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organised chaos owns a secret collection of
has a shoe fetish
in love with dave in love with samin love with romain
“i’m slow... so what?” goes to AA“i’m a perfectionist... so what?”
pole dances on mondays
loves Justin Bieber
laughs at her own jokes
Array | 1
hopeless optimisticrepresenting mature students
thinks her life is a sitcom “i like lamp...”
tends to sneak up behind
won’t stop ‘till
hates zombies “heyyyy.... alright”
2 | Array
Cover by Matt Robson
17 Eddie Lam
36-37 Van Dang
49 Andrew Torrisi
58 Sam Corlett
81 Oliver Bedon
85 Romain Resplendino
Array | 5
RULE BREAKERS OF DESIGN - THE FREEDOM TO CREATE
Design is considered an art form that is embodied
with a variation of rules and techniques that must
be followed, taught and learnt. When design rules
are mastered, design becomes an art form that the
designer manipulates and innovates to reflect his or
her own individual creativity and style. However, to
embrace the full potential and creativity of a designer,
rules and limits should not confine innovations and
creation. Thus, the quotation that is often played
upon life comes into design, ‘Rules are meant to be
broken because creativity shows no boundaries’.
We, as young designers have all been lectured on the
fundamental rules of design. What should be done
and what shouldn’t. The common teaching of design
is to follow a set of rules and boundaries that should
structure a design situation to ensure its success.
The main misconception is that without rules, the
design is not a success. However, this is not the
case. The common curse of designers is their belief
in following rules to produce successful designs.
D.H. Lawerence stated that “Design in art, is a
recognition of the relation between various things,
various elements in the creative flux. You can’t invent
a design. You recognize it, in the fourth dimension.
That is, with your blood and your bones, as well as
with your eyes.” Design is limitless because design
derives from your “blood and bones” as it is a natural
embodied element that should not be caged with guides
and rules. Creativity is inventing, growing, risk taking,
rule breaking, anything that disrupts the capacity to
create limits, the ability to imagine and envisage.
by Rosemarie Romeo
6 | Array
The biggest execution of rule breaking in the modern
age has been within website design. Website design
has been altered drastically due to the design trends,
technology, photography innovations and programs.
The fundamental rule within website design is to
use conventional patterns and techniques that
ensure the user has a positive experience. The most
common conventions used within website design
- Logos appearing on the top left of websites
- Links featuring underlines and familiar
- Button appearance of rounded corners
- Right sidebar navigation for blogs
These common rules and conventions are followed
because users are so used to experiencing such
layouts within web browsing that navigating has
become second nature. The applied conventions
are followed because they ensure a positive user
experience. However if a designer decides to use
only these conventions all the time would lead to a
very boring web browsing experience.
User interface patterns
and conventions can,
and should be broken,
provided one criterion
is met: the new solution
is better at its task
than the one being
Array | 7
Every rule comes with a limit, however within web
design these limits can and are being broken.
“User interface patterns and conventions can,
and should be broken, provided one criterion is
met: the new solution is better at its task than the
one being replaced. Innovation by definition must
introduce some new way of doing things, and it’s
often impossible to do this without breaking the old
To create change and break a rule within web design
demonstrates a strive for innovation. In the last
decade of web design, innovation and rule breaking
has changed the way users browse the web today.
The primary reason for rule breaking within web
design is to stand out within the crowd. If a user
comes across a well designed website which is not
following the design norm, it will attract the user and
hold the user’s attention. Many heavily designed
based websites do not follow the norm of website
design. The incorporation of imagery and animation
is one of the biggest innovations in web design along
with the creative structure of layout.
Not just website designers, but all designers should
have a rebellious nature towards the fundamental
rules taught and recommended to follow. Structured
or guided design is often aesthetically uninteresting,
it should be an extension of artistic expression.
Breaking the rules of design started amongst print
designs which created a design fashion to withhold
that rebellious nature. Website design has followed
the design fashion of breaking the rules and other
variations of design have followed.
As a designer you should acknowledge the basic
rules of design and know which ones to break to
create a successful design. One must know design
rules in order to break them effectively. If a designer
does not know which rules are being broken, then
aren’t they just rebels without a cause?
Graphic design is such a vast field and its growth
is nearly limitless. Everything we see; road signs,
book covers, graffiti, clothes, watches, shoes and
technology, involve a series of design processes
and thoughts. There are no limits to what a graphic
designer can produce. Designers today either follow
the trends of freedom within their work or choose to
be limited by the restrictions of a brief.
When it comes to working for a client, you are set
firmly to the rules laid out by the interests of their
design firm, which becomes a challenge for the
designer to be creative because they have to work
creatively within tight boundaries and restrictions.
Freelance designers are given more opportunities
to explore their creative side and it’s another way
for them to come up with better designs. What
attracts consumers is a unique identity among its
competitors. You first see this brand of clothing
you want and you wonder why it’s different. You
immediately look at the design and the style and you
determine how it will fit in with your status. We all
have different styles of designs. Some may be similar
and different but they all fit into consumer styles.
An advantage of doing freelance design is the ability
to put together your own brief. This can be a major
plus as it allows the designer to interpret the brief
without any means of restricting their creativity and
their freedom to express it. Freelance designers get
the benefit of coming up with more ideas, but that
is always good thing.
However, there’s a chance that the designer may
end up with confused ideas and concepts causing
setbacks. Graphic design plays a major role in
consumer trends, but where do
all these designs come from? We often associate
these designs with events, objects, people and other
things from parts of our everyday life. Inspiration
enters as a tool to over come the traditional aspects
of graphic design and places you with new ideas
that distinctively portray you as a designer with
your own identity.
Absolut Vodka’s marketing campaign, “it’s an
Absolut shift” has made a new approach to consumer
advertising. In this campaign, the consumers begin
to illustrate what life would be like in an imagined
by Eddie Lam
Photography by Marcus Lim
(album: reportage obscura)
Array | 9
‘Absolut’ world. Ms. Gillsvik, director of consumer
marketing at Vin & Sprit AB, Sweden’s state-run
distillery, stated “Our consumers say they want
interaction, they want to get inspired, they want to
So what does design limitation mean for designers?
It may be good because it allows designers to save
valuable time, however, excessive design restraints
can impact on a designer’s creativity.They are not
permitted to make use of their full potential in the
creation of new innovative ideas and styles.
The best part of graphic design is that it lets you
experiment with trends and techniques. With design
limitations and strict regulations, you may find it
difficult to think outside of the box. To get noticed,
one has to come up with innovative and revolutionary
ideas. But with excessive limitations around a graphic
designer, this task is quite hard to accomplish.
While working as a freelance designer, the majority
will have to experience conventional design first
hand, before they are able to play with experimental
design. You still have to deal with client decisions,
restrictions and choices. Given the power to control
your creative side would change the way a designer
will look at the brief and encourage new approaches.
One of the major setbacks to design limitation is
that it creates hurdles in the way of progress and
growth for graphic designers. Since you stick to the
fundamentals of the design and don’t explore new
trends and practices of the industry, you are likely to
lag behind as a graphic designer. It’s important that
we always stay one step ahead because design keeps
changing and it always gives out new opportunities in
It’s important to that we always stay one step
aheavd because design keeps changing and it
always gives out new opportunities to approach
10 | Array
Kim Eduardo interviews the creators of 8 OTHER REASONS
Charlie Anthony Leesha and Anthony Norah on design fields
joined. Why stick to one design profession when you can use
your experience to branch into other design fields?
by Kim Eduardo
12 | Array
What was the inspiration for the name 8 OTHER
Charlie: “Well, there were 8 reasons why we did it.
Anthony and I are born on the 8th, there are 8 people
in both of our families. 8 is my lucky number, 8 is also
the lucky Chinese number, combined we have 8 years
of design experience, 8 is known as eternity and 8 is 2
What inspired your logo design?
Anthony: “Wings represent freedom like an angel.
It’s symbolic of freedom of expression. We design
accessories that are affordable for all to express their
Coming from different design fields, what inspired
both of you to go into a completely different field?
Charlie: “Anthony comes from a fashion photography
background and myself an interior designer we wanted
to create something great. Two great backgrounds
combined as one was a great opportunity to start
something new. We saw a niche in the market that
does not provide affordable unique men’s and women’s
accessories. Initially this was a side project that has
evolved into a successful business.
What is your inspiration for each range?
Anthony: “Each range takes the consumer on a journey
of the mind, borrowing inspiration from nature, different
muses, pop culture and the subconscious mind of the
designers (US). Every rthange is designed with the
same market in mind, so though the ranges vary they
still speak to each other harmoniously. Every range we
aim to include at least three new materials or fabrics,
allowing us to have a bit more freedom and creativity
with the range.”
As designers in general do you find your role
Charlie: “Like I always say designers are the
psychologists of space, as designers we have the ability
to bring ideas to life and share them with the rest of
the world, whether it be through a space, a painting or
a piece of jewellery. I don’t think as my profession as a
role, it’s a lifestyle, it’s a choice it’s a way of life, so yes
it is empowering to know that our profession is shared
with the rest of the world. “
Array | 13
by Andrew Nguyen
Technology is an always-evolving aspect of the design process.
This article will highlight one major aspect that animators have
come to love, 3D technology. New animation infrastructures are
becoming available to Australia, along with improvements from
the older generation software.
14 | Array
Movies such as ‘Avatar’, are filmed using astonishing
3D motion cameras that “export directly to 3D
animation software” says John Sinitsky of the ‘Avatar
Official Blog’. This allows the designer to export the
motions, and design the characters more efficiently.
New graphic engines are being built to make
skinning an animation character more simple and
effective with ease of context and shape. Skinning
is the process of animation which focuses primarily
on the outside texture of the animation. Graphic
designers can therefore work more effectively with
the animation shape pre-drawn and previewed.
A huge influx in technologies such as 3D television
and improved graphic engines has enabled various
design studios to evolve into a new and innovative
type of design process. In a specific niche of the
design community, gaming studios have taken new
technologies and built innovative and inspiring worlds
in games such as Battlefield 3.
DICE, the creators of the First Person Shooter
‘Battlefield’ franchise has developed their own 3D
animation motion sensor system which enables the
animators to not only read the actors expression,
but make a virtual copy of the actor and mirrored
onto a animation program to be readily available for
The 3D animation motion sensors consist of a
vast array of new technologies being used: “new
animation limitations, lighting effects, destructible
environments, texture quality and a faster processor”
according to Ashish Koara author of the ‘3D
The new graphics engine has given designers and
level programmers the ability to build a world the
size of a country with more than 20,000 individual
characters. Even games such as ‘Little Big Planet’
has allowed players and communities to build their
own world from the editor toolbox provided by the
programmers, giving gamers the inspiration to make
their own games and puzzles
With better access to motion sensors and motion
capture cameras, animators have the ability to
produce a character with a set of more than 20
unique postures and over 50 different animations
for various events. This ‘event’ animation is being
produced to further the realistic nature of the frames,
which enables the Graphic Design studio to better
express their work without the limitation of the past
technology, which downgraded the character and the
emotions they expressed.
