Albert Ellis & REBT


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  • Albert Ellis & REBT

    1. 1. ALBERT ELLISRational EmotiveBehaviorTherapy“The best years of your life are the onesin which you decide your problems areyour own. You do not blame them onyour mother, the ecology, or thepresident. You realize that you controlyour own destiny.”
    2. 2. Meet Albert Ellis(1913-2007)
    3. 3. Early Life of Albert Ellis• Albert Ellis was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1913and was raised in New York.• He was the eldest of three children.• He suffered numerous health related issues as a child,which includes a devastating kidney disease, hospitalizedfor tonsillitis; a severe streptococcal infection whichneeded emergency surgery.• He was hospitalized eight different times between theages of five and seven years, one of which lasted nearly ayear.
    4. 4. Early Life of Albert Ellis• He suffered from health problems his entire life. Diagnosed ofinsulin dependent diabetes at age 40.• His health issues diverted his attention from sports to writingbooks.• His parents were unaffectionate and unsupportive.• His father was never available, always away on business tripsduring his early childhood.• His father experienced minimal success in his businessventures.• He described his mother as a self absorbed woman withbipolar disorder.
    5. 5. Early Life of Albert Ellis• According to Ellis his mother was a “bustling chatter boxwho never listened.”• She expounded her opinions on subjects but rarelyprovided a factual bases for her views.• The strife in his family led to divorce between his parentswhen he was 12 years old.• Ellis took the burden to raise and care for his 2 youngersiblings.
    6. 6. Early Life of Albert Ellis• The Great Depression mandated all three siblings to findwork.• However, his rough upbringing did not stop hisdetermination for success.• He made the best out of his childhood by using his headand becoming, in his own words, “a stubborn andpronounced problem-solver.”
    7. 7. Early Life of Albert Ellis• Exaggerated fears of speakingin public.• He was extremely shy aroundwomen during his adolescence.• At 19, he was already thinkinglike a cognitive behavioraltherapist.• He encouraged himself tospeak to 100 women in theBronx Botanical Gardens andthis in turn helped himovercome his fear of rejectionby women.
    8. 8. Education & Early Career• He had the vision of becoming The Greatest AmericanNovelist.• Planned to study accounting in high school and college,make enough money to retire at age 30 and write withoutthe pressure of financial need.• The Great Depression thwarted his plans, but he was ableto finish college.• He earned a degree in business administration in 1934from the City University of New York.
    9. 9. Education & Early Career• His first business career was a pants-matching businesswhich he started with his brother.• They scourged the New York garment circle-lines forpants to match costumers still-usable coats.• He became the personnel manager for a gift and noveltyfirm in 1938.• He devoted most of his spare time to writing short stories,plays, novels, comic poetry, essays, and non-fictionbooks.
    10. 10. Education & Early Career• He wrote non-fiction books because he realized his futuredid not lie on writing fiction, which helped him topromote what he called the “Sex-family revolution.”• He earned his master’s degree at the Teachers College,Columbia University.• Earned his Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology with afocus on Psychoanalysis.• Earned his Ph.D. and taught at New York University andRutgers University.• He wrote several books.
    11. 11. Early Theoretical Contri-bution to Psychotherapy• He was married twice andneither produced himchildren.• His numerous love interestswere short lived andconflicted relationships.• These conflicts in his loveaffair helped him with thebackground necessary towrite numerous books andarticles about humansexuality.
    12. 12. Contribution to Psycho-therapy, Cont’d• Karen Horney, Alfred Adler, Eric Fromm, and HarryStack-Sullivan are his greatest influence, played a role inshaping his psychological models.• In 1953, he began advocating a more direct and activetype of psychotherapy, which he called Rational Therapyand later renamed it the Rational Emotive BehaviorTherapy.
