What attitudes, beliefs, and events led to the necessity of a civil rights movement?
Foundation of our great country “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness
Racial caste system. Blacks were believed to be “less than” whites and thus treated as second class citizens. Jim Crow Laws became a way of life between written law and expected etiquette. It symbolized legal segregation.
HomerPlessy was jailed for sitting in the “White” car of the East Louisiana Railroad. The issue went to the Supreme Court where they ruled separate facilities for whites and black was constitutional as long as they were equal
KKK began during Reconstruction as a type of fraternity. The KKK terrorized political and social figures in the black community. Eventually, thousands of blacks were beaten, whipped, and murdered. The KKK also intimidated thousands of blacks from voting
Between 1882-1968, 4,743 lynchings occurred in the United States
Was the result of a newspaper article that brought light to interracial relations. 25 people were killed and businesses burned
Between 1900 and 1660, about 5 million black migrated to the North in search of better lives. What happens when there is more people looking for jobs? Competition
Here are just a few examples of actual laws. People who violated the laws were either fined or imprisoned. How would you feel if someone told you who you could or could not marry?
Public facilities including water fountains and restrooms upheld Plessy V Ferguson. Often, employers such as those in factories would have both white and black restrooms
In 1956, A Louisiana law required public halls, movie theaters, opera houses, and all other places of public entertainment to separate white and black patrons. These laws were found throughout the country but predominantly in the south
Although the education system was suppose to be equal, most African American schools were highly inadequate.
Under Jim Crow, people of color were separated on all public transportation. As seen in the picture, there was a clear divider between the races. It is important to realize that “colored” basically applied to anyone who was not white.
Black voters in the south experienced disenfranchisement. Their right to vote was often taken away from them through actual laws, intimidation, and unreasonable registration/identification requirements
Civil rights movement
The Journey to theCivil Rights Movement
HomeWhat were Jim Crow Laws?LegislationViolenceThe Great MigrationJim Crow LawsMartin Luther King, Jr.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)Designed to grant citizenship to individuals once enslavedSeparate Car Act(1890)Separate but equal train car accommodationsPlessy v. Ferguson (1896)Upheld prior segregation laws :Separate but equal
"The North symbolized to me all that I had notfelt or seen; it had no relation to what actuallyexisted. Yet by imagining a place whereeverything is possible, it kept hope alive insideof me." Richard Wright
Miscegenation: Prohibited interracial marriages1901: The Alabama Constitution is amended to block the passageof any law authorizing or legalizing interracial marriage. Themeasure will remain unchanged until November 2000.1955:The Maryland legislature amends an anti-miscegenationstatute first passed in 1884. Under the new law, any whitewoman who births a child conceived with a black or mixed-raceman will be imprisoned for up to five years. The law will berenewed in 1957.
A Black male could not shake hands with a White male Blacks and Whites were not supposed to eat together. Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended Whites. Whites did not use names of respect when referring to Blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Ms., Sir or Maam. If a Black person rode in a car with a White person, the Black person sat in the back seat or the back of a truck.
“There comes a time whenpeople get tired of beingtrampled over by the tiredfeet of oppression …” Martin Luther King, Jr