Game design studios aren’t the only ones profiting
from the 3D technology. Animations studios such
as ‘Animal Logic’, have built upon the success
of ‘Happy Feet’ and studios that made ‘Ice Age’
featured the upcoming movie called ‘Rio’. The
‘Sunday’ magazine, written by Carrie Hutchinson
explains how the studio has worked with “reinforced
3D expression capture,” h which improves on
character depth and expression, making the
animation more flexible and simpler to perform.
Designers now have a more flexible ability to be
inspired by anything and everything, building on their
creativity and have it virtually rendered on a program
with ease, however realistic or absurd the animation
may be. The faster process of animation allows for
animators to go crazy with ideas and creativeness,
motivating animators to try out new concepts or be
inspired to challenge their limits.
(animal logic, 2008)
emphasizes a better
value of animation
16 | Array16 | Array
Graphic design is not art. However, when I asked
my family, friends and even my fellow peers what
the difference between graphic design and art was,
they simply answered “I don’t know”. So this got me
thinking; what really differentiates graphic design
from art and art from graphic design? Where is the
line drawn between the two and why does this line
get blurred so often?
One of the operating factors as to why the public
view both professions under the same light is due to
the fact that they both require creativity and visual
communication skills; they can both be labelled
as beautiful. Many graphic designers have artistic
skills and many artists become graphic designers.
However, at the end of the day they are, in essence,
two different professions.
Graphic design is calculated and strategic. We are
bounded by design rules of typography, layouts,
colours, trends and the needs of a client or employer.
We start off with a purpose or a problem presented
by a client – either to communicate or evoke certain
feelings, ideas, action and/or messages to a targeted
audience and as designers we need to meet these
aims and solve the presented problems. If our clients
or employers were mathematicians we would be their
calculator. (Perkins, Shel.)
Art, on the other hand, is something that is ‘free’.
It is not bounded by as many rules or limitations, as
it is a visual expression of the thoughts and feelings
or the personal exploration of the artist. Art can
also be interpreted differently and evoke different
feelings from different people – it doesn’t need to be
explained. To some degree, art can even be seen as
somewhat selfish in its practises.
With the differences being so different between
graphic design and art, why do people still see
graphic design and art as one? The lines between the
two professions become hazy when design becomes
art and art becomes design. Take photography
for example, this is a medium used by both artists
and graphic designers. If an artist takes a picture
for design purposes, then does that become art or
design? One would automatically assume it to be
design because it began with a purpose.
However, recently at an Annie Leibovitzart exhibition
I came by a portrait of Demi Moore, the infamous
one that was initially taken for the cover of Vanity
Fair. Does the fact that she used it in her art
exhibition render it art or is it essentially a work of
Craig Elimeliah, a New York designer, highlighted an
interesting point about art and design in his article
“Art Vs Graphic”. He suggests that the saying
‘artist inspire artists’ is something that contradicts
the definition of fine arts. By using similar styles,
methods or standards of past artists, they are
following guidelines, in turn, rendering it as design
not art. They are not creating anything new but
simply, as Elimeliah put it, “…refreshed for public
consumption.”, therefore, categorising it as more
design than art. (aiga)
David Carson’s work often lies on the line that
separates graphic design from art. An acclaimed
and revolutionary typographic designer of the 1990s,
he is most known for his ‘innovative magazine
designs and experimental typography’ (David). He
argues that design can be interpretive and used as
an expressive medium and claims that his work is not
supposed to be restrained by the rules of design, but
rather, to create something new. (dcd) Carson’s work
is often controversial and attracts critiques that claim
his work is more artistic than design.
I believe that as graphic designers, we should
practice art on the side – art that moves people,
which is both original and creative. It is through
the practise of art that we build on our creativity,
skills and originality. This can then be applied to
our design work, thus, creating new trends and
more effective and expressive designs that meet
our clients’ needs. With this we can have a healthy
balance and a clear distinction between graphic
design and art.
The reason why the line between graphic design and
art is often blurred is based on the combination of
public perceptions of graphic design and art, and
sometimes as both graphic designers and artists,
we forget about the rules and foundations of what
differentiates the two –that art is interpretive and
design problem solving.
...at the end of the day,
they are, in its essence,
two different professions.
Array | 19
Life of a 3rd Year
hat is your prim
ary interest in
Overall what is your favourite typeface?
hat’s your preference: PC
or a M
$50 - $100
$100 - $150
How much would you spend on
university over the semester
but I manage
If I didn’t have
to work I’d be
How do you feel about
your current university workload?
How many hours do you spend studying outside of contact uni time/week?
How many hours do you spend on recreational activities/week?
How many hours do you work/week?
What time of the day is best for you to be active?
100 design students from UWS were surveyed about
their experiences as a 3rd year design student.
This visual representation is a piece of informative
It visually demonstrates data such as:
- the technology design students use,
- their expenses,
- how much time they spent on assignments
- and how often they see their friends.
20 | Array
How much would you spend
on living expenses/week?
Of the 200 or so students in your year -
how many do you think you know by name?
Rates & Bills
< 3 months
Will have one
before I leave
How long do you
think it will take you
to get a job after
Do you plan to do
more study after your degree?
What type of work do you do?
Casual/ Fullt time/ Intership/ None
51% of students have
56% of students have
72% of students have
44% of students have
25 - 50
50 - 100 100>
Array | 21
22 | Array22 | Array| Array
“In science, you have a
short amount of time
to communicate a
complex theory. This
is why graphic design
is so important to this
This is a bold statement to make, considering how
drastically different these two industries are from
However, very few people are aware of how
interrelated they are. Science, like all other industries,
needs to communicate effectively. The purpose of this
article is to show how important graphic design is to
science and to highlight how inspiring infographics
I will show how much science embraces
graphic design through the instigation of the
Design4Science Symposium. I’ll then explain what
an info-graphic is and why it is important to science.
Lastly, you’ll be able to see what constitutes as
an info-graphic as well as some resources you might
want to look at if you wish to explore this topic
As an industry, we traditionally see ourselves
working in media, entertainment, marketing or
advertising. But do we consider other unrelated
areas? The answer to this is probably not.
Do you remember your science textbooks back
in high school? Can you recall the countless
diagrams and charts that were presented to you?
Just reminisce how easy it was to look at a diagram
rather than text. You can already start to appreciate
how much science needs graphic design.
Science seeks to expand human kind’s knowledge.
Graphic design endeavours to communicate a
message to the mass population. Both of these
industries focus on logical thinking and problem
Science and design are constantly discovering
new techniques, knowledge and rules. If they are
not doing that, then they are searching for ways
to break them or to acquire new ways of thinking.
These two communities have much in common.
There is already a move to embrace graphic design
in science. The University of Sunderland, who are
based in the United Kingdom, annually invites
speakers to present at the symposium.
Both designers and scientists, from many parts of
the world come and present to students, educators
and scientists about the benefits these two
industries can bring to each other. On their website
they wrote (that the), ”…Symposium’s aim was to
encourage lively debate across science and design
whilst forging closer cultural connections between
the two communities” (University of Sunderland)
They also go on to say “…Designers are ‘cultural
intermediaries’ and problem solvers. In the context
of this project it has been recognised that design
can make a powerful intersection between the
As graphic designers, we don’t always recognise
how other industries require our skills. Even
science needs graphic design.
by Emma Egan
Array | 23 23Array | 23Array |
“ “…Designers are
and problem solvers.
A collection of graphs can make a
stunning piece of design such as this
pie graph of graphs
24 | Array24 | Array
Science can be visually beautiful.
Array | 25
Science relies heavily on raw and highly objective
data. These results are often presented to other
scientists, researchers, companies and government
agencies. They are also published to the wider
academic community for peer review and
Much of this data would be difficult to understand
if it were to be presented on a piece of paper. This
means that there are times when the data has to
be made into a graphical representation to help
communhicate the meaning of the experiment or
study of research.
We know what an info-graphic is and why it is
important to science, but when do we need info-
graphics? In White Space Is Not Your Enemy: A
Beginner’s Guide to Communicating Visually it says
you need it when,
“- You need to communicate quickly
- A verbal or written account is too complicated –
or tedious- for comprehension
- Your audience can’t hear or read well – or at all.“
(Golombisky and Hagen)
In science, you have a short amount of time to
communicate a complex theory. This is why graphic
design is so important to this community. We, as
an industry, are taught these principals and are
required to exercise them on many occasions.
Science not only adheres to these three principals,
it also adds a forth. “The general public will
eventually see these results. We have to make this
information accessible and understandable.”
Both science and graphic design strive for the
same thing. They operate to deliver knowledge
and wisdom to the world. We uncover codes,
information, meaning and understanding and find
a means to pass on that message. This is what we
should all endeavour to do as designers.
public and science; it can enhance the accessibility
of science and can encourage public engagement
with science through design.” (University of Sunderland)
Apart from lectures, the Univeristy of Sunderland
also holds exhibitions and design competitions for
students. The catagories cover many graphic design
streams. These include illustration, product design,
multimedia, animation and web design.
The University of Sunderland is pioneering the way
for recognition in graphic design within the science
community. This demonstrates how important our
Earlier I asked you to remember your high school
science books. Let’s return back to that memory for
a moment. The charts, diagrams, images and visual
examples in those books are all examples of info-
graphics. Paul Martin Lester explained it like this.
“Infographics combine the aesthetic sensitivity
of artistic values with the quantitative precision
of numerical data in a format that is both
understandable and dramatic.” (Lester, 182)
To put that in laymen’s terms, info-graphics is the
shortened term for information graphics. These
are visual representations of data. Their purpose
is to communicate raw data in a way that can be
understood by the wider audience. This form of
graphic design is used constantly in other industries
as well as science. These include economics,
business, marketing, and the media. If data has
been represented visually, it’s an info-graphic.
We uncover codes,
and understanding and
find a means to pass on
Array | 27
Can music really impact the
overall creative process of design?
by Andrew Torrisi
Like graphic design, music aims to communicate
a certain message or vision. However being a
different form of art to graphic design, music strives
to communicate its messages through a different
medium. We, as graphic designers communicate
our thoughts and ideas through image and sight,
whilst musicians communicate theirs using sound
As designers, it is possible to say that we can feed
off the messages we gain through sound, and put
them on paper or screen, thus translating them on
a subconscious level. Yes, I know it’s a bit hard to
understand, but just bare with me here while I go into
a lot of psychological information just to help open
your eyes to this theory.
