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  • 1. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2]Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biologicalprocesses that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning,personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causaland correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductivemethods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductivetechniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such ashuman development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. Etymology The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (ψυχή psukhē , "breath, spirit, soul" and -λογία -logia, "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia d e ration e anima e humana e in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12] History Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology. The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] covered the workings of the mind in their writings.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15] Structuralism Main article: Structuralism (psychology) German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father ofexperimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879. [16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt,
  • 2. himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches. Functionalism Main article: Functional psychology Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr. Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin, [18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19] Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a"revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories. Psychoanalysis Main article: Psychoanalysis From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21]Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23] row:Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi. Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24] Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
  • 3. Behaviorism Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated. Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28] Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences. Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches.[35] Humanistic Main article: Humanistic psychology Psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 posited that humans have a hierarchy of needs, and it makes sense to fulfill the basic needs first (food, water etc.) before higher-order needs can be met.[36] Humanistic psychology was developed in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis.[37] By using phenomenology,intersubjectivity, and first-person categories, the humanistic approach sought to glimpse the whole person—not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning.[38] Humanism focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as individual free will, personal growth, self-actualization, self- identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning. The humanistic approach was distinguished by its emphasis on subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology.[citation needed] Some of the founders of the humanistic school of thought were American psychologists Abraham Maslow, who formulated a hierarchy of human needs, and Carl Rogers, who created and developed client-centered therapy. Later,positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific modes of exploration.
  • 4. Gestalt Main article: Gestalt psychology Wolfgang Kohler, Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka co-founded the school of Gestalt psychology. This approach is based upon the idea that individuals experience things as unified wholes. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. Rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the Gestalt position maintains that the whole of experience is important, and the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Gestalt psychology should not be confused with the Gestalt therapy of Fritz Perls, which is only peripherally linked to Gestalt psychology. Existentialism Main articles: Existentialism and Existential therapy In the 1950s and 1960s, largely influenced by the work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger and Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, psychoanalytically trained American psychologist Rollo May pioneered an existential branch of psychology, which included existential psychotherapy, a method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's confrontation with the givens of existence. Existential psychologists differed from others often classified as humanistic in their comparatively neutral view of human nature and in their relatively positive assessment ofanxiety.[39] Existential psychologists emphasized the humanistic themes of death, free will, and meaning, suggesting that meaning can be shaped by myths, or narrative patterns,[40] and that it can be encouraged by an acceptance of the free will requisite to an authentic, albeit often anxious, regard for death and other future prospects. Austrian existential psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl drew evidence of meaning's therapeutic power from reflections garnered from his own internment,[41] and he created a variation of existential psychotherapy called logotherapy, a type of existentialist analysis that focuses on a will to meaning (in one's life), as opposed to Adler'sNietzschean doctrine of will to power or Freud's will to pleasure.[42] In addition to May and Frankl, Swiss psychoanalyst Ludwig Binswanger and American psychologist George Kelly may be said to belong to the existential school.[43] Cognitivism Main articles: Cognitivism (psychology), Cognitive psychology and Cognitive science Baddeley's model of working memory Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including problem solving, perception, memory, andlearning. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines includingneuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. Noam Chomsky helped to launch a "cognitive revolution" in psychology when he criticized the behaviorists' notions of "stimulus", "response", and "reinforcement". Chomsky argued that such ideas—which Skinner had borrowed from animal experiments in the laboratory—could be applied to complex human behavior, most notably language acquisition, in only a superficial and vague manner. The postulation that humans are born with the instinct or "innate facility" for acquiring language posed a challenge to the behaviorist position that all behavior, including language, is contingent upon learning and reinforcement.[44] Social learning theorists, such asAlbert Bandura, argued that the child's environment could make
  • 5. contributions of its own to the behaviors of an observant subject.[45] The Müller–Lyer illusion. Psychologists make inferences about mental processes from shared phenomena such as optical illusions. Meanwhile, accumulating technology helped to renew interest and belief in the mental states and representations—i.e., the cognition—that had fallen out of favor with behaviorists. English neuroscientist Charles Sherrington and Canadian psychologist Donald O. Hebb used experimental methods to link psychological phenomena with the structure and function of the brain. With the rise of computer science and artificial intelligence, analogies were drawn between the processing of information by humans andinformation processing by machines. Research in cognition had proven practical since World War II, when it aided in the understanding of weapons operation.[46] By the late 20th century, though, cognitivism had become the dominant paradigm of psychology, and cognitive psychology emerged as a popular branch. Assuming both that the covert mind should be studied, and that the scientific method should be used to study it, cognitive psychologists set such concepts as subliminal processing and implicit memory in place of the psychoanalytic unc onscious mindor the behavioristic c onting ency-shap e d b ehaviors. Elements of behaviorism and cognitive psychology were synthesized to form the basis of cognitive behavioral therapy, a form of psychotherapy modified from techniques developed by American psychologist Albert Ellis and American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck. Cognitive psychology was subsumed along with other disciplines, such as philosophy of mind, computer science, and neuroscience, under the cover discipline of cognitive science. Subfields Further information:Outline of psychology and List of psychology disciplines Main article: Subfields of psychology . Psychology encompasses a vast domain and includes many different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior Biological Main articles: Biological psychology, Neuropsychology, Physiological psychology and Cognitive neuroscience MRI depicting the human brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus. Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience is the study of the biological substrates of behavior and mental processes. There are different specialties within behavioral neuroscience. For example, physiological psychologists use animal models, typically rats, to study the neural, genetic, and cellular mechanisms that underlie specific behaviors such as learning and memory and fear responses.[47] Cognitive neuroscientistsinvestigate the neural correlates of psychological processes in humans using neural imaging tools, and neuropsychologists conduct psychological assessments to determine, for instance, specific aspects and extent of cognitive deficit caused by brain damage or disease. Clinical Clinical psychologists work with individuals, children, families, couples, or small groups. Main articles:Clinical psychology and Counseling psychology Clinical psychology includes the study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding,preventing, and
