Bio 124 lab exam study
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Bio 124 lab exam study

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  • Domain Bacteria, (supergroup, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family) Genus Anabaena, Species Nostoc
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupExcavata, KingdomDiplomonadida, (phylum, class, order, family) Genus Giardia, Species Lamblia
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupExcavata, KingdomEuglenozoa, Phylum Kinetoplastida, (class, order, family) Genus Trypanosoma
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupExcavata, KingdomEuglenozoa, Phylum Euglenophyta, (class, order, family) Genus Euglena
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupChromalveolata, KingdomAlveolata, Phylum Dinoflagellata, (class, order, family) Genus Ceratium
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupChromalveolata, KingdomAlveolata, Phylum Ciliophora, (class, order, family) Genus Paramecium, Species Caudatum
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupChromalveolata, KingdomStramenopila, Phylum Bacillariophyta, Diatoms
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupChromalveolata, KingdomStramenopila, Phylum Phaeophyta, (class, order, family) Genus Fucus
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupChromalveolata, KingdomStramenopila, Phylum Phaeophyta, (class, order, family) Genus Laminaria
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupChromalveolata, KingdomStramenopila, Phylum Phaeophyta, (class, order, family) Genus Nereocystis
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupUnikonta, KingdomAmoebozoa, Phylum Myxogastrida, (class, order, family) Genus Physarum, Species Polycephalum
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupUnikonta, KingdomAmoebozoa, Phylum Gymnamoeba, (class, order, family) Genus Amoeba
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupArchaeoplastida, KingdomRhodophyta, (red algae)
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupArchaeoplastida, KingdomChlorophyta, Phylum Chlamydomonas, (green algae)
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupArchaeplastida, KingdomChlorophyta, Phylum Chlamydomonas (colony), (green algae)
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupArchaeplastida, KingdomChlorophyta, (green algae) Genus Spirogyra
  • Domain Eukarya, SupergroupArchaeplastida, KingdomChlorophyta, (green algae) Genus Ulva