Ok, so ever since we were born, our minds have been
subjects to the mental and physical experiences we
have encountered. Ultimately, these experiences have
shaped and morphed our thoughts and emotions on
a subconscious level. For example, a child sees light
and wishes to hold it, he burns his fingers and feels
pain. He develops a fear and proper respect for the
flame. Later he learns that light has a friendly side as
well ‑ that it drives away the darkness, makes the day
longer and keeps us warm from the cold.
So pretty much when we see an artwork or hear a
song, the psychological thought and process that give
it a certain emotion is often due to the association of
both physical and mental perceptions, including our
experiences of the world built around us through both
our physical and mental senses. It’s because of these
experience and perceptions that we learn to develop
and create certain emotional symbols and meanings
for particular images and sounds. Make sense?
In theory, we see the colour red and it could remind
us of a flame and it’s pain. Therefore, we translate
different meanings for the colour red, such as
danger, blood and so forth. Yet, based on other
experiences, it reminds us of love, passion and
romance. As designers these symbols are crucial in
communicating messages to people. The same goes
with music and sound, we hear a fast heavy metal
band and we think of anger and aggression, we hear
a classical orchestra and our minds are taken into a
world of fantasy.
In the end, it all comes down to the relationship
with the individual and the music itself, if you love
your music and feel something from the sounds and
messages within the song, then music is more likely
to influence you. Like many designers, I always listen
28 | Array
If you’re designing an
you want music that
gets you there.Music
shapes the message.
to music during those long endless nights when I’m
trying to figure my head around a design. I know for
a fact, being a musician most my life, the music I
listen to can trigger certain psychological emotions
or thoughts that impact my creative process. It just
changes my whole mindset. Whether you listen to
music just to fill up the dead silence or to relax your
mind, music can affect us on a subconscious level
which we are totally unaware of even happening!
I can remember numerous times I’d be stuck on
a design and I wouldn’t know where to go with it,
the next thing I know, I plug in some good old fast
and melodic rock such as “Iron Maiden”, and the
creative juices start to kick in. These days depending
on my theme or vision of a design, I would usually
play something that reflects upon that vision. John
Besmer, the principal of “Planet Design Co” says
the connection between music and creativity is
undeniable. “If you’re working on a project like Jazz,
something that puts you in that mood”, he says “But
if you’re designing an in-your-face project, you want
music that gets you there. After all, you wouldn’t go
to the gym and work out to a lullaby, right? Music
shapes the message.” (John Besmer the principal of
Planet Design Co)
This obviously proves that music can have a creative
impact on us designers “individually”. Individually, we
have the power and freedom to select our own choice
of songs that we “feel” can aid us in the creative
process, we choose certain songs or styles because
we have developed a subconscious and psychological
connection with it. In larger working environments,
studios often employ music as a way to get the brain
pumping during those early mornings and brace
ahead for the long day. Design studios often use
music to give the team a boost in morale as well
as a positive mind set. Designer Campbell doesn’t
turn on music in his office until 10 a.m. “Around
that time, music adds the extra boost we all need
mid-morning” he says. “And after lunch is when
music is most vital in the workplace. Music can help
you through that 2:00 pm slump, which sometimes
goes on until 5:00 pm.” Due to the common clash
of musical taste within design studios between staff,
some design firms often choose to slap in a CD with
an assortment of songs for everyone and just hit
the play button and let the tracks roll. However, it
can start to get annoying listening to music 8 hours
straight whilst trying to work. Designer Campbell
advises “always allow some down time when no
music is playing, ideally you don’t want to play music
more than half the time you’re working.”
Array | 29
Over the past few days of my research I managed
to interview former Art director and Cover Designer
of Mushroom Records Alison Smith, to find out how
music has influenced her design process. Alison
Smith has created the works for many international
artists such as Paul Kelly, The living End and Kasey
Hi Alison, once again thanks for giving me
Hi Andrew, thank you for choosing me for this
Hoow long where you working with Mushroom
I was with them for about four years.
And how did you apply and gain the position of
Well I saw an ad in the paper saying the position was
available, I then contacted them and went through
a process of interviews and got the job. It was only a
small studio with 5 team members.
In terms of cover design, where does your source of
inspiration come from?
I usually listening to the music that I’m creating the
artwork for first, from there I design concepts which
are then discussed with the artist.
Do you listen to music when you’re designing
Yes I do, only because I think it helps boost creative
thinking, and it provides a positive and relaxed
Do you think that music influences and triggers
certain emotions and thoughts that can then be
translated within your works?
Yes I do, I’m a better designer when I listen to music,
and it triggers certain ideas and helps you think in
different ways. I think it triggers a certain thought
or memory that you might not have remembered
without the sound of music.
And finally, how would you describe the current
industry for CD and album artwork for artists?
The industry is actually quite dead, artist are now
turning towards professional freelancers rather than
30 | Array30 | Array
That’s enough cake for you!
A healthy human diet is very
important in the makings of
the human biology. We consume
food for energy, yet consuming
too much food can have terrible
side effects. Understanding this,
let me relate it to a common
problem that designers, especially
young designers face, when
the unlimited design works
they can be inspired by, can
make them ‘unhealthy’. Are we
eating too much inspiration? Are
we succumbing to inspiration
obesity? Or are we exercising all
this inspiration to create muscles
As a young designer, I’m
constantly asked to look for
inspiration to feed my creativity.
I am constantly influenced by
other designers’ practice to help
shape my own understanding
for my own design philosophy.
This is a common problem of
being stuffed with inspiration
allows designers to succumb
to symptoms of laziness and
crush their hopes of being a
good designer. Which in fairness
Are we eating too much inspiration?
Are we succumbing to inspiration obesity?
ometimes all the mighty glory of
being a brilliant designer is to
just stand out. So in this article
I will try to break this notion, try
to make young designers and our
readers aware of this growing
The Internet has become a souce
for a quick easy fix of inspiration.
We can easily find examples of
design by searching anything on
search engines such as Google.
It has been a common practice
to then bookmark or follow a RSS
feed for any instant updates to
(other designers’) work or activity.
The Internet is a highway of
instant information, and with the
assistance of new media such as
smart phones. According to the
Australian bureau of statistics
mobile wireless (excluding
mobile handset connections)
was the fastest growing internet
access technology ever, in
actual numbers ‑ increasing
from 2.8 million in December
2009 to 4.2 million in December
2010. Information is literally
in the palm of our hands.
So besides being obese with
inspiration, we, like society, are
already becoming fattened by
Looking for inspiration via
the Internet can distract us
from things that actually
matter or cripple a designers’
creativity, not to mention their
productivity (Wagner, Mindy).
The Internet is addictive fodder
for procrastinators and at times
can be seen as a place for perfect
confluence of misinformation,
disinformation and useless
information (Scotford, Martha).
Various other new media have
helped with the making of
decisions by informing us. For
example, it can help us decide
what kind of restaurants we
should go to or what movie
to watch. But having to look
through limitless reviews, we can
see how we can be distracted
and indecisive in these kinds
of situations. It is like looking
for what kind of food we should
eat in a food court. We should
try to not be distracted by the
by Jerel Boquiren
32 | Array32 | Array
we need to be aware of the
changes in society and how this
would in turn affect our practice.
So I hope I did not make you
hate looking for inspiration
or hate the Internet, I am just
saying to eat in moderation and
to always exercise your creative
processes. Weigh yourselves
regularly and see that you are
not overweight all the time.
Inspiration influence, encourage
and uplift us to grow and help
us pursue what we went to
achieve. Knowing your current
that it changes all the time and
adapting to survive. In order to
continue “healthy design,” we
must continue to exercise our
creative juices and serve up a
healthy design menu to society.
“try something different, experiment and
make bad decisions.
for what kind of food we should
eat in a food court. We should
try to not be distracted by the
variety of options or what food
is popular to eat right now, but
to sometimes try something
different, experiment and make
So as a young designer, I suggest
one step to prevent inspiration
obesity, is make sure, you eat
in moderation. That’s not to say
the Internet is an unhealthy fast
food. Designers may just feel that
we are being burdened to create
original design that is different all
the time. It’s good, sometimes, to
whip up, something, from an old
cookbook once in a while.
Finding your style is one of the
ambitions of a designer. Besides
being a designer for conventional
reasons, there are designers that
aim to define their style and
promote this to show the kind
of styles and works they want to
be involved in. It is good for a
designer to have original recipes
of their work which define them,
but the notion we all face is
being compared in this massive
global village we live in. Works
are now easier to compare, as
global boundaries are broken,
with the Internet being a major
contributor in creating this
global village. Styles may be
deemed borrowed, or in some
cases plagiarised. Thus, making
it hard to impress ourselves and
that the style has been done
before and is not original enough
to stand out. A common trend
I have experienced is that we
are designing based on designs
we thought were cool when we
should be starting from scratch
and exercising our creative juices
These days, the layman
community are more design
literate. This is a good thing.
Again this has been a result of
the Internet. As people are more
exposed to healthy design we find
that it becomes more challenging
to sell one’s recipe. As designers,
34 | Array
Lou Dorfsman, a renowned
graphic designer with more then
forty years of design experience,
has summed up the basis of how
every design begins – with an
idea. Sounds easy enough, but
just where do we derive these
This is where a little something
called inspiration makes an
appearance. As a graphic
designer, inspiration is a must
for any piece of design work. It
is what gets designers motivated
and drives them to complete
their work. As stated by Energize
Design, a graphic design studio
based in Queensland, inspiration
is part of the arsenal a designer
must employ when designing
for a client or for oneself
So just what is inspiration?
Many designers don’t realise
the beauty of inspiration. It can
come from anywhere and can
be anything. From shop signs,
advertisements and posters to
the latest Tony Bianco shoes.
Even your dog can prove to be
an inspiration! Anything that
can spark the creative mind is
considered inspiration. One of
the scariest and most important
place inspiration can be drawn
from, suggested by a designer
from Chicago, is going outside.
by Janet Nguyen
Creativity is essentially a lonely art. An even
lonelier struggle. To some a blessimg. To
others a curse. It is in reality the ability to
reach inside yourself and drag forth from
your very soul an idea - Lou Dorfsman
Array | 35
There is more to the design world
then just sitting in front of the
computer and you may never
know just what might inspire
you in a world away from that
Despite this, many designers tend
to stick to other graphic design
works for inspiration, spending
hours raiding DeviantArt, or other
design communities, looking for
the piece of work to light up their
One of the biggest issues with
inspiration is the fine line between
‘inspired by’ and ‘copied’. Living in
a world surrounded by design can
be both a blessing and a burden.
Inspiration is right atour fingers
and easily accessible, particularly
since the invention of the
Internet. Yet, with all the constant
exposure, are the works created
really original pieces? Inspiration
is a means for designers to take
something, such as an idea or
theme which has been used,
and twist it to form their own
interpretations and meanings.
