethal Legacy by Gerd LUDWIG (Germany) Ghost town of Prypyat, Ukraine Graveyard for contaminated vehicles used during the clean-up following the Chernobyl accident, Chernobyl, Ukraine Contaminated farmland situated within the 30 km exclusion zone, Chernobyl, Ukraine Techa River contaminated by a nearby weapons plutonium plant, Muslyumovo / Chelyabinsk, Russia Contaminated fruit, Chernobyl, Ukraine Portrait of Professor Vyacheslav Konovalov, a genetic scientist who has collected various samples of malformations in animals after the accident, Chernobyl, Ukraine A Geiger counter registers toxic levels of radiation from careless dumping and major accidents in a nearby weapons plutonium plant, Muslyumovo / Chelyabinsk, Russia Mentally and physically disabled children, Minsk, Belarus 19
  • 21. Section 3: Precautions Precautions In today’s world with its frantic scientific and technological advances we are presented with ever more possibilities and challenges and consequently new and further responsibilities. We must therefore take great care when making decisions. But what precautions can we take in the Nuclear Age, knowing that a tiny reaction may spark a chain of events that could change the course of history. Can we risk having another nuclear accident like Chernobyl ? L-R: Peter Goin and Jürgen Nefzger L-R: Paul Shambroom and Nigel Green 20
  • 22. Personal text: Dungeness B by Nigel GREEN (England) Nigel Green Born in England in 1965 Dungeness B England, 2002 My fascination with the power plant at Dungeness and its surrounding landscape go back to my early childhood. Dungeness is one of the most extraordinary places on the British coastline and is dominated by its two nuclear power stations rising from a shingle headland of 72 square kilometers. My father worked on the commissioning of Dungeness A in the 1960’s and his stories of working there, along with the many visits to the area that we made, served to stimulate my interest over the years. In 2002, I was granted unprecedented access to the interior of Dungeness B the more recent of the two power stations, operated by British Energy. I found it impossible not to be astonished by the monumentality of the site and the technological conception behind it. Started at the end of the 1960’s and not brought online until the early 1980’s, Dungeness B represents an evolution of design solutions for the period. The functional structure of the power plant represents a unique form of modernist architecture that is overlooked in histories of the genre. Hence my prime concern was to document the site as an industrial structure poised on the brink of obsolescence. At the time I was photographing Dungeness B the future of nuclear power was in doubt. Consequently my intention was to make photographs that showed the complexity of the engineering and human endeavour encapsulated in the technological aspirations of the 1960’s and its quest for unlimited energy. 21
  • 23. Captions: Dungeness B de Nigel GREEN (England) Dungeness B Nuclear Power Plant began operating in 1983 will close in 2018 Charge Face showing the octagonal arrangement of graphite blocks, area where the rate of fission of uranium and plutonium occurs Assembly Room with fuel rods that will contain the uranium used to power the reactor; the spent fuel can be purified for use in nuclear weapons Instrument (transmitter) cubicle measures the speed and therefore output of the turbine in revolutions-per-minute (RPM) Cooling Ponds used to reduce the radioactivity in fuel rods prior to storage or reprocessing Steam Turbine A steam jet causes the turbine to rotate. This is connected to a generator, which then produces electricity. Steam Exhaust Pipes Protection Suits containing amounts of short-lived radioactivity are incinerated after use 22
  • 24. Personal text: Nuclear Landscapes by Peter GOIN (U.S.A) Peter Goin Born in the U.S.A 1951 Nuclear Landscapes Hanford Nuclear Reservation, U.S.A, 1988 In 1943, the U.S military chose Hanford and White Bluffs, small but successful agricultural com- munities about 40 km from the Oregon border in eastern Washington, as the site for construction of the world’s first nuclear reactor. The location was ideal as the population was relatively small and isolated, the Columbia River provided the many thousands of gallons of water-per-minute needed to cool the reactors, railroads were already in place, and the Grand Coulee Dam supplied the electrical power. Over 95,000 workers — most of them completely unaware of the final project’s goals — were recruited to help at Hanford camp. The construction activity was furious, fast, and demanding. Enough dirt was excavated to build 400,000 houses, enough concrete poured to build a highway 6 meters wide, 15 cm thick, and 628 km long. And finally, due to the reactor demands, a water system that could support a city of 10 million people was established. By 26 September 1944, just eighteen months after construction began, the world’s first nuclear reactor - called the B Reactor - began producing plutonium. By the following summer, enough plutonium had been produced to manufacture two nuclear weapons. Hanford plutonium was used in the first successful test explosion of a nuclear weapon - the Trinity Test - in the Jornada Del Muerto desert in New Mexico on 16 July 1945 and for the bomb that exploded over Naga- saki on 9 August 1945. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is now in a decommissioned state, although the area will be contaminated with radioactivity for many, many years. 23