    13. 13. What situations lead tothe use REBT?• Assist an individual by shedding light on dysfunctionalbeliefs → configure them into more practical, usefulbeliefs• Help an individual to conquer defeatist thoughts in orderto allow for achievements• Encourage one to assume adaptive thoughts in place ofirrationality“Thought is action in rehearsal.”Sigmund Freud
    14. 14. What are irrationalbeliefs (iB)?Rational Beliefs• Logical: “It is not helpful and maybe harmful to become overlydistraught.” “Facing and solvingtough problems is rewarding.” “Nomatter how evil an act, there arereasons for it.”• Practical: “No one can be perfect.”“It is not possible for everyone tolove and approve of us.”• Generate functional results:“Perfection is not a goal.” “Youcan’t change the past, but you canlearn from it.”Irrational BeliefsI. DemandingII. AwfulizingIII. Low FrustrationToleranceIV. People Rating“Be careful about whatyou think. Your thoughtsrun your life.”Proverbs 4:23
    15. 15. 12 Irrational Beliefs: Theidea that…1) It is a dire necessity for adults to beloved/approved by every significantother for everything you do2) Certain acts are awful/wicked, and thatpeople who perform such acts should beseverely damned3) It is horrible when things are not the waywe like them to be4) Human misery is invariably externallycaused and is forced on us by outsidepeople and events5) If something is or may bedangerous/fearsome, we should beterribly upset and endlessly obsess aboutit6) It is easier to avoid than to face lifedifficulties and self-responsibilities7) We absolutely need something other,stronger or greater than ourselves onwhich to rely8) We should be thoroughly competent,intelligent and achieving in allpossible respects9) Because something once stronglyaffected our life, it should indefinitelyaffect it10) We must have certain and perfectcontrol over things11) Human happiness can be achieved byinertia and inaction12) We have virtually no control over ouremotions and that we cannot helpfeeling disturbed about things“For there is nothing either good or bad, butthinking makes it so.”Hamlet: Act II, Scene 2
    16. 16. Where do irrationalbeliefs originate?• Childhood: Parents provide the foundation of our beliefsystem; children are defenseless and subject to whatevertheir parents say to them.• Environment: We are always subject to the environment.The events that occur in one’s life are situations that weunknowingly allow ourselves to be affected by.Unconsciously, we allow things to be negatively reinforced.As we grow older, Ellis believed that we permit theseincidents to dictate our behavior. The nature of thatenvironment will lead a defeated person further into deficitthinking.
    17. 17. ABC’s of REBT• [A] Activating event/adversity: Situation that occurs• [B] Beliefs: Rational (rB) or irrational (iB) regarding thesituation• [C] Consequence: Emotional, physiological, orbehavioral response“You are today where your thoughtshave brought you…
    18. 18. D & E of REBT• [D] Disputation: Challenge negative or unhelpfulthoughts• [E] Effective New Beliefs: Replacement of negativitywith more useful thoughts…You will be tomorrow where yourthoughts take you.”James Allen
    19. 19. Learn your ABCs
    20. 20. Methods of REBT• Cognitive Techniques: Strategically changing negativethoughts.• Behavioral Techniques: Learning coping mechanisms tocombat stressful situations.• Emotive Techniques: Exploration of feelings to modifythoughts.
    21. 21. Who can be helped byREBT?o Depression & mooddisorderso Aggressiveness, angero Anxietyo Obsessive CompulsiveDisordero PerfectionismSurprisingly,• Eating Disorders• AttentionDeficit/HyperactivityDisorder• Relationshipdifficulties,couples/family therapy
    22. 22. More Contributions ofAlbert EllisBOOKS:• “How to Control Anger Beforeit Controls You”• “The Road to Tolerance:Philosophy of RationalEmotive Behavior Therapy”• “The Secret to OvercomingVerbal Abuse: Getting off theEmotional Rollercoaster andRegaining Control of YourLife”• Ellis wrote more than 80 booksand 1,200 articles!ALSO:The Albert Ellis Institute!