Transcript

  • 1. Domain Eukarya (Protists)• Membrane bound nucleus• Mitochondria and intercellular structures (endosymbiosis)• Cytoskeleton• Linear chromosomes• Meiosis and mitosis• 3 life cycles – diplontic – haplontic - diplohapontic• 5 types – Mixotrophic – Algae – Protozoa – Absorptive protists – Plankton
  • 2. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and MitosisSupergroup UnicellularExcavata Feeding groove down body Flagella 2 Identical haploid nuclei No Meiosis and MitosisKingdom Many flagellumDiplomonadida Lack of intercellular structures Parasites Anaerobic Similar to bactirea
  • 3. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Excavata• Kingdom Diplomonadida• Genus Giardia• Species Lamblia“Beaver Fever”Look for:• Two nuclei• Multiple flagellae• “face like” apperanceOnly cyst can live outside host
  • 4. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and MitosisSupergroup UnicellularExcavata Feeding groove down body Flagella FlagellatesKingdom All modes of nutritionEuglenozoa Free-living, parasitic and pathogenic
  • 5. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Excavata• Kingdom Euglenozoa• Phylum Kinetoplastida• Genus Trypanosoma“African Sleeping Sickness”Look for:• Purple squiggles (parasite)• Attached to pink disks (blood cells)• OgopogoKinetoplast - crystalline form inside onelarge mitochondrion at the base of theflagellum. Contains extranuclear DNA
  • 6. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Excavata• Kingdom Euglenozoa• Phylum Euglenophyta• Genus Euglena“Euglena”Look for:• Flagellum (pulling)• Red eyespot• Strange shaped chloroplasts• Speedy and look like picklesChamber from which flagellaoriginate and mixotrophic, onlyin the absence of light, mostlyautotrophic characteristics.
  • 7. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and MitosisSupergroup Contain secondary endosymbiosisChromalveolata Contain plastid Alveoli, small cavities under plasma membraneKingdom FlagellaAlveolata Free-living, parasitic and pathogenic
  • 8. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Chromalveolata• Kingdom Alveolata• Phylum Dinoflagellata• Genus Ceratium“Red Tide”Look for:• Transverse groove and perpendicular grove• Cellulose plates, can have spines/projections• 2 FlagellaChlorophylls a and c, bioluminescent
  • 9. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Chromalveolata• Kingdom Alveolata• Phylum Ciliophora• Genus Paramecium• Species Caudatum“Paramecium”Look for:• Cilia• Oral grove (gullet) – eating• Contractile vacuole – drinking• Quick• 2 types of nuclei Macro & MicroConjugation – sexual life cycle -Diploid micronuclei (meiosis) to haploidmicronuclei, exchange genetic materialw/ another (sex), micronuclear fusion(fertilization), to diploidmicronucleus, old macronucleusdisintegrates, new micronucleusbecomes macro.
  • 10. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and MitosisSupergroup Contain secondary endosymbiosisChromalveolata Contain plastidKingdom Flagella with fine hair like projectionsStramenopila “Stramenopila” or “Tinsel flagella”
  • 11. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Chromalveolata• Kingdom Stramenopila• Phylum Bacillariophyta“Diatoms”Look for:• 2 symmetrical halves (valves)• Complex, perfect silica structure• Oil – food storage, buoyancy• Laminarin – food storage, yellow colour• Diatomatious earth – diatom shells, commercial uses (filtering, light abrasion)• Asexual (most often) – 2 valves, box and lid, split, make another(sm) “lid” – when too small sexual reproduction occurs
  • 12. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Chromalveolata• Kingdom Stramenopila• Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Genus Fucus“Fucus”Look for:• Dioecious, Diploid life cycle – diploid multicellular organism, haploid gametes• Holdfast, stipe(stem), air bladder, blades/laminaAutotrophic, brown algae, containingfucoxanthin a pigment that absorbs blueand yellow-green wavelengths. Ideal fordeep sea growth. Contain Laminarin (foodstorage) and Algin (gel texture, comercialuses)
  • 13. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Chromalveolata• Kingdom Stramenopila• Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Genus Laminaria“Kelp”Look for:• Dioecious Heteromorphic Diplohaplontic life cycle. Gametes and spores• Holdfast, stipe(stem), air bladder, blades/laminaAutotrophic, brown algae, containingfucoxanthin a pigment that absorbsblue and yellow-green wavelengths.Ideal for deep sea growth. ContainLaminarin (food storage) and Algin (geltexture, comercial uses)
  • 14. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Chromalveolata• Kingdom Stramenopila• Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Genus Nereocystis“Bull Kelp”Look for:• Dioecious Heteromorphic Diplohaplontic life cycle. Gametes and spores• Holdfast, stipe(stem), air bladder, blades/laminaAutotrophic, brown algae, containingfucoxanthin a pigment that absorbs blue andyellow-green wavelengths. Ideal for deep seagrowth. Contain Laminarin (food storage) andAlgin (gel texture, comercial uses)
  • 15. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and MitosisSupergroup Flagella or Pseudopodia for movementUnikonta Varied group PseudopodiaKingdom Cytoplasmic streamingAmoebozoa Inner cytoplasm(sol) streaming through more rigid outer(gel), cytoplasm can covert from sol to gel
  • 16. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Unikonta• Kingdom Amoebozoa• Phylum Myxogastrida• Genus Physarum• Species Polycephalum“Slime Mold”Look for:• Colourful netlike structure• Heteromorphic, Diplohaplontic sporophytes and gametophytes look diff• Coenocytic/plasmodium, large single cell with many nucleiCellulose in cell walls (not chitin like fungi)Glycogen used as food storage (like animals)
  • 17. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Unikonta• Kingdom Amoebozoa• Phylum Gymnamoeba• Genus Amoeba“Amoeba”Look for:• Pseudopodia, false feet, used for movement and Phagocytosis (feeding)• Contractile (water) and food vacuoles
  • 18. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and Mitosis Primary EndosimbiosisSupergroup Contain plastidsArchaeoplastida Chlorophyll A Contain Cellulose and starch 2 Phycobilin pigmentsKingdom Phycocyanin and Phycoerythrin (also in cyanobacteria)Rhodophyta No flagella Complex sex cycle Red Algae
  • 19. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Archaeoplastida• Kingdom Rhodophyta“Red Algae”Look for:• Multicellular• Red or dark colour• Coralline algae – cell walls contain calcium carbonateContain Pectin, in cellwalls, Agar, used as bacteriagrowth medium, andCarageenan, used to givesmooth consistency to foods.
  • 20. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and Mitosis Primary EndosimbiosisSupergroup Contain plastidsArchaeoplastida Chlorophyll A Contain Cellulose and starch Green AlgeaKingdom Chlorophyll BChlorophyta Diverse Similarities to Kingdom Plantae Bridges the gap between single and multicellular
  • 21. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Archaeoplastida• Kingdom Chlorophyta• Phylum Chlamydomonas“Chlamydomonas”Look for:• 2 Flagella – front end(pull)• Haplontic life cycle, diploid zigote• Red eye spot, respond to light, phototaxicContains Pyrenoids that produceand store starch
  • 22. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Archaeoplastida• Kingdom Chlorophyta• Phylum Chlamydomonas (colony)“Volvox”Look for:• Intercellular communication: eyespots lager on one side, coordinated flagella, directional movement, cells differentiated for reproduction• Haplontic Life cycle both asexual and sexual.Asexual – new daughter colonies insideparent until parent disintegratedSexual – eggs and sperm can survivefreezing and drying, after hard times able tomake new colonies
  • 23. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Archaeoplastida• Kingdom Chlorophyta• Genus Spirogyra“Spirogyra”Look for:• Single cell, spiral, filamentous• Haplontic life cycle• Conjunction where 2 adjacent filaments contents move trough a conjunctive tube. Haploid nuclei fuse creating a diploid zygote. Meiosis produces haploid cells and grow in to new filaments .Contains Pyrenoids that produceand store starch
  • 24. • Domain Eukarya• Supergroup Archaeoplastida• Kingdom Chlorophyta• Genus Ulva“Ulva”Look for:• Multicellular but only has 2 layers of cells• Monoecious Isomorphic Diplohapontic life cycle.Found in shallow costal waters, has asmall holdfast