A Context-Aware Mobile             Application for Museum and                 Exhibition Visitors                     Ashl...
Introduction   Museums, art galleries and exhibition spaces play an important   role in the discovery of knowledge and lea...
Introduction   This project aims to build upon previous user research carried   out by Absindar Ali (2011) and Agnieszka G...
Context-Awareness?   “Context is any information that can be used to characterise the   situation of an entity” (Hong, Suh...
Related Work: The Information-Seeking         Behaviour of Museum Visitors (Orr, 2004)   Visitors to museums do not reveal...
Related Work: A Ubiquitous Interactive Museum             Guide (Sandnes, et al, 2008)   A PDA based guide system providin...
Related Work: Unified Context-Aware Augmented    Reality Driven Application Framework for User-Driven                Tour ...
Related Work: iMuseum (Ma, et al, 2008)   Consists of two elements: iGuide harnesses RFID tagging to   deliver relic infor...
A New Context-Aware System   From previous related works it has been acknowledged that a   new system must:       - Includ...
User Requirements   Further to user requirements outlined by Ali (2011) and   Golebiewska (2011).Ashley J Wheat           ...
Proposed System   New proposed system - Mimir - consists of two elements:   a native smartphone application and a content ...
System ArchitectureAshley J Wheat                         May 2012
UI Design   Initial wireframe designs produced using iMockUps software.   Developed in keeping with Apple UI conventions a...
CMS Interface   WYSIWYG editor to add and   Behavior reporting filtered by   edit content.               device, article a...
Method     Two user studies carried out: MA Fine Art Interim Show & User Trial at     Middlesex University.              M...
Findings: MA Interim Show   Audio recordings of focus groups transcribed and open coding   carried out according to Ground...
Findings: User TrialAshley J Wheat                          May 2012
Findings: User Trial   -   Most users likely to download and use application.   -   Users felt that the use of the system ...
Conclusions   The project carried out shows that digital technology, in   particular a context-aware system such as Mimir ...
Further Development   - Replacing QR codes with new, less intrusive method such as     image recognition, as seen in the A...
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  1. 1. A Context-Aware Mobile Application for Museum and Exhibition Visitors Ashley J Wheat May 2012Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  2. 2. Introduction Museums, art galleries and exhibition spaces play an important role in the discovery of knowledge and learning. However, information is limited to that available in guide books, brochures and audio guides, which can sometimes be limited and unengaging. This project focuses on the use of digital technology in making exhibition spaces more engaging and exciting places for visitors, building a richer user experience.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  3. 3. Introduction This project aims to build upon previous user research carried out by Absindar Ali (2011) and Agnieszka Golebiewska (2011) to develop a digital system for the delivery of artifact and exhibit information. A context-aware mobile application has been developed and evaluated in two user studies carried out in real world exhibitions.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  4. 4. Context-Awareness? “Context is any information that can be used to characterise the situation of an entity” (Hong, Suh and Kim, 2009) . Context-aware systems are able to adapt and change their behavior according to the context of the environment around them (Schilit, Adams and Want, 1994). Essentially a context-aware system knows what’s happening around it, and can adapt and behave accordingly.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  5. 5. Related Work: The Information-Seeking Behaviour of Museum Visitors (Orr, 2004) Visitors to museums do not reveal any goal oriented behavior whilst meeting information needs. Unlike visitors to libraries or similar establishments seeking to fill a predetermined gap in knowledge, museum visitors tend to discover knowledge in a more unstructured and holistic manner. Visitors create an amorphous connection to information through their own curiosity. Traditional methods for information contradict this dynamic offering only a structured route through exhibits.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  6. 6. Related Work: A Ubiquitous Interactive Museum Guide (Sandnes, et al, 2008) A PDA based guide system providing an alternative to audio- guides using RFID and data mining technologies. By employing extension theory, a relationship between visitors and viewed artifacts is generated providing recommendations to users. The system however lacks scalability, information is held on a static server and availability of PDA devices is a key obstacle.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  7. 7. Related Work: Unified Context-Aware Augmented Reality Driven Application Framework for User-Driven Tour Guides (Woo, et al, 2010) System uses an augmented reality framework to provide visitors with information and content generation on an electronic museum guide. Users encouraged to interact with items on display by tagging and labeling artifacts. Although an engaging experience is created, lack of moderation can lead to inaccurate information. AR can also withdraw attention from the exhibit itself, and only provides information viewable on a small viewport.