It allows them to address the
idea/theme by expressing their
individual opinions. Everyone has
different experiences and thus
sees the world differently and
the work they produce reflects
these differences. So, despite the
overload of inspiration, originality
is definitely achievable.
There is no definite way or
method for how a designer is
meant to use inspiration on his
or her works. However, Patrick
McNeil, a web developer and
author, has compiled a checklist
to help ensure you are not
copying the designers’ work but
using it for inspiration.
His advice is to use more then
one piece of work for inspiration.
To break down each of the
designs and pick your favourite
aspects. By doing this, ideas are
integrated with the designer’s
own ideas, hence creating new
meanings. The styles of design
have broadened and the outcome
of the finished design is something
original (Using Inspiration).
So you decide. Are we creating
work that is original? Or are
designs today being influenced
too heavily by existing designs?
Chris Hill, an illustrator and
digital artist from Canada, drew
inspiration from a number of
sources to create his collection,
The Seven Disney Sins.
Completed early this year, the
collection consists of seven pieces
of art depicting the seven sins
using the Disney characters: Ariel,
Beauty, Belle, Jasmine, Snow
White, Cinderella and Tinkerbell.
When asked what inspired or
influenced his designs, Hill stated
that what inspired him initially
was not the inspiration he used
for the pieces. He began with
the idea to “depict a person who
was affected by the sin and who
conquered it”. His intentions
for the pieces were to reveal
the characters’ humanity and
“strengthen their positions as
role-models”. Using the Greed
piece as an example, (Greed), Hill
drew inspiration from Alphonse
Mucha, a painter best known for
his work during the Art Nouveau
movement, and references from
both the Disney movie and the
sin, to create a piece that had
strong reference points yet at
the same time, revealed a new
perspective in his interpretation of
classic themes and ideas.
Emulate your heroes and
develop your own style out
of that, by thinking about
what it is that you’re
trying to do.
We stand on the shoulders
of the great men before us
and hopefully we might
even be a quarter of their
- Lynn Smith.
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What kind of photography do you do?
I do street photography at night. On the streets of
Sydney and Melbourne at night, and hopefully other
cities when I get a chance to get to them. No people,
mostly longer exposures. I figure that the absence of
people creates a desire for people. If you come and
see a show with pictures of no people in an urban
environment where you expect to see them, then the
absence of people creates questions in your mind.
I’m hoping people will think ‘okay why are there no
people? What sort of people should there be here?
What should they be doing? Is this a statement about
lack of community? And things like that. I don’t really
have any specific things I’d like people to feel about
them, but I would like them to feel something.
So, is this a reflection of your own experiences? Or
is it more about other people drawing from their
experiences and putting them into your photos?
Well, you shoot from the point of view of what draws
you, so you shoot what attracts you; not necessarily
knowing why it attracts you, and you are hoping
that it will strike some sort of chord in your viewer.
If you’re not too didactic and if you don’t set things
up in a logical way, then you are hoping that work
will be open ended and people will have various
interpretations and find some way into the
I checked that with friends and relatives recently.
I gave them a look at my stream of pictures on the
internet. I said, “Look. I don’t want to know why
you like or dislike these pictures but I want to know
if you feel something when you see them, and if so
what?” I was interested in exploring their feelings
more than I wanted their judgement. I don’t really
care if they like them or don’t like them. I’m trying to
get some response. That’s why I’m doing them. And
that was interesting, because people had a variety of
responses, and their emotions were quite strong.
Did they have the same reaction as you?
No they didn’t, their reactions were all different.
When taking photographs, how do you decide what
you’re going to shoot?
Ahh, that’s a good question. It’s got to hit me, that’s
how I decide. I have no agenda. When I go out there,
I don’t know what I’m looking for. I’m expecting to be
surprised and if I’m not surprised then I just go home
and sleep. I wait for something to surprise me, and
it’s usually a collection of shapes and textures and
things, I start from sort of grunge and pathos, and
if there’s other things going on there in relation to
light, if light exists in the picture, in such a way that
it can pull you into it, I’m interested. And if there are
accidents happening around that may change the
picture, I’m interested in them as well. do. My mind
is a blank canvas when I go out onto the street. If
nothing strikes me, then I never shoot anything.
So you never have a set idea when you go out to
No, I have a feeling I’m looking for, but that’s just an
ambiguous sort of a thing. I don’t respond to pristine
environments, there has to be something anarchic or
contradictory in them to attract me, because I think,
that’s how I live. I live in a sort of unpredictable way. I
don’t have set things I do every day.
Are your photos a reflection of your life?
I’m looking for metaphors. I’m looking for things
which symbolise what’s going on in my life.
So it’s about showing your own identity in the work?
Yes, the artist is the person who is brave enough
to put their life out there in whatever medium they
choose, whether it’s literacy ballet or performance.
They’re putting their own blood out there in the public
eye and hoping there will be some repour there with
the audience. But you don’t start with the audience
as an artist; you start unlike everybody else, in
capitalist society. You don’t start with a product, you
start with what you want to articulate and you hope
that there will be a response, and if there isn’t then
you just keep doing it anyway.If you’re not creating
by Ashleigh West
Photo of Lynn by Ashleigh West
Photography by Lynn Smith
38 | Array
out of your life, then what’s the point in doing it?
Why not do a job like engineering or accounting? If
you were concerned about living a sort of functional
life then you wouldn’t be an artist. An artist puts
their life out there in the public eye. They are willing
to reveal themselves. If you’re not willing to reveal
yourself then you shouldn’t be an artist. What are you
revealing? Patterns that other people have developed?
Recycling other people’s images and thinking?
Why is photography your method of expression
rather than other art forms?
Ahh yeah, because I was a writer for 30 years, so I
know technically how to write things. I made a living
as writer. But I was a writer in a more social context,
I was an advertising writer so I collaborated with
people all the time - with film directors, musicians,
producers and people like that, and art directors.
I enjoyed that very much, and so I could probably
evolve as a fiction writer, likw a lot of my friends
from those days. People like Peter Carey and Murray
Bale, people that I used to work with, that I know
quite well. They have become fiction writers. I could
have taken that projectory, but I’m too social for
that. I couldn’t bear the thought of sitting in a room
for months and years just typing at a computer. I
know oddly, here I am taking pictures with no people
around, but I’m out on the street, I’m out where
there are things happening. I’m in the city, I’m a city
person, so it’s like photography is lonely but social.
Fiction writing is lonely period. I couldn’t face that.
How did you come up with your ideas for advertising
campaigns? Was there a certain method to that?
There are methods to it, yeah. I taught at Billy Blue
for about four years, how to generate ideas. There
are various techniques. They mainly come from the
ancient Greeks. They’re not things that’ve been
invented recently metaphor, analogy, exaggeration,
pathos. All of these things are techniquesyou can use.
The thing about ideas is that they’re not discussed
much in University, unfortunately. I think this is one
of the weaknesses of University life, in that I’ve seen
other students doing similar degrees to me, hoping
to get an idea, yet not managing to find one, well
it’s your job to get an idea. If you don’t get one too
bad, and they kind of wander off, they’re out there,
whereas there are techniques you can teach people.
Kant, for example, made the clearest statement of
what an idea is. An idea is a notion that takes you
beyond experience. So I think if you look at a piece
of art or media work, and it’s a simple reflection of
experience, then there’s no idea in it. If it’s something
that takes you beyond experience, whether it be
music, drama, photography or whatever else, if it
takes you into a different world then there’s an idea
there. The question is, how do you get to people?
What techniques can you give people to take their
idea beyond experience, and I think it’s an important
thing to do. There’s not much being done.
You need to find a medium that can express what
you’re going through in a way that dramatises it. So
you’re looking for a way to articulate what’s vaguely
circulating around in your head, in your nervous system
and blood stream.
Artists are people who have more to say than anyone
wants to listen to. The artist is the person who feels
like they don’t want to bore people by just telling
them stuff; they want to find a way to articulate it.
They don’t want to waste it in conversation when
nobody is listening, so they have to find a medium.
I regard myself as a publicly funded artist, as I am
68 years old, therefore I get the aged pension. So I
am able to more or less live, with a bit of teaching,
without having to go out and do a regular job. I’ve
still got my wits about me. I regard this as a second
adolescence; it’s a fantastic period in my life. I
haven’t got dependent children, I can live where I
like, I’ve got collaborators who can help me express
my ideas. I think it’s a fantastic time.
An idea is a notion that takes
you beyond experience.
Array | 39
So it’s about finding your own power and how you
want to represent yourself in your photographs?
Yes exactly, it’s just fluid and anarchic and
unpredictable a medium as paint and clay. Because
there is a machine involved, people think all
photographers are people on the other end of a
machine. It’s just a question of where you point
it. Well, there is conceptual photography which is
booming. People like Jeff Wall, Gregory Krutzen,
construct images like film directors. Gillian Wearing
who goes out on the street with blank pieces of
A3 paper and textas, hands these to people and
says to them ‘write down what you’re feeling right
now’ and photographs them in a snapshot style.
They are not decisive moments; they are processes
that a photographer has gone through. Cindi Lee,
who does portraits of groups of people in which
she embrangles, takes on their colouration. She
photographs different cultural groups, and she’ll
dress herself up as one of them. Photography is quite
an elaborate and flexible medium, it’s just a question
of the practitioners, whether they want to explore the
possibilities or not.
So Rutblees Luxemberg is someone who
Yes, she teachers in the Royal College of Arts in
London. She photographs on the streets of London
at night using a 4x5 camera. It’s interesting because
I invited her to come and show with us in a show in
Sydney. She didn’t agree or disagree, but she did say,
“well the first thing I would say is don’t call yourself
photographers. I’ve avoided that description my
entire career, I’m an artist and I explore things.
”She said that you need to widen the discourse, and
find yourself artists in other media. It’s worth talking
to people you admire, even if they’re way further
up the tree than you may be. Luxemberg is highly
successful, her work is in the secondary market, she’s
much more developed in terms of her career than I
am, and yet she was willing to talk about concepts
and so on. You can talk to artists if you’ve got an
idea that you want to discuss and they’ll reply. Never
think they’re much more famous, have a go and if
you’ve got something to say, then they’ll be listening
and can communicate with you.
So a way of expanding your own practise is to go
and view other artists to see why you are attracted
to their work?
Not just see why, but shamelessly copy them. When I
first started doing street photography Lee Friedlander
and Garry Winogrand were my heroes. Because if
you don’t emulate them, then you’ll never move
beyond them. I think it’s important to emulate them
and accept that they’re the influence. Don’t try and
hide it, everyone does it. Emulate your heroes and
develop your own style out of that by thinking about
what it is that you’re trying to do. But, no, I don’t
think that everything is original. We stand on the
shoulders of the great men before us and hopefully
we might even be a quarter of their height.