  • 6. relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[48] Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury—this area is known as clinical neuropsychology. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be influenced by various therapeutic approaches, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client (usually an individual, couple, family, or small group). The various therapeutic approaches and practices are associated with different theoretical perspectives and employ different procedures intended to form a therapeutic alliance, explore the nature of psychological problems, and encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Four major theoretical perspectives are psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, existential–humanistic, and systems or family therapy. There has been a growing movement to integrate the various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual orientation. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is evidence that most of the major therapies are about of equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance.[49][50]Because of this, more training programs and psychologists are now adopting an eclectic therapeutic orientation.[51][52][53][54][55] The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates back to the Ancient Greeks. There is also evidence of psychological thought in ancient Egypt. Psychology was a branch of philosophy until the 1870s, when it developed as an independent scientific discipline in Germany and the United States. Psychology borders on various other fields including physiology,neuroscience, artificial intelligence, sociology, anthropology, as well as philosophy and other components of the humanities. Today, psychology is defined as "the study of behavior and mental processes". Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India. For a condensed overview of the subject see the Timeline of Psychology article. Psychology as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Wundt was also the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist and wrote the first textbook on psychology: Principles of Physiological Psychology. Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus (a pioneer in the study of memory), William James (the American father of pragmatism), and Ivan Pavlov (who developed the procedures associated with classical conditioning). Soon after the development of experimental psychology, various kinds of applied psychology appeared. G. Stanley Hall brought scientific pedagogy to the United States from Germany in the early 1880s. John Dewey's educational theory of the 1890s was another example. Also in the 1890s, Hugo Münsterberg began writing about the application of psychology to industry, law, and other fields.Lightner Witmer established the first psychological clinic in the 1890s. James McKeen
  • 7. Cattell adapted Francis Galton's anthropometric methods to generate the first program of mental testing in the 1890s. In Vienna, meanwhile, Sigmund Freuddeveloped an independent approach to the study of the mind called psychoanalysis, which has been widely influential. The 20th century saw a reaction to Edward Titchener's critique of Wundt's empiricism. This contributed to the formulation ofbehaviorism by John B. Watson, which was popularized by B. F. Skinner. Behaviorism proposed emphasizing the study of overt behavior, because that could be quantified and easily measured. Early behaviorists considered study of the "mind" too vague for productive scientific study. However, Skinner and his colleagues did study thinking as a form of covert behavior to which they could apply the same principles as overt (publicly observable) behavior. The final decades of the 20th century saw the rise of cognitive science, an interdisciplinary approach to studying the human mind. Cognitive science again considers the "mind" as a subject for investigation, using the tools of evolutionary psychology, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, behaviorism, and neurobiology. This form of investigation has proposed that a wide understanding of the human mind is possible, and that such an understanding may be applied to other research domains, such as artificial intelligence. Types of Behaviors in Psychology Psychology is actually study with regards to the mind, taking place partly through the study of behavior. In scientific approach, psychology has got the immediate goal of knowing individuals and groups by each researching specific cases and forming general principles and for most it eventually aims to help society. In this field, an expert researcher or practitioner is known as psychologist and could be classified like a behavioral scientist, cognitive scientist or social scientist. Psychologists try to understand the part of mental functions within social behavior and individual, while additionally exploring the neurobiological and physiological processes which underlie certain cognitive behaviors and functions. Types of Communication Behaviors Communication is actually a constant flow of nonverbal and verbal details. Relationships could be built on or broken through the use of negative and positive communication behaviors. Knowing how other people communicate their feelings, assists strengthen interactions. However, communication behaviors which are misunderstood can make misinformation and distance. The right choice of communication behavior can make the difference between negative and a positive situation. Listening can be a communication behavior with a number of different techniques. Comprehension listening, evaluation listening and critical listening tend to be communication behaviors together with positive effects. Comprehension listening entails knowing the meaning of exactly what is said. Critical listening needs judging what has been said to make an opinion. This kind of behavior entails effort in order to analyze the given information. Passive Aggressive Behavior Passive aggressive behavior comes in many forms however can usually manifest as a non-verbal aggression which evolved in negative behavior. It is where one is angry with somebody but do not let them know. Rather than interacting honestly you feel annoyed, upset, disappointed or irritated, you may as an alternative bottle up the feelings, shut down verbally, make
  • 8. obvious modifications in behavior, give angry looks, sulky, be obstructive, or put up a stone wall. A passive aggressive may well not always show that a person is resentful or angry. He or she can be found in friendly, agreement, polite, down-to-earth, well-meaning and kind. But, underneath there might be manipulations happening - therefore the term is Passive Aggressive Behavior. A type of behavior is way to group behaviors. Any specific behavior might have characteristics fitting in numerous categories. The way in which human beings or animals react to various stimuli or situations can be categorized as types of behavior. Types which are of unique interest and frequently studied, includes emotional behavior, in which an individual or animal responds emotionally to a scenario; bad behavior, in which people break interpersonal rules, for example being rude or otherwise not minding; out of control behavior, where a person cannot control his / her behavior; and also group behavior or how several people act in several situations. Appropriate Behavior Description: Accomplishes desired and desired goals without trespassing on the needs and rights of others. This also includes suitable emotional responses. Example: Keeps hale and hearty eating habits; Acquires satisfaction for a work done or problems solved without depreciating others. Deficit Behavior Description: Nonexistence of knowledge and skills needed for carrying out the behavior. Example: Active studying, note taking; passive responding in social circumstances Excess Behavior Description: Too much of a Behavior Example: Consuming alcohol until passed out. Eats too much and Smoking. Inappropriate Behavior Description: The behavior takes place at a place or time which is inappropriate. If it happened under other situations then the inappropriate behavior would be adequate. Example: Exhibitionism or Bed-wetting Maladaptive or Emotional Behavior Description: Skilled with performance however has a stronger than distinctive autonomic system response, frequently it is anxieties and fears. Example: Test Anxiety; shyness What is Contemporary Psychology?
  • 9. Answer Contemporary psychology is also referred to as modern psychology because it contains more recent information that is the result of more recent research studies. It often disputes previous findings on the causes and effects of certain behavioral conditions and can cause some doctors to change their course of treatment. Branches of Psychology Psychology is a remarkably diverse subject, which is why a number of different branches have emerged to explore different topics and perspectives. Explore some of the many branches of psychology and learn more about what each one has to offer, including forensic psychology, cognitive psychology, human factors and many more. Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsession-compulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists, and psychotherapists often work directly in this field. Behavioral Psychology Behavioral psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors. Conditioning, reinforcement and punishment are key concepts used by behaviorists. Learn more about classical conditioning and operant conditioning as well as some of the major behaviorist thinkers. Neuroscience and Biological Psychology While our minds plays a role in our physical well-being, our biological processes also influence our mental health. Learn more about how the brain and nervous system impact our behavior, thoughts, and feelings. Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. Learn more about topics and issues in clinical psychology. Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is an area that looks at "interior" states including thought, motivation, attention, problem-solving and decision-making. Explore some of the different topics of interest within the field of cognitive psychology. Comparative Psychology Comparative psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. The study of animal behavior can lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology. Cross-Cultural Psychology Cross-cultural psychology is a branch of psychology that looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior
  • 10. Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology focuses on human growth throughout the lifespan. Childhood is obviously a time of tremendous change, but people also continue to grow and develop during the early adult, middle age, and senior years. In this section, learn more about topics including child development, intellectual development, cognitive development, and the aging process. Educational Psychology Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with schools, teaching psychology, educational issues, and student concerns. Find more information about educational psychology. Forensic Psychology Forensic psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the intersection of psychology and the law. Learn more about the applications of forensic psychology and various issues in this growing specialty area. Health Psychology - All About Health Psychology Health psychology focuses on promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness. Learn more about health psychology and the type of work that health psychologists do. Human Factors Psychology Human factors is the branch of psychology concerned with applying psychological principles to product design, usability issues, human-computer interaction and ergonomics. Industrial Organizational Psychology Industrial-organizational psychology is concerned with the study of workplace behavior. Learn more about this branch of psychology. Personality Psychology Learn more about personality, how it develops, and how it influences our behavior. Read about the major theories of personality development. Positive Psychology Positive psychology is a branch of psychology focused on understanding human well-being and happiness. Learn more about this area of psychology as well as some of the major thinkers in positive psychology. Social Psychology Social psychology seeks to explain and understand social behavior. Learn more about group behavior, how we interact with others, and social influences on decision making. Sports Psychology Sports psychology is the study of how psychology influences sports, athletic performance, exercise and physical activity. Learn more about this branch of psychology, its history and careers within this field.
