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Gender identity disorder pp Gender identity disorder pp Presentation Transcript

  • Gender Identity Disorder South Puget Sound Community College Professor Clancy Ashley Sutton
  • Gender Identity Disorder
    • is characterized as a mental disorder in which people persistently feel that a vast mistake has been made—they have been assigned to the wrong sex. Such persons typically want to get rid of their primary and secondary sex characteristics; many of them find their genitals repugnant.
  • Six Psychological Approach
    • Psychoanalytical
    • Trait
    • Biological
    • Humanistic
    • Behavioral/ Social Learning
    • Cognitive
  • Psychoanalytical Approach
    • The psychoanalytical approach understands us from the point of view of our unconscious and early childhood experiences.
    • Freud's psychosexual stages suggests that our behaviour is influenced by id, ego and superego.
    • If we fail to resolve conflicts associated with a particular psychosexual stage (oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital) of personality development Freud said we could develop fixations.
  • Psychoanalytical Approach
    • Advantages
    • Freud was the first to develop a comprehensive theory of human behavior and personality
    • Disadvantages
    • Critics of psychoanalytical approach argue that Freud’s theories are not testable and that his findings may not be original
    • Biased and questionable data used to support theories
  • Trait Approach
    • The dimension of personality used to categorize people according to the degree to which they manifest a particular characteristic
  • Trait Approach
    • Advantages
    • Strong empirical base, many practical applications and vast amount of research generated
    • Disadvantages
    • Critics have argued that often trait theorists rely too heavily on personality test scores
    • Limited usefulness of the approach when dealing with pragmatic behaviors
  • Biological Approach
    • The biological approach believes us to be as a consequence of our genetics and physiology.
    • It is the only approach in psychology that examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviours from a medical/biological, and thus physical point of view
  • Biological Approach
    • Advantages
    • Based on scientific findings
    • Somewhat able to predict behavior according to heredity
    • Disadvantages
    • Similar to the trait approach, the biological approach offers few suggestions for personality change
    • Critics of this approach argue that there are inherent limits on their ability to test ideas
  • Humanistic Approach
    • The humanistic approach consists of four cornerstones which are
    • an emphasis on personal responsibility,
    • an emphasis on the “here” and the “now,”
    • (3) a focus on phenomenology of the individual
    • (4) an emphasis on personal growth
  • Humanisitic Approach
    • Advantages
    • Everyone is in control of their own destiny
    • Free will
    • Its immense popularity with clients would appear to suggest that they do not view the approaches lack of scientific support as problematic
    • Disadvantages
    • Criticism of the humanistic perspective posits that approach lacks scientific evidence and a means to measure scientifically
  • Behavioral/Social Learning Approach
    • Behaviorism was introduced by John B. Watson in the 1920s.
    • Both emphasize the influence of differing “learning environments,” especially of children but sometimes of adults as well.
    • Behaviorism is focused on seeking out and achieving pleasurable goals. The theory is based on the premise that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning
  • Behavioral/Social Learning Approach
    • Advantages
    • Has a solid foundation in empirical research
    • Behavioral/social learning approach lies in the development of some useful therapeutic procedures
    • Disadvantages
    • Others criticize the behavioral/social learning approach because it gives inadequate attention to the role of heredity
    • Critics of behaviorism cite that humans are more complex than laboratory animals in which behavioral experiments were conducted
  • Cognitive Approach
    • The cognitive approach explains disorders and behavior through cognitive processes with the belief that such processes affect the way in which we behave.
    • A person with GID has thought processes that influence behavior, thus affecting different moods that he/she experiences and ultimately impacting the way the individual responds to circumstances
  • Cognitive Approach
    • Advantages
    • Strengths include that many of the findings developed due to empirical research studies
    • Disadvantages
    • Critics of this approach argue that it does not take into account genetic factors; for example hereditary correlations of mental disorders
    • Others argue that the cognitive approach is too complex for empirical research
  • References