What kind of advice do you give to people wanting
to get into photography?
I think go to the library, a University library, and look
at the photography books. All University libraries are
free. I would spend hours at a time, looking through
thousands of images looking at what stood out and
stay in my mind. I would go through 2000 images in
one afternoon and whatever stuck to me was what
I felt had an influence. I didn’t try and figure out a
style, just whatever images stayed in my head.
Thank you Lynn!
40 | Array
Through fashion we are all considered designers as we
hold the power to ‘design ourselves’. With the vision and
skills of both fashion & graphic designers combined,
endorsement of a collection is far from futile.
By Kim Eduardo
Array | 41
Fashion is a form of individual expression. Every
morning we dress ourselves not because we don’t
want to walk out naked. We go to our closets to find
an outfit that can reflect how we, as individuals,
want to be perceived by society. These garments
that we intentionally choose may be following
current fashion trends or styles from a bygone
era. Within our society we are presented with
numerous designers and collections. We oversee
the actual production of fashion and how print
media, advertisements and campaigns create a
path for fashion and graphic designers to work in
tandem. Marketing of a fashion brand is critical in
the respect of setting a distinct image and gaining a
prosperous outcome from consumers and critics.
Different styles represent the different expression
from individuals these styles are pieces of clothing
and accessories developed by some form of
encouragement. The idea for these designs may
have come from one who is inspired by celebrities,
seeing someone wear an item, music, hobbies or past
trends. All items of clothing are a design inspiration.
Celebrities are considered pinnacles of inspiration.
They play major roles in promoting the new, using
their status of constantly being in the public eye.
They have the power to create trends, inspiring the
public to dress a certain way.
The first American First :ady, Jackie Kennedy made
pencil skirts very popular. Untill this day many
females continue to wear this style, as its silhouette
flatters all shapes, making the hips look sleek and
legs appear longer.
Audrey Hepburn is referred to as the most important
‘style icon’ of the 20th century. Miss Hepburn’s
style had a strong influence upon fashion. Through
the unflawed film Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Audrey
Hepburn popularized the little black dress. Women
all over the world used this wardrobe essential
for black tie events, weddings and more, paying
homage to Audrey’s unique sense of style, which
possessed elegance and wit. Simplicity was key
through Hepburn’s style; ‘Put bold jewelry with it,
and you can’t go wrong.’ Breakfast at Tiffany’s and
Audrey Hepburn’s panache produced a doorway
for designers. Created within that doorway was
an opportunity to build an unrivaled reputation
for sophisticated luxury that became the empire
of Tiffany & Co, one of the most world’s most
Tiffany & Co’s advertisement’s are publicised
through magazines, commercials and print media,
portraying timeless pieces - ‘jewelry for special
occasions’ to maintain a strong elite image. Through
the branding and packaging, designers incorporated
the elements of Hepburn’s style and characteristics
from the movie to maintain and enhance this image.
Graphic design comes into play through the
marketing strategy of Tiffany & Co’s strongest
marketing tool, the luxurious blue box. The
popularity of the Tiffany & Co blue box has led to
the introduction of the item as a regular feature in
the company’s advertising campaign as Caroline
Naggiar, Vice President of Marketing, stated in the
2002 Tiffany & Co. annual report (2003).
Audrey Hepburn possesses elegance and wit.
42 | Array42 T | Array
Successful Tiffany & Co branding known to all.
The blue box was able
visually in magazine
advertising to symbolize
the whole institution
of Tiffany. It would be
absurd not to harness
this incredible piece of
Tiffany & Co try to evoke an emotional attachment
between the consumer and the blue box, inviting
the customer to live the lifestyle the blue box
symbolises. Which is deliver through the consumption
of Tiffany products.Through fashion magazine
advertising, Tiffany & Co maintains a successful
marketing campaign through the use of graphic
designers as they have established the powerful
image of the blue box that is instantly recognisable.
In one of Tiffany & Co’s attempts to convert an
image of snobbery and to attract potential consumers
in 1996, the company launched marketing campaigns
that included “How to Buy a Diamond” and “Pearl
Authority” (Bongiorno, 1996). Tiffany & Co produced
brochures explaining what qualities of each stone
a prospective consumer should consider before
making a significant purchase. Through each piece
and collection, Tiffany & Co continues to launch
new product lines, taking advantage of the growing
popularity of branding among jewelry consumers
today through constant fashion, magazine
advertising and campaigns.
As graphic designers we have to take into
consideration the target market of fashion brands.
We have to work harmoniously with the client
to produce a successful logo design that is an
important aspect of marketing, as it can make or
break the brand name. There’s nothing worse than
producing a logo or brand which isn’t captivating.
As graphic designers it is our responsibility to
produce amazing works that are memorable enough
to be embedded into consumers; minds.
Ralph Lauren has successfully achieved a distinctive
brand and logo design as it employs a serif typeface
which is big bold and easy to read. The polo logo
is placed in the middle of the brand to break it up.
Ralph Lauren levels off its creative facet across all
channels to strengthen its impact which is evident in
their insignia. The importance of a strong brand in
marketing is crucial. Ralph Lauren’s plush advertising
has put emphasis on a stateside counterpoint to the
chateaus and parlors of European high society. The
2011line up displayed pure innovation, building upon
the themes and imagery that the brand has been
promoting for years.
Ralph Laurens 2011 campaign is ultra-modern,
Array | 43 43Array |
sleek and refined. Great branding means more than
just beautiful imagery. A graphic designer uses the
visuals and their own design aesthetic to make all
the difference. Photographer Arnaldo Anaya-Lucca
captured the essence of the 2011 Ralph Lauren’s
campaign going from the beach to the field and the
office. Ralph Lauren’s market strategy shows off its
theme of ‘ever-preppy,’ evident through their Spring
collection ‘The Purple Label’.
It has been promoted through the stunning
photography work, which has been used in
catalogues, magazines and other print media,
creating captivating advertisements.
Fashion designers work on par with graphic designers
as they construct websites for the brand, assisting in
customer interaction and allowing individuals to go
through collections on their screens. The hallmark
polo logo, the inspiration of horses that represents
the equestrian image is effectively displayed through
print media such as newspapers, billboards and
fashion magazines. Graphic artists are employed to
lay out their publications which aid to publicise the
brand allowing consumers to marvel at ‘the king of
class’, Ralph Lauren.
Fashion design doesn’t end at the production
of garments. It continues onto the brand’s logo,
print media and advertising/campaigns. It utilises
graphic design through the brand’s image from their
marketing strategy. Graphic artists assist fashion
designers with their collections by creating an
inimitable image for their line to stand out above the
rest. As graphic designers, we convey information
through visual solutions, we’re given the opportunity
to promote and assist the consumption of a product
by providing our skills and vision. Fashion has an
impact upon graphic design as it inspires designers
to build upon something great.
Polo Ralph Lauren inspires the style of ‘ever preppy’ in youth today.
44 | Array
Streetsby Melissa Karatzas
Array | 45
Free speech and story
telling was an influence
on graffiti, street graffiti
was an influence on
graphic designers, and
graphic designers have
produced the digital
graffiti we see today.
How did graffiti start? No, it wasn’t in New York or
Los Angeles, nor was it London. Would you believe
that graffiti started as early as the prehistoric times
- with writing, engraving and scriptures on the caves
walls and floors? Graffiti originated from the Italian
word ‘graffito’, meaning ‘a scratch’. According to
the Oxford dictionary, graffiti is defined as writing or
drawings scribbled, scratched or sprayed illicitly on a
wall or other semi flat surface.
Graffiti has evolved over time. In ancient Athens,
the walls served as a scribbling ground for citizens’
demands and fantasies. Underneath the Roman
Empire, humorous, sarcastic or democratic tags were
discovered on the walls of Pompeii. French literature
in the 1800’s also had references to graffiti by well-
known authors as they walked through towns. Graffiti
went through an art period by the surrealists, such as
Picasso and Picabia. During the Second World War,
the Nazis used graffiti as a weapon by smearing on
the walls with hate filled propaganda against their
In the 1960’s and 1970’s street culture emerged and
wall slogans became more popular. The Berlin Wall
became a focus of graffiti, where slogans appeared on
the West side, but not on the East side as freedom of
expression was banned. (Ganz)
46 | Array
has been instrumental in
preserving graffiti and
( Martha Cooper)
Fast forward a few more years and we reached the
era where hip-hop took off and the world of graffiti
expanded in New York, eventually spreading all over
the world. Graffiti developed from tagging to spray
painting of names and images on trains, concrete
walls, signage, and pretty much anywhere that had
space and a fairly flat surface. It was seen to be
an art form that was only created by criminals or
vandals. Today that does not hold true.
After a long history, graffiti arrived to what it is today.
Currently, graffiti is not only made by hand but also
made in digital forms. Graphic design vhas changed
from a traditional style to expanding ventures that
incorporate all different forms of design disciplines.
Graffiti art and design have changed due to the
development of art technology, computers, software
and the internet, which heavily influenced the graffiti
design industry. This has caused some designers to
fight against the development, but others to continue
on with their passion.
Graffiti within Australia started in the early 1950’s
and is now generally found in large cities and towns.
(Dew) Australia’s technology and design is constantly
developing. Graffiti artists and graphic designers have
emerged together to develop fantastic design works
that inspire other designers today.
‘Computer technology has been instrumental
in preserving graffiti and street art’ as graffiti
photographer, Martha Cooper stated. (Computer
Arts - Digital Graffiti). Therefore, with the rise in
technology, especially the popularity of computers, it
was inevitable for graffiti design to take the turn into
digital form. Cooper added that ‘there are numerous
graffiti fonts you can download, and there are online
shops to buy hard to find supplies, the web has spread
this design form to all around the world, and yet it is
still evolving.’ (Computer Arts - Digital Graffiti).
Many graffiti artists have expanded their venture to
the online platform; websites, blogs and online photo
galleries being the popular forms of interacting with
fans. Websites such as graffiti.playdo.com allows
people to simulate creating traditional graffiti on
a wall with a virtual spray can. Graffiti designers
are able to expand their designs with the use of
computer programs such as Photoshop, where you
can download brushes and create markings. Illustrator
also allows for a designer to draw and InDesign allows
room for the layouts.
Array | 47
Graffiti has become an inspiration for many designers
as it has allowed them to explore different types of
art forms and mediums to express and portray their
messages. However, does this mean that graphic
designers have become lazier? No. Combining
different forms of design have become worthwhile
to designers. Being able to stretch your skills into all
areas is a talent for many. Photography, illustration,
graphic design and graffiti art have become a
standard toolbox for many designers.
There are many Australian graffiti artists that are
also graphic designers. Andy Steel, also known as
‘Az One’, was originally from the United Kingdom
but is now based in Sydney. He is one of the most
successful graffiti artists and graphic designers,
having done a range of paintings and graphic work.