  • 11. Principles Of Growth And Development You are getting ready to do your laundry. What do you do first? Then what? What's the last thing that occurs? You probably answered these questions the same way that most others would: First you sort your laundry into loads of lights and darks, next are the steps to wash and dry, and last you put the laundry away. Most people would answer these questions in the same way because there is a sequential process that has to take place to get your clothes clean and put away. Biological development takes place in a similar, organized manner. Biological development occurs in a sequential order. Typical biological development also takes place as a predictable and orderly process. Most children will develop at the same rate and at about the same time as other children. These patterns of growth and development allow us to predict how and when most children will develop certain characteristics. There are also certain universal principles of growth and development that describe how the process of growth takes place. These are the cephalocaudal principle, the proximodistal principle, and the orthogenetic principle. Cephalocaudal Principle The cephalocaudal principle states that development proceeds from top to bottom. According to this principle, a child will gain physical control of their head first. After this, physical control will move downward to the arms and lastly to the legs. Imagine that you are holding a newborn. You have to carefully support the baby's head because the baby is not strong enough to support its head by itself. By the time the child is two months old, it develops enough strength to hold its head up on its own and to control its facial movements. Over the next few months, the baby gains control over the use of its arms. The baby can lift itself, and it can reach for objects. Finally, the child learns to control leg movements and to crawl, stand, and walk. Proximodistal Principle The proximodistal principle also describes the direction of development. This principle states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward. Think of a fertilized egg. This one tiny cell divides and expands outward to become an embryo. The spinal cord forms first, and development progresses outward to become a fetus. The limbs of the body form before hands and feet, and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes. Orthogenetic Principle The orthogenetic principle does not involve the direction of development. Instead, the orthogenetic principle states that development proceeds from the simple to the complex. This means that development of more difficult tasks begins with the mastery of simple tasks first. In other words, one stage of development lays the foundation for the next stage of development. Think of a child who is using crayons to draw a picture. The child did not simply sit down one day, grab a crayon, and draw. The child had to first learn the more simplistic task of grasping the crayon before learning to make purposeful movements with it that would form a picture. The same is true for the development of speech. In order to use words, a child must first learn to produce basic sounds. While these universal principles exist and we can predict that certain growth and development will take place
  • 12. during certain periods, it is also important to recognize that individual differences in rates of development are normal. This is why most stages of development are described as occurring within an age range rather than at a specific time. Biological development occurs in an organized, sequential order. This is similar to the steps you would take to complete any task, such as doing your laundry. There are three principles of growth and development: the cephalocaudal principle, the proximodistal principle, and the orthogenetic principle. These predictable patterns of growth and development allow us to predict how and when most children will develop certain characteristics. Growth and development typically occurs within certain time periods with allowance for individual difference in the rate of development. The cephalocaudal principle says that development progresses from top to bottom. Theproximodistal principle says that development progresses from the center of the body outward. Theorthogenetic principle says that development proceeds from the simple to the complex. Nervous System: Nervous system is the chief controlling and coordinating system of the body. It controls and regulates all activities of the body, whether voluntary or involuntary, and adjusts the individual (organism) to the given surroundings. This is based on the special properties of sensitivity, conductivity and responsiveness of the nervous system. The protoplasmic extensions of the nerve cells form the neural pathways called nerves. The nerves resemble the electricity wires. Like the electric current flowing through the wires, the impulses (sensory and motor) are conducted through the nerves. The sensory impulses are transmitted by the sensory (afferent) nerves from the periphery (skin, mucous membranes, muscles, tendons, joints, and special sense organs) to the central nervous system (CNS). The motor impulses are transmitted by the motor (efferent) nerves from the central nervous system to the periphery (muscles and glands). Thus the CNS is kept continuously informed about the surroundings (environment) through various sensory impulses, both general and special. The CNS in turn brings about necessary adjustment of the body by issuing appropriate orders which arc passed on as motor impulses to the muscles, vessels, viscera and glands. The adjustment of the organism to the given surroundings is the most important function of the nervous system, without which it will not be possible for the organism ta survive. Parts of Nervous System: The nervous system is broadly divided into central and peripheral parts which are continuous with each other. Further subdivisions of each part are given below.
  • 13. 1. Brain or encephalon, which occupies cranial cavity, and contains the higher governing centers. 2. Spinal cord or spinal medulla, which occupies upper two-thirds of the vertebral canal, and contains many reflex centers. • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes: 1. Cerebrospinal nervous system is the somatic component of the peripheral nervous system, which includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31pairs of spinal nerves. It innervates the somatic structures of the head and neck, limbs and body wall, and mediates somatic sensory and motor functions. 2. Peripheral autonomic nervous system is the visceral component of the peripheral nervous system, which includes the visceral or splanchnic nerves that are connected to the CNS through the somatic nerves. It innervates the viscera, glands, blood vessels and non-striated muscles, and mediates the visceral functions. Sensation & Perception - When we smell a fragrant flower, are we experiencing a sensation or a perception? In everyday language, the terms "sensation" and "perception' are often used interchangeably. However, as you will soon see, they are very distinct, yet complementary processes. In this section, we will discuss some concepts central to the study of sensation and perception and then move on to discuss vision and the perception of pain (it is not possible in the scope of these notes to discuss all the senses). I. Sensations and Perceptions Sensations can be defined as the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain. The process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously engaging in a "sensing" process.Perception can be defined as the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses. A) HOW THEY WORK TOGETHER: 1) Sensation occurs: a) sensory organs absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment. b) sensory receptors convert this energy into neural impulses and send them to the brain. 2) Perception follows: a) the brain organizes the information and translates it into something meaningful. Definition of Learning The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person's lifetime. To define learning, it is necessary to analyze what happens to the individual. For example, an individual's way of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and doing may change as a result of a learning experience. Thus, learning can be defined
  • 14. as a change in behavior as a result of experience. This can be physical and overt, or it may involve complex intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in more subtle ways. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views, psychologists generally agree on many common characteristics of learning. Characteristics of Learning Aviation instructors need a good understanding of the general characteristics of learning in order to apply them in a learning situation. lf learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience, then instruction must include a careful and systematic creation of those experiences that promote learning. This process can be quite complex because, among other things, an individual's background strongly influences the way that person learns. To be effective, the learning situation also should be purposeful, based on experience, multifaceted, and involve an active process. Learning is Purposeful Each student sees a learning situation from a different viewpoint. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the requirements involved. For example, an instructor may give two aviation maintenance students the assignment of learning certain inspection procedures. One student may learn quickly and be able to competently present the assigned material. The combination of an aviation background and future goals may enable that student to realize the need and value of learning the procedures. A second student's goal may only be to comply with the instructor's assignment, and may result in only minimum preparation. The responses differ because each student ads in accordance with what he or she sees in the situation. Most people have fairly definate ideas about what they want to do and achieve. Their goals sometimes are short term, involving a matter of days or weeks. On the other hand, their goals may be carefully planned for a career or a lifetime. Each student has specific intentions and goals. Some may be shared by other students. Students learn from any activity that tends to further their goals. Their individual needs and attitudes may determine what they learn as much as what the instruc- tor is trying to get them to learn. In the process of learning, the student's goals are of paramount significance. To be effective, aviation instructors need to find ways to relate new learning to the student's goals.