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  8. 8. Related Work: iMuseum (Ma, et al, 2008) Consists of two elements: iGuide harnesses RFID tagging to deliver relic information via a PDA. iRecommender generates user recommendations modeled on visitor behavior. Focuses on scalability allowing dynamic context knowledge to be managed by the system. In testing, users found that RFID sensing lacked accuracy and some users suggested the system was not easily used.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  9. 9. A New Context-Aware System From previous related works it has been acknowledged that a new system must: - Include functionality to dynamically alter contextual information on-the-fly, offering scalability. - Encourage engagement with exhibits instead of removing focus. - Provide an interesting and engaging alternative to existing methods, giving a level of freedom to users.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  10. 10. User Requirements Further to user requirements outlined by Ali (2011) and Golebiewska (2011).Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  11. 11. Proposed System New proposed system - Mimir - consists of two elements: a native smartphone application and a content server. iOS application allows users to capture a QR code to view media rich artifact information. Embedded social media allows articles to be shared with peers online. Articles hosted on dynamic CMS allowing exhibitors to add and edit their own content remotely. Generates reporting on user behavior.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  12. 12. System ArchitectureAshley J Wheat May 2012
  13. 13. UI Design Initial wireframe designs produced using iMockUps software. Developed in keeping with Apple UI conventions and guidelines.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  14. 14. CMS Interface WYSIWYG editor to add and Behavior reporting filtered by edit content. device, article and time.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  15. 15. Method Two user studies carried out: MA Fine Art Interim Show & User Trial at Middlesex University. MA Interim Show User Trial9 artists adding work to CMS and exhibiting 7 users recruitedin live exhibition. Loaned iPod touch device to use system inLoaned iPod touch devices to use system in live exhibition setting.live environment. Post-trial questionnaires consisting of Lickert2 post-trial user focus groups using Ludic scale questions (1 – Strongly Disagree to 5 –evaluation approach. Simply asked “what Strongly Agree).happened?”.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  16. 16. Findings: MA Interim Show Audio recordings of focus groups transcribed and open coding carried out according to Grounded Theory (Stebbins, 2001) identifying key concepts. - Younger generation more familiar with technology, use of system would attract them to exhibitions. - Artifact information needed more depth and flexibility, serving as a portal or link to further information - System provided more freedom, is more engaging and less cumbersome than traditional methods. - Facility to save articles for later review a key feature that is missing in current iteration. - QR codes can be intrusive on art, and some artists may feel apprehensive in their use.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  17. 17. Findings: User TrialAshley J Wheat May 2012
  18. 18. Findings: User Trial - Most users likely to download and use application. - Users felt that the use of the system made visit more interactive and engaging. - Inclusion of multimedia information made exhibit information more exciting and engaging, making the system preferable to traditional guides. - Use of QR codes and context-awareness provided more freedom, making information easier to access. - Users noted that information on system mirrored that already available, without providing extended, additional content. - Users somewhat likely to take advantage of social network integration but this is not a key issue. - Users suggested that a recommendation system is a key feature missing from current system.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  19. 19. Conclusions The project carried out shows that digital technology, in particular a context-aware system such as Mimir can be employed in making museums and exhibition spaces more engaging and exciting places to be. The system provides freedom and further engagement, enhancing user experience further to traditional methods. Project shows that new ways of exploring information must be found to keep museums and art galleries open to an emerging ‘digital generation’.Ashley J Wheat May 2012
  20. 20. Further Development - Replacing QR codes with new, less intrusive method such as image recognition, as seen in the Aurasma iPhone application. - Further depth and flexibility in articles, allowing artists to use the system in their own way and provide further information to what is already available. - Development of a recommender system to provide links and act as a portal allowing users to access more content according to their behavior. - Although not a key theme highlighted, the social experience of exhibition visitors must be researched further and considered in development.Ashley J Wheat May 2012

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