‘My work is highly influenced by the organic but
futuristic structure that is present in much of graphic
design and contemporary illustration today. This,
combined with electronic music continues to influence
much of what I do when it comes to graffiti art. As
well as traditional graffiti, colour, composition and
design always will play an important part in shaping
the forms I paint.’ (Artist Online. Art. Graffiti Artists)
Graffiti demands your
Besides traditional graffiti work, Steel has integrated
much of his graffiti work with the graphic design
world. He stated, ‘I always try to design my graphics
with style.’ (Artist Online. Art. Graffiti Artists)
Influenced by the latest trends in graphic design,
Steel also combines his love for graffiti art with his
graphic design work. This is illustrated through his
work with companies such as Beck’s, Xbox, Red Bull
and Hewlett Packard, just to name a few.
Toby Caves, who is another Australian artist,
illustrator and graphic designer, combines his skills
with flash and website design. A lot of Caves’ work is
influenced by hip hop music and surfing. Like Andy
Steel, Caves has worked his digital graffiti style on
big brands such as Xbox, Pepsi, MTV, Channel V and
Smirnoff. (Artist Online. Art. Graffiti Artists)
Graffiti demands your attention. It has been an
inspiration for many designers starting from the
streets to the studio. Graffiti is a reference tool that
can be used for all designers to enable them to create
fun and interesting design work.
48 | Array
With words, symbols and the advancement of
technologies, graphic design has undertaken a
more sustainable position in conveying specific
messages in visual communications.
Graphic design has allowed the
information to be more accessible
and understandable in both local
society and our global village.
The presentation of facts or
messages can be expressed
and extended with graphics,
thoughtful compositions and
strategic initiatives. It plays an
important role in communication
to seek influence from the
powerful and the power of people
in tranforming iniatives.
An effective graphic design can
bring attention and discussion
to an issue. It encourages public
awareness about the needs
of others as well as the nature
of compassionate responses
to issues, such as the causes
of poverty. Designers are in
a position to collaborate the
with media and gain community
participation. As social and
cultural issues tend to be one of
the most misunderstood areas,
there are different opinions that
atleast need to be discussed.
Graphic designers understand
that they have to talk straight
here. Societies’ orientation can be
changed by design. Our work is
able to provide an integration to
shape attitudes, values, behaviors,
assumptions and beliefs of an
individual or community.
by Ling Lau
50 | Array50 | Array
Our demand must be that
design, at its core, be able to
communicate. It can reveal things
often hidden or forgotten.
Designers' ambitions will
be to dream of a new day,
displaying our awareness and
to be noticeable. A lot of times,
many of these ambitions are
overblown and the results can
be disappointing. Our job can
be rough riding, especially in the
Works like Oliver Toscani’s
remind us that this is an ideal
worth pursuing. The integration
of design concepts can be
found behind Toscani’s Faces
project. It displayed 20th century
youth within the one human
race. His advertising graphics
demonstrated commitment and
denunciation with popularizing
art. (Paolo, p48) The framework
of his advertising was to position
ideas to attract global attention.
There is the possibility of both
dominant and alternative readings
of ads. His projects encourage
and rely on consumers creativity
to determine the meaning/s. They
are often very intense and focused
on multicultural diversity.
Toscani’s bloody uniform of a Bosnian Soldier.
It is just the same as posing a
question about where we once
stood, where we stand today
and where we will tomorrow.
Array | 51 51Array |
He confronts themes such as racism, fear and world
hunger. His photographic demonstration also poses
questions of man’s connection with the world. The
bloody uniform of a Bosnian soldier, Marinko Gagro,
addressed significant impressions and beliefs of men
about their lives.
Critics saw him as controversial, while many others,
commented on him as a smart salesman for the
Benetton. He deployed his design with strategy
because he could identify the territory it could work
in. He put it into action and he knew how to exploit
it. He avoided images becoming too explanatory
as he believed the issue could be more discussed.
His practice, presentation and anti-bourgeois spirit
disregarded preconceptions, prejudgments and rules
in the industry.
Although advertising might not be well received
with aesthetic recognition by most, he was a radical
and a revolutionary designer. Toscani’s advertising
campaigns dealt with varied aspects of daily life
covering sex, life and death. While advertising usually
displayed formal perfection, Toscani did not follow
the norm. His graphics enabled social issues to
become visual in order to become more addressed.
He acted as an intermediary in encoding the
meaning more than promoting modernisation.
This makes us to think and to rethink the remification
of how we see ourselves day-to-day. Sometimes,
modern advertising has lost its faith. Design is not
restricted to just entertainment, commercial value or
to grab attention to itself. More importantly, it should
be our desire to analyse design and take ownership
of the future.
There are designers who do not worry that their
designs are vilified by the moralists or about gaining
an ambivalent reputation. They have their own form,
avoid creating oring slogans and they will remain in
In this information era, graphic designers will have to
see their role in a more radical, important way; and,
above all, we have to consider ourselves vital in the
production of social culture. It does not need to be
a passive or pretentious display. The form is ours.
If the message leads, they will let your form free.
Our mission statement: simplicity and confidence in
trusting our core values. Designing for humanity can
be more than advertising, publicity and flattery. Life
is not voluntary renunciation. Design cannot escape
life. We can find harmony that does not primarily
look at perfection but inner expression, that is,
ultimately apparent in the graphic world.
Left: Based on Toscani’s advertising campaign from March 1998 about human rights, it inspired me
by its respect for the different races to the values of tolerance, peace and diversity.
Array | 53
FOR THE LOVE
What has happened to print and what does the future look like?
by Romain Resplendino
54 | Array
“ “It has been so influential
in design that it would be
irrational to say goodbye.
In this day and age, printed materials are being
replaced more and more with digital copies and the
nostalgic essence of enjoying a pleasing designed
print is becoming less of a specialty, and more of
a hassle. With these changing times in design and
publications, will the constant flow of beautifully
designed print still hang around? What is to become
of print design?
Print design should stay around for as long as it
deserves to be appreciated. How can we forget it? It
has been so influential in design it would be irrational
to say goodbye. We still discover and produce new
and aesthetically pleasing print, and we, as designers
will continue to do so in the years to come because
it is what we’re accustomed to. In order to determine
the path print may take, we must first establish its
history and evolution. From history, we can pinpoint
the first signs of printed type, which occurred in
1440, when Johann Gutenberg, “realised that much
could be gained in speed and efficiency if the letters
of the alphabet were cut in the form of reusable type
rather than woodcut blocks” (Manguel). The printing
press was born allowing for the efficient and mass
production of printed material throughout humanity,
thus the dawn of printing began.
Since Gutenberg’s infamous bible, we have
developed new technologies such as radio, television
and now, the computer. These technologies seem to
have attempted to remove the printed material we
use to consume information, the proof is that it has
already been on the decline. If you’re still reading
this wondering why this has occurred then I implore
you to read on, as the answer is quite simple. Printed
material, for example the book, is on the decline not
only because of new and emerging technologies, but
because the change in technologies has rendered
the object of the material,impractical. Let’s face
it, no one wants to carry around something that is
heavy, cumbersome and not entirely important in
concurrence to the amount of events and tasks we
need to complete in our day, so therefore, no one
wants to carry around books and printed materials.
Array | 55
frees the mind of conservative tasks, that is, of
memory work, and thus enables the mind to turn itself
to new speculation”, (Ong).
Our thoughts, processes and consciousness have
been developed through the help of printed materials.
Therefore, we are still producing these materials and
we are re-producing them in new forms and styles.
Take ‘kikki.K’ for example, a retail outlet that sells
stylish stationary, home/office goods and gifts for
people. They have taken advantage and developed a
clever brand around this love for print and material
design. As a result of kikki.K’ success, it is evident that
people are still loving print design and, this means,
print design is here to stay.
We need to delve into our graphic principles that we
will employ, in our everyday work, to produce this
love for design. When a publication or printed design
utilises grid structure, coherent and limited use of serif
and/or sans serif typefaces, imagery, colour, hierarchy
and white space in an efficient and aesthetic way, we
have a superior design that is worthy of printing. It is
up to us as designers to use these tools and more to
develop aesthetically pleasing, elegant and effective
design print material.
The physical object of the printed material is the
reason why this change has taken place, it is being
I sure hope printed material stays with us for many
years to come. It should not be forgotten that the
history of printed design has been a key factor in the
development of design and its principles to graphic
design. From the early stages of printed, ornamented
publications such as the leather-bound books in the
18th and 19th century to the new typography and
design of the 20th century; and now, the graphic
design of the 21st century. If we are to keep printed
materials, we must design according to its practicality.
If this is the case, will we no longer be able to hold,
touch, feel or smell the authenticity of something so
beautifully designed and printed?
I for one, don’t believe so. Nothing should take away
the nostalgia. Looking at what is happening, it is clear
that publications are still being made, books are still
being published and the whole world is still rotating.
We are in an age where we have been defined by
printed material, “Writing is of coarse conservative…
by taking conservative functions on itself, the text
56 | Array
To develop and design, not only the look of a
printed design, but the feel of the design as well,
is something designers should begin taking into
consideration seeing as though people are hesitant
in collecting printed materials. It is up to designers to
design the look and feel of printed materials, whether
it be the paper used, the size, cut and content of the
material. These are all key factors to which designers
need to match, if they are to preserve this love for
In regards to the book, maybe the design of the object
of the book can be designed accordingly to a printed
material, but if not, the new technology of eBooks
is evidently the new surge, “In trying to preserve the
printed form of the book, the book trade was happy
to change its contents to suit the shifting publishing
environment. In order to save the object, the book
was changed into something else entirely”, (Young).
This evidence suggests that the book has already
changed its shape, and has already begun taking hold
Publications, which are usually thrown out in the
hundreds, could be better served recycled and remade
into new magazines. This is just a proposition to the
issue of the object of printed materials, but the answer
may inevitably lie only in digital copies, that answer
though will come about only in time itself and the
trends of new technologies that are yet to evolve.
In this age of new and rising technologies, print design
is not dead! It is only enduring a metamorphosis which
will determine whether it stays with us in the future,
or is remediated into something entirely new. All I
hope is that printed material, that which has been
given sufficient thought and an attention to detail, will
continue to inspire designers of all levels.
Array | 57
Each Array-Inspire poster has been handmade from
start to finish. It was designed and constructed using
traditional wood block type.
With the help of the Penrith Museum of Print team,
it was prepared for printing, inked up and placed on
the Vandercook printing press to produce a run of
just 30 posters. Each one slightly different.
Array | 59
Looking closer to home for design
inspiration whilst trying to avoid
catching creative constipation
Array | 61
When I first receive a graphic design assignment for
uni, or get a small job to knock out a flyer or mock
up of some kind, “I often think no sweat, this should
be easy.” I’ll jump online and look at some creative
networks that display professionals finished works or
some cool design magazines for creative inspiration.