  • 15. Learning is a Result of Experience Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do it for the student. The student can learn only from personal experiences; therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. A person's knowledge is a result of experience, and no two people have had identical experiences. Even when observing the same event, two people react differently; they learn different things from it, according to the manner in which the situation affects their individual needs. Previous experience conditions a person to respond to some things and to ignore others. All learning is by experience, but learning takes place in different forms and in varying degrees of richness and depth. For instance, some experiences involve the whole person while others may be based only on hearing and memory. Aviation instructors are faced with the problem of providing learning experiences that are meaningful, varied, and appropriate. As an example, students can learn to say a list of words through repeated drill, or they can learn to recite certain principles of flight by rote. However, they can make them meaningful only if they understand them well enough to apply them correctly to real situations. If an experience challenges the students, requires involvement with feelings, thoughts, memory of past experiences, and physical activity, it is more effective than a learning experience in which all the students have to do is commit something to memory. It seems clear enough that the learning of a physical skill requires actual experience in performing that skill. Student pilots learn to fly aircraft only if their experiences include flying them; student aviation maintenance technicians learn to overhaul powerplants only by actually performing that task. Mental habits are also learned through practice. If students are to use sound judgment and develop decision-making skills, they need learning experiences that involve knowledge of general principles and require the use of judgment in salving realistic problems. Learning is Multifaceted If instructors see their objective as being only to train their students' memory and muscles, they are underestimating the potential of the teaching situation. Students may learn much more than expected if they fully exercise their minds and feelings. The fact that these items were not included in the instructor's plan does not prevent them from influencing the learning situation. Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types, such as verbal, conceptual, perceptual, motor, problem solving, and emotional. Other classifications refer to intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudinal changes, along with descriptive terms like surface or deep learning. However useful these divisions may be, they are somewhat artificial. For example, a class learning to apply the scientific method of problem solving may learn the method by trying to solve real problems. But in doing so, the class also engages in verbal learning and sensory perception at the same time. Each student approaches the task with preconceived ideas and feelings, and for many students, these ideas change as a result of experience. Therefore, the learning process may include verbal elements, conceptual elements, perceptual elements, emotional elements, and problem solving elements all taking place at once. This aspect of learning will become more evident later in this handbook when lesson planning is discussed. Learning is multifaceted in still another way. While learning the subject at hand, students may be learning other things as well. They may be developing attitudes about aviation-good or bad- depending on what they experience. Under a skillful instructor, they may learn self-reliance. The list is seemingly endless. This type of learning is sometimes referred to as incidental, but it may have a great impact on the total development of the student. Learning is an Active Process Students do not soak up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water. The instructor cannot assume that students remember something just because they were in the classroom, shop, or airplane when the instructor presented the material. Neither can the instructor assume that the students can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. For students to learn, they
  • 16. need to react and respond, perhaps outwardly, perhaps only inwardly, emotionally, or intellectually. But if learning is a process of changing behavior, clearly that process must be an active one. Learning Styles Although characteristics of learning and learning styles are related, there are distinctions between the two. Learning style is a concept that can play an important role in improving instruction and student success. It is concerned with student preferences and orientation at several levels. For example, a student's information processing technique, personality, social interaction tendencies and the instructional methods used are all significant factors which apply to how individual students learn. In addition, today's culturally diverse society, including international students, must be considered. Principles of Learning Over the years, educational psychologists have identitied several principles which seem generally applicable to the learning process. They provide additional insight into what makes people learn most effectively. Readiness Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. Getting students ready to learn is usually the instructor's responsibility. If students have a strong purpose, a clear objective, and a definite reason for learning something, they make more progress than if they lack motivation. Readiness implies a degree of single-mindedness and eagerness. When students are ready to learn, they meet the instructor at least halfway, and this simplifies the instructor's job. Under certain circumstances, the instructor can do little, if anything, to inspire in students a readiness to learn. If outside responsibilities, interests, or worries weigh too heavily on their minds, if their schedules are overcrowded, or if their personal problems seem insoluble, students may have little interest in learning. Exercise The principle of exercise states that those things most often repeated are best remembered. It is the basis of drill and practice. The human memory is fallible. The mind can rarely retain, evaluate, and apply new concepts or practices after a single exposure. Students do not learn to weld during one shop period or to perform crosswise landings during one instructional flight. They learn by applying what they have been told and shown. Every time practice occurs, learning continues. The instructor must provide opportunities for students to practice and, at the same time, make sure that this process is directed toward a goal. Effect The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It states that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. Experiences that produce feelings of defeat, frustration, anger, confusion, or futility are unpleasant for the student. If, for example, an instructor attempts to teach landings during the first flight, the student is likely to feel inferior and be frustrated. Instructors should be cautious. Impressing students with the difficulty of an aircraft maintenance
