Session 2: Self-directed & Collaborative Learning


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Exploration of the concepts of self-directed and collaborative learning with ICT.

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  • We focus on collaborative and self-directed learning as two possible aspects of achieving meaningful learning.
  • The key characteristics of SDL are found in the note pages of slide 9 whereas those of CL are found in slide 13. SDL and CL may overlap when SDL takes place in a group setting like in the edutopia video case. When that happens, some common features include: Skills and processes related to setting goals, making plans and initiating actions. Clear articulation of the role(s) of the individuals in the learning context Reflection on the learning experience
  • Tutors can visit the following URLs to anchor their discussions on what SDL is: (SDL exisits in a spectrum) (There are many ways of learning when learning is self-directed) Key characteristics of SDL (Gibbons, 2002:11): Student control over as much of the learning experience as possible. Skill development Students’ learning to challenge themselves to their best possible performance. Student self-management - management of themselves and their learning enterprises. Self-motivation and self-assessment
  • Each stage of the SDL spectrum may not be clearly demarcated, especially between self-managed learning, self-planned learning and the highest degree of self-directed learning. The common characteristics of different forms of SDL are more important. This slide redirects the student teachers’ attention to what their class may look like or what they can expect their students to be doing when their students engage in self-directed learning. The definitions, as cited from the URL on SDL spectrum: The spectrum refers to degrees of SDL ranging from entirely teacher-directed learning (TDL) to SDL as defined above. The spectrum includes the following stages or degrees of movement toward SDL. Incidental Self-Directed Learning The occasional introduction of SDL activities into courses or programs that are otherwise teacher-directed (e.g. individual projects, stations, or brief introduction of any other forms of SDL on the spectrum). Teaching Students to Think Independently Courses or programs that emphasize the personal pursuit of meaning through exploration, inquiry, problem solving and creative activity (e.g. debates, case studies, investigations, trials, dramatizations, fieldwork). Self-Managed Learning Courses or programs presented through learning guides that students complete independently. Self-Planned Learning Courses or programs in which students pursue course outcomes through activities they design themselves. Self-Directed Learning Courses or programs in which students choose the outcomes, design their own activities and pursue them in their own way.
  • Adapted from
  • Adapted from
  • Nussbaum, E. M. (2008). Collaborative discourse, argumentation, and learning: Preface and literature review. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33 , 345-359.
  • Additional Resource: Key characteristics of collaborative learning (Chai & Tan, 2009): (1) Establishment of common goals (2) Division of labour/co-labouring (3) Clear individual and group accountability (4) Positive interdependence (5) High interactivity and negotiability (6) Mature group processing
  • Session 2: Self-directed & Collaborative Learning

    1. 1. Session 2 Self-Directed and Collaborative Learning with ICT
    2. 2. <ul><li>What is the main goal of this course? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn in session 1? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I build upon what I have learned so far? </li></ul>Framework by Jonassen, Howland, Marra, & Crismond (2008)
    3. 3. <ul><li>Given the resources and activities in this session, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify characteristics of self-directed and collaborative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describe the think-pair-share strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest how ICT might be used to promote SDL and CL </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>In pairs, discuss what you understand about the following terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record your thoughts in your personal wiki page or your group blog </li></ul>5 min peer discussion
    5. 5. <ul><li>Recall the following two videos on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning (7min 44sec) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning (4min 07sec) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>In pairs, discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What aspects of SDL and CL were illustrated in the videos? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent did SDL and CL overlap? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record your thoughts in your personal wiki page or your group blog </li></ul>10 min peer discussion
    7. 7. <ul><li>Identify your gaps in knowledge of SDL and CL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you understand? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you need to investigate? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fill those gaps in Activity 3 </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Read slides 9-18 on your own </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate what you learned about SDL & CL in your wiki page or your group blog </li></ul><ul><li>In groups of FOUR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboratively edit the cyberwellness mind map (see your class wiki page) OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select demo topic and start planning collaboratively (see instructions ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflect on how the principles of SDL or CL were applied in the two activities above </li></ul>60 min activity
    9. 9. <ul><li>Self-directed learning (SDL) is any increase in knowledge, skill, accomplishment, or personal development that an individual selects and brings about by his or her own efforts using any method in any circumstances at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Gibbons, 2002 </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Articulate personal learning gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Set own learning goals and identify tasks to achieve the goals </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate questions and generate own inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Explore alternatives and make sound decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and manage workload and time effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on their learning and use feedback to improve their work </li></ul><ul><li>Apply learning in new contexts </li></ul>
    11. 11. Incidental self-directed learning Teaching students to think independently Self-managed learning Self-planned learning Self-directed learning Source: Low degree High degree
    12. 12. <ul><li>Teach students to set their own goals and the skills/processes related to goal setting, making plans and initiating actions </li></ul><ul><li>Design opportunities for students to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>articulate their roles during their learning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rationalise their decisions on what is to be learnt, when and how it should be learnt, and how it should be evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflect on what they did and revise their attempted work </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Design tasks that are authentic to students </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to explore ideas through peer discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Model learning strategies such as predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate students’ proposals/plans for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and review students’ assessments of their learning processes and work </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>The social process whereby students learn through interacting with others </li></ul><ul><li>Entails social construction of knowledge, e.g., forming an argument through talk (Nussbaum, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform inquiry and solve problems together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose ideas/theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and evaluate claims with evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer multiple perspectives, rise-above, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on one another’s ideas </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning task is divided among the learners who will each accomplish their parts </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling of these parts into the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>More than assembling of tasks according to the roles the individual learners play </li></ul><ul><li>Involves ongoing efforts in negotiating meaning and establishing shared understanding among them </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Negotiate and set common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute own ideas clearly and consider other points of view objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions to clarify and offer constructive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Take on different roles and tasks within the group to achieve group goals </li></ul><ul><li>Work towards completing individual’s assigned tasks as well as help group members achieve group goals </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on group and individual learning processes </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Create multiple opportunities to promote collaboration among students </li></ul><ul><li>Design learning experiences that require positive interdependence among students </li></ul><ul><li>Develop students’ communication skills and interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Provide conflict management strategies on resolving diverse or conflicting views </li></ul><ul><li>Use various assessment methods to assess both individuals and group learning and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback on individual learning and group learning and performance </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Chai, C.S., & Tan, S.C. (2009). Collaborative learning and ICT. In C.S. Chai & Q.Y. Wang (Eds.), ICT for self-directed and collaborative learning (pp.53-70). Pearson: Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbons, M. (2002). The self-directed learning handbook: Challenging adolescent students to excel . Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>Jonassen, D., Howland, J., Marra, R., & Crismond, D. (2008). Meaningful learning with technology. Pearson: Upper Saddle River, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Nussbaum, E. M. (2008). Collaborative discourse, argumentation, and learning: Preface and literature review. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33 , 345-359. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Discuss the roles of technology used in this session that promoted SDL and/or CL </li></ul>10 min peer discussion
    20. 20. <ul><li>Log out of PBworks when using shared computers </li></ul><ul><li>Create an email filter to receive Dr Tan’s messages </li></ul><ul><li>Group blogs [ example ]: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write, read, respond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify yourself, e.g., use tags or categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscribe by RSS </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>No textbook readings for next week </li></ul><ul><li>For QED classes: Bring your laptop next week! </li></ul><ul><li>For DED classes: e-learning week next week! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECL7B will be open for use from 9am-5pm (except on Tues, 25/8 from 3:30-5:30pm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the lab is full, contact Mr. Cheng at 6790-3193 </li></ul></ul>