  • 25. Captions: Nuclear Landscapes by Peter GOIN (U.S.A) Burial Gardens, geographic center of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Disposal site for the reactor taken from the nuclear powered submarine Patrick Henry Nuclear waste buried Ground buried under river rock of the Columbia River near to White Bluffs nuclear reactor Decommissioned nuclear reactors D and DR showing yellow posts identify buried radioactive waste and potential surface contamination Waste storage pond belonging to nuclear reactors D and DR contains water which is radioactive 24
  • 26. Personal text: Fluffy Clouds by Jürgen NEFZGER (Germany) Jürgen Nefzger Born in Germany in 1968 Fluffy Clouds Europe, 2003 - 2006 Through its inseparable connection to reality, photography is a formidable way of expression and committment. Documenting social and ecological themes enables me to respond to the world politically. Much attention is given to the conflictual aspect of contemporary landscape ; emblematic of a consumer society in crisis. Having looked at urbanism with its modern pavillion towns, I find myself today drawn by the environment : areas of decay provoke a sometimes bitter response, but the aesthetic power within photography transforms the subject and that leaves the viewer with a contradictory feeling. Photographed in six European countries the Fluffy Clouds series continues to reflect on inherent ambiguities within our society : as the omnipresence of a nuclear power station set against a decor of natural beauty and unassuming idle characters. Against a clear blue sky, the landscape takes on a different form. This is an industry under high surveilance, severly critisized for its security, pollution and overall cost. Courtesy Galerie Françoise Paviot, Paris 25
  • 27. Captions: Fluffy Clouds by Jürgen NEFZGER (Germany) Beznau Nuclear Power Plant, Argovie, is the oldest in Switzerland Penly Nuclear Power Plant, France Of the 441 commercial nuclear power stations around the world, 59 are in France. Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Spain The land around the station is used to cultivate vines, olives and fruit. Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant, Germany By 2021, Germany will have closed all of its nineteen nuclear power stations, making it the first leading industrial country to renounce atomic energy. Sellafield nuclear power facility, site of Britain’s most severe nuclear accident which occurred in 1957 26
  • 28. Personal text: Nuclear Arms by Paul SHAMBROOM (U.S.A) Paul Shambroom Born in the U.S.A in 1956 Nuclear Weapons U.S.A, 1993 - 1998 Over a ten year period I visited more than two-dozen weapons and command sites (plus hundreds of individual ICBM silos) in sixteen States in the U.S. My work began shortly after the end of the Cold War and was halted by the terrorist attacks on the U.S of 11 September 2001. The American military allowed me unprecedented access during this window of opportunity. It is unlikely that the U.S nuclear arsenal will ever again be open to such public scrutiny. My original motivation was to produce concrete visualization of the hardware of nuclear annihi- lation, to confront the psychological demon that had been my childhood ‘bogeyman’. During the course of my work I began to allow myself to believe that I was photographing a history that would be left behind, and that perhaps nations would never again possess such huge and deadly arsenals. My optimism was based on the hope that the U.S. and Russia would finally begin disarming, now that they had no viable enemies with which to justify their strategic nuclear weapons. This historic opportunity has been largely wasted. The former foes have only reduced their arsenals to about one-third of their Cold War levels, with many of the thousands of remaining weapons still on full alert status. More disturbing, the U.S and Russia are each developing new warheads and delivery systems and intend to continue fielding forces designed for both full-scale nuclear engagement and more «acceptable» tactical use. Sadly, six years after making the last of these photographs the possibility of a world largely free of nuclear weapons seems remote, and certainly not a priority to leaders of the former superpowers and emerging nuclear states. Once again, the hope for change rests in education, activism, and democra- tic participation by citizens of the world committed to a future free of the nuclear threat. 27
  • 29. Captions: Nuclear Arms by Paul SHAMBROOM (U.S.A) Delivery of first operational B-2 Spirit ‘Stealth’ long range bomber, designed during primarily for strategic nuclear missions, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri Blast door, Minuteman II Launch Control Center, Newell, South Dakota Command Center (also known as “Battle Cab”), Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), Colorado. Built within a granite mountain between 1961 and 1964, the facility although no longer in service is kept in “warm stand-by” mode as a backup. B-83 nuclear gravity bombs, the most powerful weapons in the U.S arsenal, weapons storage area, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana Ballistic missile tubes belonging to the Ohio Class (Trident) nuclear powered submarine, USS