  • 17. problem, flight maneuver or flight crew duty can make the teaching task difficult. Usually it is better to tell students that a problem or maneuver, although difficult, is within their capability to understand or perform. Whatever the learning situation, it should contain elements that affect the students positively and give them a feeling of satisfaction. Primacy Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable, impression. For the instructor, this means that what is taught must be right the first time. For the student, it means that learning must be right. Unteaching is more difficult than teaching. If, for example, a maintenance student learns a faulty riveting technique, the instructor will have a difficult task correcting bad habits and reteaching correct ones. Every student should be started right. The first experience should be positive, functional, and lay the foundation for all that is to follow. Intensity A vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring experience. A student is likely to gain greater understanding of slow flight and stalls by performing them rather than merely reading about them. The principle of intensity implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute. In contrast to flight instruction and shop instruction, the classroom imposes limitations on the amount of realism that can be brought into teaching. The aviation instructor should use imagination in approaching reality as closely as possible. Today, classroom instruction can benefit from a wide variety of instructional aids to improve realism, motivate learning, and challenge students. Chapter 7, Instructional Aids and Training Technologies, explores the wide range of teaching tools available for classroom use. Recency The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. Conversely, the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding, the more difficult it is to remember. It is easy, for example, for a student to recall a torque value used a few minutes earlier, but it is usually impossible to remember an unfamiliar one used a week earlier. Instructors recognize the principle of recency when they carefully plan a summary for a ground school lesson, a shop period, or a postflight critique. The instructor repeats, restates, or reemphasizes important points at the end of a lesson to help the student remember them. The principle of recency often determines the sequence of lectures within a course of instruction. What are Thinking and Memory? • Thinking is the process of considering something • Memory involves learning and recalling information • Thinking & Memory = Cognition • Occur in the brain Personality development Personality traits are defined as the relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguish individuals from one another.[1] The dominant view in the field of personality psychology today holds that personality emerges early and continues to change in meaningful ways throughout the lifespan.[2] Evidence from large-scale, long-term studies has supported this perspective. Adult personality traits are believed to have a basis in infant temperament, meaning that
  • 18. individual differences in disposition and behavior appear early in life, possibly even before language or conscious self-representation develop.[3] The Five Factor Model of personality has been found to map onto dimensions of childhood temperament,[4] suggesting that individual differences in levels of the “big five” personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are present from young ages.[5] Personality development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. Personality development occurs by the ongoing interaction of temperament, character, and environment. Description Personality is what makes a person a unique person, and it is recognizable soon after birth. A child's personality has several components: temperament, environment, and character. Temperament is the set of genetically determined traits that determine the child's approach to the world and how the child learns about the world. There are no genes that specify personality traits, but some genes do control the development of the nervous system, which in turn controls behavior. A second component of personality comes from adaptive patterns related to a child's specific environment. Most psychologists agree that these two factors— temperament and environment—influence the development of a person's personality the most. Temperament, with its dependence on genetic factors, is sometimes referred to as "nature," while the environmental factors are called "nurture." While there is still controversy as to which factor ranks higher in affecting personality development, all experts agree that high-quality parenting plays a critical role in the development of a child's personality. When parents understand how their child responds to certain situations, they can anticipate issues that might be problematic for their child. They can prepare the child for the situation or in some cases they may avoid a potentially difficult situation altogether. Parents who know how to adapt their parenting approach to the particular temperament of their child can best provide guidance and ensure the successful development of their child's personality. Finally, the third component of personality is character—the set of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral patterns learned from experience that determines how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. A person's character continues to evolve throughout life, although much depends on inborn traits and early experiences. Character is also dependent on a person's moral development. In 1956, psychiatrist Erik Erikson provided an insightful description as to how personality develops based on his extensive experience in psychotherapy with children and adolescents from low, upper, and middle-class backgrounds. According to Erikson, the socialization process of an individual consists of eight phases, each one accompanied by a "psychosocial crisis" that must be solved if the person is to manage the next and subsequent phases satisfactorily. The
  • 19. stages significantly influence personality development, with five of them occurring during infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Infancy During the first two years of life, an infant goes through the first stage: Learning Basic Trust or Mistrust (Hope). Well-nurtured and loved, the infant develops trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, the infant becomes insecure and learns "basic mistrust." Toddlerhood The second stage occurs during early childhood, between about 18 months to two years and three to four years of age. It deals with Learning Autonomy or Shame (Will). Well-parented, the child emerges from this stage with self-confidence, elated with his or her newly found control. The early part of this stage can also include stormy tantrums, stubbornness, and negativism, depending on the child's temperament. Preschool The third stage occurs during the "play age," or the later preschool years from about three to entry into formal school. The developing child goes throughLearning Initiative or Guilt (Purpose). The child learns to use imagination; to broaden skills through active play and fantasy; to cooperate with others; and to lead as well as to follow. If unsuccessful, the child becomes fearful, is unable to join groups, and harbors guilty feelings. The child depends excessively on adults and is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination. Frustrations and Conflicts >> SATURDAY, APRIL 14, 2012 Frustrations and Conflicts A frustration occurs when a goal achievement is blocked; a conflict is created when incompatible response tendencies are aroused. When a conflict comes from competing habits under one and the same drive, it is called habit conflict or habit competition. When it stems from competing motivation it is called motivational conflict. Frustration and conflict are related because each can be the consequences of the other. For instance, a student fails in a subject that is required in his/her course, should he/she take it again or give up the course? What at first is a frustration develops into a conflict. The reverse occurs when a student entertains the conflicting alternative of whether to study for an examination or go to the movies. If the student opts to watch a movie, the desire to do well in the examination will be frustrated. A conflict of this kind can produce frustration because the student cannot satisfy both motivations simultaneously.