I will look through all these works thinking about
the layout or typographic style to get those creative
juices flowing - to be inspired. However on some
occasions, doing this has the opposite effect.
This approach becomes a process of emulation or
imitation rather than inspiration. Or worse yet I suffer
from designer block!
I look at the fantastic completed work of other
professionals and become frustrated by my own
efforts not looking as striking or refined. I get
so caught up in trying to produce something to
the standard within the industry or of that of an
established design professional that originality and
personality within my work takes a back seat to
fitting the look of what I’m using for inspiration.
Then my creative drive runs out of pep completely.
I find that with my own designs, my favourite and
best work came about not by looking for inspiration
in others’ final polished results, but by finding
inspiration out of something else I was interested in
or passionate about.
I would became obsessive about a particular typeface
and use it in a few projects. I might happen upon
some stencil graffiti in the street andthink to myself,
“I’ll have a crack at that”, and make something
original that had personality.
What inspired me to do this work and why did I feel
prouder about this than other design work in my
portfolio? Because the spark of inspiration did not
come from being glutted on accomplished final works
by others but by something simple I was interested
in, something I was passionate about.
I didn’t find it online or in some design magazine.
I found it walking through the street on my way to
work. I found it sitting in a cool café surrounded by
good company and awesome band posters. I found
it in deep discussion with a drunken bewildered club
go’er concerning an illegible typeface used in a
promotional poster above the urinals. You can find it
in the most unlikely of places.
All you have to do is keep your eyes open to exercise
those creative muscles and get those creative juices
Design is everywhere as are the things that can give
you the creative urge or design inspiration. Take my
mundane, everyday example of going out for food
and a coffee, rather than the conversation in a wet
thumping club bathroom.
My favourite café to grab breakfast is the Deus
Café Camperdown. Deus Ex Machina is a custom
motorcycle brand which also has a little clothing
label. The Café is on the site of the workshop, bike
showroom and retial outlet for their clothing. Over
breakfast one can look around to see fantastic
artwork, illustration methods, graffiti, fashion,
“ “Design is everywhere!
As are the things that can
give you the creative urge
or design inspiration.
by Matt Robson
62 | Array
1 2 3Notice these beautiful bikes
and an equally good looking
illustration on the wall in the
background. Looking at the art or
posters that adorns the walls in
a café, such as this could spark
inspiration or at least expose you
to a style you may not have seen
The socialable trendy
environment in and around the
shop is enough to get those
artistic juices flowing and give me
an inspirational creative spur. I
find that I feel most creative and
driven to be artistic when happy,
and charged with first hand visual
Typography within posters at
Deus have a unique flavour which
gets me thinking about organic
type and encourage me to get
away from the computer in some
cases. I love the freeform lines
and textures of these letterforms.
Illustrative styles Fashion / Culture Typography
Array | 63
4Look around. You will find design inspiration
in the most unlikely of places. Personally I
love looking at band/event posters whenever I
see one about. They can be so different from
one another as they each cater to different
genres, audiences and ages. Also, they
often employ interesting design choices in
typography, illustration, photography and
layout. These posters are everywhere...
typography along with some nice rides. ‘Deus’ has a
very specific brand identity and associates itself with
retro bike culture and has a distinct rockabilly feel
to it. It has its own style, its own voice, it portrays
this through its unique typography, photography,
illustrations and fashion. It’s just a cool place I like to
hang out and is my personal inspiration Mecca.
Other scenes we might associate ourselves with
have their own style or feel from which we can get
design inspiration. I love going out to some dirty
dank club to hear baselines dirtier than two 40 year
olds on chat roulette. So I find myself looking upon
set times, club promotional material and the outfits
of all party go’ers. I take in the cool T-shirts and the
massive blocky typefaces of the posters along with
the shots…er I mean heavy music...
Each scene has a creative look or feel associated
with it and one can become inspired design-wise
while having a good time in a place or environment
they like. I feel more often than not the spark
of inspiration and that creative tickle when out
engaging with something I like, rather thanfeeding
my imagination something more than a final work
done by some sleek designer I have never heard of.
It is when we get our inspiration from sources closer
to home that we do our best work, or at least work
that means something to us. We are design students
and should value exploring and cultivating our own
individual creative style rather than reproducing
someone else’s work.
As young designers, go out and be actively creative,
look for design and inspiration all around you. Give
things a go and learn from the creative process
rather than from the process of creative replication/
apropriation. And at all costs try to avoid the
becoming creatively constipated…
We are design students
and should value exploring
and cultivating our own
individual creative style
rather than reproducing
someone else’s’ work.
by David Le
Gareth Pugh, ‘nough said, however I am supposed to
be writing 750 words for my article. Pugh is foremost a
fashion designer, however at 14 he started working as
a costume designer for the National Youth Theatre.
Seeing his work now you can see how elements
of theatre design is still present. Pugh is the latest
addition to the fashion-as-performance-art creators
that stretches back through Alexander McQueen,
John Galliano (aka the racist, anti-Semitic designer
who got sacked by Dior) and Vivienne Westwood also
to the eighties club culture of Leigh Bowery.
Pugh’s collections are autobiographical rather
then referential and draws inspiration from
Britain’s extreme club scene. His trademark is his
experimentation with form and volume, and often
uses nonsensically shaped wearable sculpture to
distort the human body almost beyond recognition.
Britain’s extreme club scene revolves around
elements of Gothic fashion, it’s very dark and cult-
like. Pugh used to work under Rick Owens who’s
style has been described as ‘glamour meets grunge’,
however Owens says, “I try to make clothes the way
Lou Reed does music, with minimal chord changes
and direct. It is sweet but kind of creepy. It’s about
giving everything I make a worn, softening feeling.
It’`s about an elegance being tinged with a bit of
barbaric, the sloppiness of something dragging and
the luxury of not caring.” Even though Pugh’s iconic
designs are not ‘soft’ there is something ‘sweet but
kind of creepy’ about his designs, however there was
a change in style in his Autumn/Winter ‘08 collection,
the draping of the fabrics create elements of ‘soft’.
But there is a common element in both designers,
they both create with ‘an elegance tinged with a
bit of barbaric’, however Pugh’s elegance is more
directed with reflective materials and clean lines.
With this information and studying his Fall/Winter
‘09/’10 collection for men and Spring/Summer
‘09/’10 collection for women I have deconstructed
and have been influenced by the designs of certain
fabrics, texture, pattern and cut and taken them out
of the design so that I can view his collection in the
most simplest form which can be hard when looking
at his early work where distortion was the crux of his
designs. Continuous pattern and layering is used
quite a lot in both collections, the colours are very
basic. premarily being black and white. However the
cuts are quite sharp and slick giving the design that
ESSENCE OF PUGH.
64 | Array
Pugh’s Autumn/Winter ‘09/’10 collection for men,
uses a lot of textured fabrics, giving the designs
the detailing it needs. One of the stand out pieces
is the jacket with a rectangle shawl collar and the
raised sleeve of the shoulder, creating that edge
and sharpness that the human body does not have.
His distortion is still there, but done in a much more
subtle way rather then his earlier inflatable designs.
In the Summer/Spring ‘09/’10 collection for women,
there is a lot of layering, giving the design a relief
sculpture-like-nature. What makes this sculptural
aspect even more prominent is that the dress is
split right down the middle (sideways) into black
and white. The contrast heightens the sculptural
look, but also reinforces the idea of ‘what you see
is what you get’, which has a slightly ‘edgy’ feel
about it, this in turn, has connotations of futurism.
From the analysis, I have developed a photo shoot
with all these elements in mind; trying to capture
the essence of Pugh. It was difficult because Pugh
doesn’t have any photo based campaigns - he
An interesting note about Pugh is that he has
never done a photo shoot, his campaigns have
always been video based which is perfect for him
because it goes well with his futurtistic designs.
The collaboration of graphic animation and fashion
designers is a new bridge that creates a different
spectrum of the fashion industry. A lot of designers
have moved to this trend, but it’s rarely ever used
in mainstream fashion, it’s more used in cult-like
brands, such as Song for the Mute who’s designers
are similar to Rick Owens and Carol Christian Poell.
s are similar to Rick Owens and Carol Christian
66 | Array66 | Array
Nick Knight is the founder of SHOWstudio and
has produced Pugh’s campaign videos and has
worked closely with him. Knight has started the push
of digital fashion the idea that fashion is not just
simply a walk down a runway or two dimensional
campaigns, but rather portrays them in a three
dimensional world where movement can be captured.
The campaigns are very dark; there is an atmosphere
of sinister evil but the movements and sound balance
it out. It is very surreal and there is a lot of symmetry
involved, where the images have overlapped, doubled
or reflected. Through viewing this you can see the
distinct comparison of the futuristic look with the
As a designer Pugh gives us a different perspective
of the human body. The distortion gives us a new
way of looking at how we can change something
of the normal into something spectacular with the
simplest of additions or changes. It gives the viewer
to look ‘outside of the box’ as clichéd as that sounds,
but in the end it’s the inspiration that Pugh gives to
Pugh has always described his designs as the ‘struggle
between light and dark’, his designs, up to date has
always versed the black to white scale and has always
manage to excite and ‘wow’ his viewers.
Array | 69
as us mere mortal designers/artists. The process
of artists inspiring artists and generations inspiring
generations has been going on since the beginning
of any art form and it won’t ever stop, which in itself,
The animation industry is one with humble
beginnings. Today it is a multi billion-dollar industry
creating works that are as visually stimulating as
it is profitable. Animation is the succession of
images, which creates the illusion of movement. As
development continues, it can create works that rival
live action movies and even surpa`ss them. The only
limitation of animation is its creativity.
When you think of contemporary animation
nowadays, you think of studios like Pixar, created
films such as the ‘Toy Story’ trilogy and ‘Up’. These
films have grossed over three hundred million dollars.
Their films have propelled Pixar into the mainstream
animation market. Pixar has become a celebrated
Infections`Inspiration is a fickle thing. It may come to you
in waves or it may not even come at all. It also
comes in virtually any form, whether it is from life
experiences, dreams, viewing existing artistic works
or sometimes just comes to you from thin air.
But if you are working or interested in a specific field
of art it is safe to say it is near impossible not to
admire the works of the people above you, or ignore
the masterful works of artists who have poured their
heart and soul and millions of hours into their works
in their respective fields. If we strive to reach the top
of our field it is imperative that we turn to the best of
the best for some form of inspiration. Am I wrong?