Alaska, Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Washington USS Alaska carries up to 24 nuclear missiles estimated as being over a thousand times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb Missile hatches belonging to the now decommissioned USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634), a Lafayette-class (Poseidon) submarine which saw over thirty years of service, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Georgia Peacekeeper Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) decommissioned in 2005 in compliance with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) signed on 31 July 1991 by the U.S. and Russia, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California Minuteman III Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silo J-6, showing a Transporter Erector Vehicle reinstalling an ICBM following planned maintenance, Peetz, Colorado 28
  • 30. Section 4: Connections Connections How is nuclear power connected to the production of nuclear weapons? What is nuclear waste? What do the world’s press say about the nuclear issue? How can I use the internet to find out more? How can I stay infor- med? Can I give my own opinion? Can I access the images from the exhibition? CONNECTION provides the visitor with an answer to all of the above questions and much more... REAL invites each museum as well as local organizations and schools to actively participate in this section, connecting the exhibition to local issues. Depening upon available space more information can also be added. The Nuclear Cycle diagram (2mx3m) Designed by the Swiss design company ‘La Fonderie’, Geneva. Show the connections between nuclear power, waste and weapons production via an easy-to- read diagram. 3 colour codes indicate the different uses of uranium and plutonium • BLUE Nuclear Facilities • BLACK Nuclear Waste • RED Nuclear Weapons. International Press Wall Connection to current media coverage through a press wall that displays and translates magazines covers from around the globe e.g. - Al Ousbou al Arabi, Lebanon “Israel provides atomic bombs to India “ - Time Magazine, U.S.A “Nuclear Terror for Sale“ 29
  • 31. Final text / conclusion: Section 4 The Nuclear Dilemma The darkest side of nuclear power is its connection to nuclear weapons. It is the same stages in the nuclear fuel cycle that prepare the radioactive substances used in building an atomic bomb or for the production of electricity. The only difference between them is the concentration of the various isotopes used in the fuel. Each year a typical 1000 megawatt (MW) commercial power reactor will produce 300 to 500 pounds of plutonium, enough to build between 25 - 40 Nagasaki-sized atomic bombs. The ambiguity of nuclear power lies in knowing whether a country is using its reactors for energy purposes or for weapons production. Thus is the nuclear dilemma. In 1996, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) , the highest court of the United Nations ruled that the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons “would generally be contrary“ to various articles of international law, including the Geneva Conventions, the Hague Conventions, the UN Charter, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The ICJ Advisory Opinion also highlighted Article VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) where States are obligated to “ to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race… and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective interna- tional control.“ The future of the human race depends on the ability of current generations to make decisions toward creating a sustainable future. This exhibition brings together various materials that allow us to understand the relationship between energy and armament that constitutes the nuclear dilemma. 30
  • 32. Site internet, Section 4 www.nucleardilemma.org Easy-to-use ‘child friendly’ interactive web site Designed by the young Portugese designer Henri da Silva, with an opening clip from the documentary ‘The Decision to Drop the Bomb’ directed by Fred Freed in 1965. Amongst other things, the site has a monthly publication, that spotlights a person, organization or campaign. Also included is a space which allows people to voice their own personal opinion. “We live in a culture dominated by sound bites and YouTube videos. The In-Security exhibition successfully captures one’s attention through stunning colorful photographs and activates the mind through brief informa- tive descriptions. However, unlike many of today’s YouTube videos, the message of this exhibition is not easily discarded and forgotten. In additional to the personal transformation I experienced as a result of this exhibit, I witnessed a group of students touring the exhibit. Their amazement and enthusiasm, not to mention their attention to the details of the exhibit, was inspiring“ Rick Wayman, Programme Director, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, NAPF. “An important exhibition that will raise consciousness regarding the grave dangers associated with nuclear weapons. Your goal is the same as ours, a world that does not produce ‘Hibakucha’ and I am grateful for your devotion to this cause“ Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima, President Mayors for Peace. REAL Exhibition Development, Maison de la Paix,, 9, rue Dulcie September,, 93400, St Ouen, FRANCE