  • 20. When an individual is exposed to a frustrating situation, he develops the concept of general adaptation syndrome, which refers to the physiological process that enables an individual to adapt to stressful situation. He assumes that the body reacts to stress in three successive stages: alarm reaction, the stage of resistance and finally, stage of exhaustion. Frustration has a real value despite of its unpleasant nature. It greatly strengthens an individual’s motivation to overcome obstacles. Under stress, an individual intensifies the effort to satisfy the thwarted need directly or indirectly. Sometimes, the best course of actions is to leave the frustrating situation and find another action where satisfactory adjustment becomes possible. Sources of Frustrations There are several obstacles to goal achievement, ranging from simple physical ones to complex personal inadequacies. Sources of frustration can come from (1) the physical environment (2) the social environment and (3) the organism itself. The physical environment presents such obstacles as flood, typhoon, or rugged mountains. For example, a drought or typhoon can frustrate farmers because this will adversely affect their harvest. The social environment presents such obstacles as restrictions imposed by other people and the laws of the community. Children are thwarted by parental paralysis that may limit their activities. Lastly, we individuals possess limitations and these weaknesses hinder our satisfaction of some wishes like for example, no matter how much one may love to play basketball in the PBA, his height can be a deterring factor when he does not meet the minimal requirement. Types of Conflicts Contrary situation which involve the choice of alternatives can serve as sources of origins of conflict. There are four types of conflicts: 1. conflicting attraction or approach-approach 2. attraction repulsion or approach-avoidance 3. conflicting avoidance or avoidance-avoidance 4. multiple conflicts Conflicting attraction or approach-approach conflict occurs when there are two desirable but mutually exclusive goals that one cannot have both. Shall I take AB or BSE? Shall I date the charming Michelle or the sexy Maria? Conflicts of this type are usually resolved by choosing one goal over the other, either excluding one entirely or deciding which to do first. The response to this conflict is either alternation or freezing or blocking. Attraction-repulsion or approach-avoidance conflict – there is an attraction to an object or state of affairs and at the same time repulsion towards something
  • 21. associated with it. The situation contains two elements, one of which is very desirable while the other is undesirable and disadvantageous. For example, a girl likes to eat ice cream but she does not want to get stout; a student enjoys school but looks forward to vacation; a woman wants to marry but will lose her inheritance if she does. The closer the individual is to the goal, the repulsion towards the negative aspects associated with it gets stronger. Attraction-repulsion conflicts usually produce indecisive and vacillating behavior. Conflicting avoidance or avoidance-avoidance conflict – when there are two unpleasant alternatives and one cannot be avoided without encountering the other. For example, a student does not want to make the requirements in school, but neither does the student want to fail the course; Lilia must wash the dirty dishes or face parental ire; Carlos must perform a job he hates doing or go hungry. Multiple conflicts –when there are two or more courses of action each has both pleasant and unpleasant consequences stemming from the role we play in life. Multiple conflicts take a longer time to resolve. Generally, these conflicts are common because of the many expectations we bear. For example, a beauty contest winner is given the opportunity to start a movie career or to travel abroad but is strongly attached to her boyfriend and family. The goals she has are exclusive such that she wants both, but she cannot have both at the same time. What's the difference between normal stress and an adjustment disorder? Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to positive or negative situations in your life, such as a new job or the death of a loved one. Stress itself isn't abnormal or bad. What's important is how you deal with stress. When you have so much trouble adjusting to a stressful change that you find it difficult to go about your daily routine, you may have developed an adjustment disorder. An adjustment disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. An adjustment disorder can occur in both adults and children. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: •Anxiety •Poor school or work performance •Relationship problems
  • 22. •Sadness •Thoughts of suicide •Worry •Trouble sleeping If you're dealing with a stressful situation in your life, try self-help measures, such as talking things over with caring family or friends, practicing yoga or meditation, getting regular exercise, and cutting back on your to-do list. If these techniques don't help and you feel like you're still having a hard time coping, talk to your doctor. Treatment Treatment may refer to: • Treatment, therapy used to remedy a health problem • Treatment, a process or intervention in the design of experiments • Treatment group, a collection of items or individuals given the same treatment in an experiment • Water treatment • Sewage treatment • Surface treatment or surface finishing, processes used to improve the surface of a manufactured item • National treatment, economic term for the principle that foreigners and domestic nationals are treated equally • Film treatment, prose telling of a story intended to be turned into a screenplay • In the card game bridge, a treatment is the meaning associated with a natural bid as distinct from a conventional bid • "Treatment" (song), single by Labrinth from the 2012 album Electronic Earth • Medical treatment or Medical case management, a collaborative process facilitating appropriate medical care • Treatment of pain or Pain management, an intervention that is intended to relieve rather than cure
  • 23. • Social treatment, either positive (e.g., kindness) or negative (e.g., "silent treatment") Motivation Ever wonder why some people seem to be very successful, highly motivated individuals? Where does the energy, the drive, or the direction come from? Motivation is an area of psychology that has gotten a great deal of attention, especially in the recent years. The reason is because we all want to be successful, we all want direction and drive, and we all want to be seen as motivated. There are several distinct theories of motivation we will discuss in this section. Some include basic biological forces, while others seem to transcend concrete explanation. Let's talk about the five major theories of motivation. Instinct Theory Instinct theory is derived from our biological make-up. We've all seen spider's webs and perhaps even witnessed a spider in the tedious job of creating its home and trap. We've all seen birds in their nests, feeding their young or painstakingly placing the twigs in place to form their new home. How do spiders know how to spin webs? How do birds now how to build nests? The answer is biology. All creatures are born with specific innate knowledge about how to survive. Animals are born with the capacity and often times knowledge of how to survive by spinning webs, building nests, avoiding danger, and reproducing. These innate tendencies are preprogrammed at birth, they are in our genes, and even if the spider never saw a web before, never witnessed its creation, it would still know how to create one. Humans have the same types of innate tendencies. Babies are born with a unique ability that allows them to survive; they are born with the ability to cry. Without this, how would others know when to feed the baby, know when he needed changing, or when she wanted attention and affection? Crying allows a human infant to survive. We are also born with particular reflexes which promote survival. The most important of these include sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking. Newborns can perform physical movements to avoid pain; they will turn their head if touched on their cheek and search for a nipple (rooting reflex); and they will grasp an object that touches the palm of their hands. Drive Reduction Theory According to Clark Hull (1943, 1952), humans have internal internal biological needs which motivate us to perform a certain way. These needs, or drives, are defined by Hull as internal states of arousal or tension which must be reduced. A prime example would be the internal feelings of hunger or thirst, which motivates us to eat. According to this theory, we are driven to reduce these drives so that we may maintain a sense of internal calmness. Arousal Theory Similar to Hull's Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal theory states that we are driven to maintain a certain level of arousal in order to feel comfortable. Arousal refers to a state of emotional, intellectual, and physical activity. It is different from the above theory, however, because it doesn't rely on only a reduction of tension, but a balanced
  • 24. amount. It also does better to explain why people climb mountains, go to school, or watch sad movies. Psychoanalytic Theory Remember Sigmund Freud and his five part theory of personality. As part of this theory, he believed that humans have only two basic drives: Eros and Thanatos, or the Life and Death drives. According to Psychoanalytic theory, everything we do, every thought we have, and every emotion we experience has one of two goals: to help us survive or to prevent our destruction. This is similar to instinct theory, however, Freud believed that the vast majority of our knowledge about these drives is buried in the unconscious part of the mind. Psychoanalytic theory therefore argues that we go to school because it will help assure our survival in terms of improved finances, more money for healthcare, or even an improved ability to find a spouse. We move to better school districts to improve our children's ability to survive and continue our family tree. We demand safety in our cars, toys, and in our homes. We want criminal locked away, and we want to be protected against poisons, terrorists, and any thing else that could lead to our destruction. According to this theory, everything we do, everything we are can be traced back to the two basic drives Humanistic Theory Although discussed last, humanistic theory is perhaps the most well know theory of motivation. According to this theory, humans are driven to achieve their maximum potential and will always do so unless obstacles are placed in their way. These obstacles include hunger, thirst, financial problems, safety issues, or anything else that takes our focus away from maximum psychological growth. The best way to describe this theory is to utilize the famous pyramid developed by Abraham Maslow (1970) called the Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow believed that humans have specific needs that must be met and that if lower level needs go unmet, we can not possible strive for higher level needs. The Hierarchy of Needs shows that at the lower level, we must focus on basic issues such as food, sleep, and safety. Without food, without sleep, how could we possible focus on the higher level needs such as respect, education, and recognition?Throughout our lives, we work toward achieving the top of the pyramid, self actualization, or the realization of all of our potential. As we move up the pyramid, however, things get in the way which slow us down and often knock us backward. Imagine working toward the respect and recognition of your colleagues and suddenly finding yourself out of work and homeless. Suddenly, you are forced backward and can no longer focus your attention on your work due to the need for finding food and shelter for you and your family. According to Maslow, nobody has ever reached the peak of his pyramid. We all may strive for it and some may even get close, but no one has achieved full self-actualization. Self-actualization means a complete understanding of who you are, a sense of completeness, of being the best person you could possibly be. To have achieved this goal is to stop living, for what is there to strive for if you have learned everything about yourself, if you have experienced all that you can, and if there is no way left for you to grow emotionally, intellectually, or spiritually. Sensation & Perception - When we smell a fragrant flower, are we
  • 25. experiencing a sensation or a perception? In everyday language, the terms "sensation" and "perception' are often used interchangeably. However, as you will soon see, they are very distinct, yet complementary processes. In this section, we will discuss some concepts central to the study of sensation and perception and then move on to discuss vision and the perception of pain (it is not possible in the scope of these notes to discuss all the senses). I. Sensations and Perceptions Sensations can be defined as the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain. The process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously engaging in a "sensing" process.Perception can be defined as the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses. A) HOW THEY WORK TOGETHER: 1) Sensation occurs: a) sensory organs absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment. b) sensory receptors convert this energy into neural impulses and send them to the brain. 2) Perception follows: a) the brain organizes the information and translates it into something meaningful. B) But what does "meaningful" mean? How do we know what information is important and should be focused on? 1) Selective Attention - process of discriminating between what is important & is irrelevant (Seems redundant: selective-attention?), and is influenced by motivation. For example - students in class should focus on what the teachers are saying and the overheads being presented. Students walking by the classroom may focus on people in the room, who is the teacher, etc., and not the same thing the students in the class. 2) Perceptual Expectancy - how we perceive the world is a function of our past experiences, culture, and biological makeup.For example, as an American, when I look at a highway, I expect to see cars, trucks, etc, NOT airplanes. But someone from a different country with different experiences and history may not have any idea what to expect and thus be surprised when they see cars go driving by. Another example - you may look at a painting and not really understand the message the artist is trying to convey. But, if someone tells you about it, you might begin to see things in the painting that you were unable to see before. ALL OF THIS IS CALLED Psychophysics C) Psychophysics can be defined as, the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience. In order to measure these events, psychologists use THRESHOLDS. 1) Threshold - a dividing line between what has detectable energy and what does not. For example - many classrooms have automatic light sensors. When
  • 26. people have not been in a room for a while, the lights go out. However, once someone walks into the room, the lights go back on. For this to happen, the sensor has a threshold for motion that must be crossed before it turns the lights back on. So, dust floating in the room should not make the lights go on, but a person walking in should. 2) Difference Threshold - the minimum amount of stimulus intensity change needed to produce a noticeable change. the greater the intensity (ex., weight) of a stimulus, the greater the change needed to produce a noticeable change. For example, when you pick up a 5 lb weight, and then a 10 pound weight, you can feel a big difference between the two. However, when you pick up 100 lbs, and then 105 lbs, it is much more difficult to feel the difference. 3) Signal-Detection Theory - detection of a stimulus involves some decision making process as well as a sensory process. Additionally, both sensory and decision making processes are influenced by many more factors than just intensity. a) Noise - how much outside interference exists. b) Criterion - the level of assurance that you decide must be met before you take action. Involves higher mental processes. You set criterion based on expectations and consequences of inaccuracy. For example - at a party, you order a pizza...you need to pay attention so that you will be able to detect the appropriate signal (doorbell), especially since there is a lot of noise at the party. But when you first order the pizza, you know it won't be there in 2 minutes, so you don't really pay attention for the doorbell. As the time for the pizza to arrive approaches, however, your criterion changes...you become more focused on the doorbell and less on extraneous noise.
  • 27. II. SIGHT/VISION A) the visual system works on sensing and perceiving light waves. Light waves vary in their length and amplitude: a) wave length (also referred to as frequency, since the longer a wave, the less often/quickly it occurs) - affects color perception (ex., red=approx 700, yellow approx 600) b) wave amplitude (this is the size/height of the wave) - affects brightness perception. B) Structure of The EYE: 1) Cornea - the round, transparent area that allows light to pass into the eye. 2) Lens - the transparent structure that focuses light onto the retina. 3) Retina - inner membrane of the eye that receives information about light using rods and cones. The functioning of the retina is similar to the spinal cord - both act as a highway for information to travel on. 4) Pupil - opening at the center of the iris which controls the amount of light entering the eye. Dilates and Constricts. 5) Rods & Cones - many more rods (approximately 120 million) than cones (approx 6.4 million). a) cones - visual receptor cells that are important in daylight vision and color vision. the cones work well in daylight, but not in dim lighting. This is why it is more difficult to see colors in low light. most are located in the center of the retina...called the FOVEA, which is a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains ONLY cones...visual acuity is best here. SO...when you need to focus on something you attempt to bring the image into the fovea. b) rods - visual receptor cells that are important for night vision and peripheral vision. the rods are better for night vision because they are much more sensitive than cones.
  • 28. in addition, the rods are better for peripheral vision because there are many more on the periphery of the retina. The cones are mostly in and around the fovea but decrease as you go out. to see best at night, look just above or below the object...this keeps the image on the rods. C) Seeing In Color - we can see many colors, but only have 3 types of cones that receive information about color. We have cones that pick up light waves for red, green, and blue. Color Vision Theories: 1) Trichromatic Theory - this theory indicates that we can receive 3 types of colors (red, green, and blue) and that the cones vary the ratio of neural activity (Like a projection T.V.). The ratio of each each color to the other then determines the exact color that we see. 2) Opponent-Process Theory - color perception depends on the reception of pairs of antagonist colors. Each receptor can only work with one color at a time so the opponent color in the pair is blocked out. Pairs = red-green, blue-yellow, black- white (light-dark). Note: Most every Introductory Psychology book has a demonstration on the Opponent-Process theory. Please look for the one in your book and give it a try. DOES COLOR EXIST? People just assume that because we see colors, that they actually exist in the world. In other words, that when they see the color red, that red is a real, physical, tangible, "thing". But is it, or is color just a matter of our perception? If we had different types of nervous systems, we would see things differently (literally) and so wouldn't we think those other things we saw were the real "things"? Let's examine this question of perception a bit further. II) PERCEPTION Much of our understanding of how and why we perceive things comes from Gestalt Psychology For example - one of the most well known Gestalt principles is the Phi Phenomenon, which is the illusion of movement from presenting stimuli in rapid succession. When you see a cartoon or running Christmas lights, you see movement (although none actually exists) because of this principle. A) Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization 1) figure-ground - this is the fundamental way we organize visual perceptions. When we look at an object, we see that object (figure) and the background (ground) on which it sits. For example, when I see a picture of a friend, I see my friends face (figure) and the beautiful Sears brand backdrop behind my friend (ground). 2) simplicity/pragnanz (good form) - we group elements that make a good form. However, the idea of "good form" is a little vague and subjective. Most psychologists think good form is what ever is easiest or most simple. For example, what do you see here: : > ) do you see a smiling face? There are simply 3 elements from my keyboard next to each other, but it is "easy" to organize the elements into a shape that we are familiar with. 3) proximity - nearness=belongingness. Objects that are close to each other in physical space are often perceived as belonging together.
  • 29. 4) similarity - do I really need to explain this one? As you probably guessed, this one states that objects that are similar are perceived as going together. For example, if I ask you to group the following objects: (* * # * # # #) into groups, you would probably place the asterisks and the pound signs into distinct groups. 5) continuity - we follow whatever direction we are led. Dots in a smooth curve appear to go together more than jagged angles. This principle really gets at just how lazy humans are when it comes to perception. 6) common fate - elements that move together tend to be grouped together. For example, when you see geese flying south for the winter, they often appear to be in a "V" shape. 7) closure - we tend to complete a form when it has gaps. . Psychology Uses Scientific Methods One of the most common myths about psychology is that it is just "common sense." Unlike common sense, psychology relies on scientific methods to investigate questions and arrive at conclusions. It is through using empirical methods that researchers are able to discover relationships between different variables. Psychologists use a range of techniques to study the human mind and behavior, including naturalistic observation, experiments, case studies, and questionnaires. • Introduction to Psychology Research Methods • The Scientific Method • The Simple Experiment Psychology Is the Study of the Mind and Behavior Psychology is the study of the mental processes and behavior. The term psychology comes from the Greek word psyche meaning "breath, spirit, soul" and the logia meaning "study of." Psychology emerged from biology and philosophy and is closely linked to other disciplines includingsociology, medicine, linguistics, and anthropology. Psychologists Take Many Different Perspectives Topics and questions in psychology can be looked at in a number of different ways. Let's take the topic of violence as an example. Some psychologists may look at how biological influences contribute to violence, while other psychologists might look at factors like culture, family relationships, social pressure, and situational variables influence violence. Some of the major perspectives in psychology include the: • Biological perspective • Cognitive perspective • Behavioral perspective Rich Legg/iStockPhoto Emiliano Hernandez
  • 30. • Evolutionary perspective • Humanistic perspective Psychology Has a Many Subfields There are many different branches of psychology. Introductory students often explore the basics of these various specialty areas, but further exploration of each individual field may depend on what course of study you select. Some of the biggest subfields within psychology are clinical psychology, personality psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and social psychology. • Branches of Psychology • Subfields of Psychology • 5. Psychology Is Not Just About Therapy When you think of psychology, do you envision a therapist with a notepad jotting down ideas as a client recounts childhood experiences? While therapy is certainly a big part of psychology, it is not the only thing that psychologists do. In fact, many psychologists don't work in the field of mental health at all. Psychology encompasses other areas including teaching, research and consulting. Psychologists work in a wide variety of settings, including: • Colleges and universities • Private corporations • K-12 Schools • Hospitals • Government offices • The Nature of Psychology Work • Specialty Areas in Psychology • 6. Psychology Is All Around You Psychology is not just an academic subject that exists only in classrooms, research labs, and mental health offices. The principles of psychology can be seen all around you in everyday situations. The television commercials and print ads you see everyday rely on psychology to develop marketing messages that influence and persuade people to purchase the advertised products. The websites you visit on a regular basis utilize psychology to understand how people read, use and interpret online information. • 10 Ways to Use Psychology in Everyday Life • 7. Psychology Explores Both Real-World and Theoretical Issues As you begin your study of psychology, it might seem like some of the theories and research you learn about do not really apply to real-life problems. It is important to remember, however, that psychology is both an applied and theoretical subject. Some researchers focus on adding information to our overall body of knowledge about the human mind and behavior (known as basic research), while other concentrate directly on solving problems and applying psychological problems to real-world situations (known as applied research). 8. Psychology Offers a Wide Range of Career Options If you are thinking about majoring in psychology, then you should be pleased to discover that there are many different career paths to choose from. Different career options depend largely on your educational level and work experience, so it is important to research the required training and Konstantin Binder YinYang/iStockPhoto
  • 31. licensing requirements of your chosen specialty area. Just a few of the possible career options include clinical psychology, forensic psychology, health psychology, and industrial-organizational psychology. • 10 Hot Psychology Careers • Career Options With a Bachelor's Degree • Career Options With a Graduate Degree Psychology Studies Both Normal and Abnormal Behavior When many people think about psychology, they immediately think about the diagnosis and treatment of abnormal behavior. However, it is important to remember that psychology studies normal behavior as well. 10. Psychology Seeks to Describe, Explain, Predict, Modify and Improve Behaviors There are four major goals of psychology: • To describe human thought and behavior • To explain why these behaviors occur • To predict how, why and when these behaviors will occur again in the future • To modify and improve behaviors to better the lives of individuals and society as a whole As you can see, psychology is a rich and fascinating subject that has practical applications in many different areas of life. If you have ever wanted to learn more about why people think and act the way they do, then studying psychology is a great way to gain greater insight into the human experience. Individual differences psychology focuses on this second level of study. It is also sometimes called Differential Psychology because researchers in this area study the ways in which individual people differ in their behavior. This is distinguished from other aspects of psychology in that although psychology is ostensibly a study of individuals, modern psychologists often study groups or biological underpinnings of cognition. For example, in evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy, the mean performance of the therapy in one group might be compared to the mean effectiveness of a placebo (or a well-known therapy) in a second, control group. In this context, differences between individuals in their reaction to the experimental and control manipulations are actually treated as errors rather than as interesting phenomena to study. This is because psychological research depends upon statistical controls that are only defined upon groups of people. Individual difference psychologists usually express their interest in individuals while studying groups by seeking dimensions shared by all individuals but upon which individuals differ. Importance of individual differences The study of individual differences is essential because important variation between individuals can be masked by averaging. For example, a researcher is interested in
  • 32. resting metabolic rate in humans. The researcher gathers a sample of men, women, and children, measures their metabolic rate and gets a single average. The researcher then tells the whole population that they should be eating 1,900 calories a day. What's wrong with this study? The researcher has neglected individual differences in activity level, body size, sex, age, and other factors that influence metabolic rate. The average reported based on the results is masking multiple dimensions that should be used to determine daily caloric intake. Therefore, his or her conclusions are misleading if not outright false. This is an extreme example to make a point, but it illustrates the problems that can arise by averaging across groups.

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