Ask a cinematographer if he’s heard of Quentin
Tarrantino or if an animator has heard of studio
Ghibli. There’s a pretty high chance they have at
least heard of them, if not, seen or admired their
works. The beautiful thing is that these respective
artists and studios are just as hungry for inspiration
by Nyleve Alejandrino
Array | 71
studio. Some are even going as far as to name
the team ‘geniuses’ and a house hold name. As
designers or artists, it interests us greatly as to where
and how they get their inspiration.
Interestingly enough, as soon as they get stuck on
how to execute a scene, or such they turn to the
master to Japanese 2d animation, Hayao Miyazaki
and his studio, Studio Ghibli. Now Studio Ghibli is
revered and is the most celebrated studio in the
Eastern half of the world. Some may refer to it as the
Disney of Japan as they’ve created work such as ‘My
Neigbour Totoro’ and ‘Spirited Away,’ which, many
critics hail as modern Vday masterpieces.
Here’s where things get interesting - the foundation
of Japanese animation is manga. Manga is basically
Japanese comic books with enough differences to be
able to identify it apart from its western counterpart
(how? If you want we can have a big discussion
about this another time). Now If we go back further
to the origins of contemporary manga back in 1t952,
Osamu Tezuka, creator of ‘Astro Boy,’ is referred
to as the ‘father of manga.’ So basically speaking,
he directly influenced the look of anime today thus
indirectly influencing Pixar. It doesn’t stop there;
guess where Osamu Tezuka got his inspiration?
Western shores, yep. But it gets weirder.
Apparently Tezuka owes his entire style to Donald
Duck creator Carl Barks. Don’t believe me? Look
at the character designs for Astro Boy and Donald
duck, don’t their round eyes look eerily similar?
Not enough? Well, Tezuka did send Christmas
cards to Carl Barks with a quick scribble of Astro
boy hugging Donald duck and thanking him for it.
Looking back in retrospect, it’s amazing how one
creative pebble can cause countless inspiration
ripples. Western shores influencing the east then
the east influencing the west. This all goes to
show how powerful inspiration can be. How it
influences artists/designers and, in turn, inspires
another generation, rippling across pond to pond,
shore to shore. For animation, the future looks
bright, who knows what will influence the next
Left: Tezuka’s christmas
card to Carl Banks.
72 | Array
74 | Array
Oh crap, oh crap, oh crap!
How am I going to draw an
artwork to fit a whole of the
first spread of my article?
And I haven’t
anything for the
next panel yet!
Its evolution and influence in
By Van Dang
Array | 75
One of the engravings from William
Hogarth’s series “A Harlot’s Progress”,
where it depicts the heroine Moll Flanders
falling out of luxury and becoming a
prostitute in the process.
Comics are one of the most honoured forms of
expression in modern times. They have the ability to
tell a story visually in a compelling and constructive
manner by capturing significant movements, actions
and expressions of the characters. The potential of
its sequential art can even be on par with film and
television media. But how has the art form arrived at
this point where its design is refined and can stimulate
our design approach? What are the origins of this
The ancient Egyptians recorded their beliefs
and everyday life in the form of paintings and
hieroglyphs. Their hieroglyphs incorporated
a pictorial writing system that, according to
comic theorist Scott McCloud, became the “real
descendant” of comics through the “written word”
(p13). However, its origin does not begin with just
that. An Egyptian scribe from the tomb of Menna
documented events that transpired using not only
the hieroglyphs, but also paintings in a sequential
zigzag-ascending manner. This was what may have
inspired the system of the sequential form before
comics were ever created.
Over the ages, the sequential art form had been
passed down unknowingly in each generation
and in different races, from Trajan’s Column in
Rome (Sabin, p11) to Aztec picture manuscripts.
[(McCloud, p10-12). In 1731 the first critical point in
the development of the sequential art form arrived,
when William Hogarth produced six paintings and
engravings called “A Harlot’s Progress”. It depicted a
linear event in each image.
In the mid-1800’s, French cartoonist Rudolphe
Töpffer became the first in Europe to combine
cartooning with panel borders. It was a significant
invention that both word and image were used.
However, ‘comics’ were not officially named at
the time and Töpffer himself failed to see the
potential of his composition that he could have
taken to new heights. (McCloud, p17). Despite that,
Rudolphe’s contribution was traditionalised among
his cartoonist successors. Eventually, the title of
‘comics’ began to appear in the late 19th Century.
When British comics emerged in the years prior to
World War I, its mainstream concentrated on strips
of humour targeted towards children. Artists focused
on polishing the image with bright colours, clean
design and practical human or anthropomorphic
characters with stylised traits for laughter. The
sequential art was taken even further when the DC
Thompson Company published “The Dandy” (1937)
and “The Beano” (1938) comic strips, which were
the first to replace the traditional use of captions
underneath the panels with what we know today as
word balloons (Sabin, p28).
Adventure strips appeared in the newspapers after
World War I. A realistic style was primarily needed
for an adventure story and the details of the artwork
became a top priority for comic artists. This was to
avoid conflict with their readers over inconsistencies
such as a sword design that have been drawn in the
wrong period. Cinematic techniques such as close-
ups and long shots were also introduced into the
panels to give a more adventurous impression in the
visual narrative. These unique aesthetics challenged
artists left to go beyond the traditional chessboard
layout as they leave the newspaper, establishing the
These unique aesthetics
challenged artists to go
beyond the traditional
by Ashleigh West
78 | Array
“Graphic Design is the most universal of all the
arts. It is all around us, explaining, decorating, and
indentifying: imposing meaning on the world.”
(Newark 6) As a Graphic Designer, you are creatively
communicating and expressing a message. It doesn’t
matter what type of creative work you pursue, you
will always be putting a little bit of yourself into the
work. For this reason, it is important to understand
yourself and the ways in which you express yourself.
Everyone has their own ‘perspective’- a unique way
of viewing the world. As a young child you do not
know how to be anyone but your true self, as you
get older you start to lose this innocent perspective.
We start to change in order to ‘fit in’ or conform to
the rest of society. We are socially conditioned to
strive for ‘normality’. (Shan) One particular example
of this is introverted individuals, the ones who need
to spend time on their own. Introverts thrive on
time alone, whereas extraverts thrive on time spent
with others. Being the more social type, extraverts
tend to set the social standards of what is culturally
‘normal’ and what is not. (Rauch) The important
thing however, is to realise that whilst this may be the
norm for those around you, it may not be what suits
you. This applies to all parts of life. When it comes to
creative work, there are infinite ways to approach a
problem or a project. The important thing is to figure
out which way works for you.
Social conditioning can have severe implications on
our ability to develop original and creative thoughts.
Being your true self and understanding the workings
of your own mind is key to generating fresh and
original work. As we get older, it is important to keep
a hold of all the little things that make us unique.
Every element of your life, every experience, has an
influence on you and the way you perceive the world.
However there are some things you did naturally as a
child, these you need to understand and hold onto.
As a designer you are aiming to communicate a
message in a fresh and new way. You are looking
for alternative perspectives on your problem or
subject. You are ‘imposing meaning on the world,’ a
new and fresh take on things. However, in order to
develop a new perspective, you must first understand
your own. An answer to this is personal creative
work. Personal creative work is an essential tool for
designers to develop and understand their own ways
of working and ways of looking at things.
Every child is an artist.
The problem is how to
remain an artist once he
grows up. - Picasso
Every child is an artist, as every child has the ability
to create. They create using elements from their own
imagination, using the methods that come naturally
to them. They do not need to know anything of
art or design theories. There is no predisposed or
constructed view on what or how they should create.
“Art is not the same for a child as it is for an adult.
For a child, art is primarily a means of expression.
No two children are alike, and in fact, each child
differs even from his earlier self as he constantly
grows, perceives, understands, and interprets
his environment. A child is a dynamic being; art
becomes a language of thought.” (Lowenfeld &
Brittain 7 cited in Mayesky 238)
Creative play is an essential way that children
learn and start to develop fine motor skills and in
also helps them to develop a longer attention span.
They are pushed to try out new materials, which
Array | 79
encourage ‘original, divergent thought.’ A child
learns how to work independently and to develop
new ideas. It helps them to develop a sense of who
they are from an early age. (Mayesky 238)
Why is art so different for an adult and child? Are
original thought, a long attention span and the ability
to independently develop new ideas not the skills
needed to be a productive and effective designer?
Children are given the creative freedom to create
whatever they desire. There is no right or wrong.
A child is told that whatever they create is a work
of art, with the positive reinforcement they are
encouraged to continue creating.
As you grow and age, remembering to ‘play’
becomes even more vital and important. It is this
that allows you to continue to grow and expand your
mind, to find new and innovative ways of thinking,
to generate new ideas or to just simply enjoy the
creative process. Play allows you to express yourself
simply for the experience, without judgement. It is
not the end result which is important; it is simply the
process of creating. Your personal creative work is
the place where you can play. According to Jung, you
would not be able to produce this creative work at all
without the element of play. You play and develop
your ideas with complete freedom. (Malchiodi 58)
The creation of
something new is not
accomplished by the
intellect but by the play
instinct acting from inner
necessity. The creative
mind plays with the
objects it loves.- Jung
The importance of creative play time needs to be
understood by both individuals and employers. In
a creative workplace, whilst there is the need to
maintain a sense of structure and uniformity for
both a project, creative staff cannot work effectively
without the freedom to play. (Collin)
Everybody needs some kind of structure to work
efficiently, however employer’s need to realise
that the same structure will not fit everyone. In
order to maximise their potential, structures and
processes, a workplace should be flexible enough to
accommodate the needs of different individuals.
A ‘cookie cutter’ approach will never work. The basic
meaning of ‘art’ is personal creative work; it is “the
expression or application of human creative skill and
imagination.” (Oxford Dictionaries) Creative play
should be a tool utilised by employers to get the most
value out of their employees.
The poor and penniless stereotype of an artist did
not develop out of nothing. The truth of it is that
a creative type is happiest when they choose to
pursue their passion rather than something simply
for financial gain. You ask an artist why they do
what they do, and the answer is simply, it is what felt
right. There is no logical answer; it the simple joy of
expressing who they truly are. Your personal work is
your way of saying to the world: this is who I am, this
is what I stand for and this is how I feel. You show
the world what makes you unique. Take the time to
explore what it is you love, and who you are, you’ll be
better for it.
80 | Array
““words are the
physicians of a
Array | 81
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Graphic design is simply a form of sending a
message via visual communication. Graphic
designers are those who work with drawn, painted,
photographed or computer generated images as
well as developing letter forms of typography for
various productions and publications. These graphic
designers organise and create these elements to
communicate a particular message.
Graphic design can be dated back to 15,000
BC and from this moment designers, as visual
communicators, have been searching for new
inspiration in order to develop a distinctive approach.
Technological advancements seen throughout
history have dramatically changed the way we
design. In today’s chaotic society, whether graphic
design is used in the assistance to direct and inform
or simply to promote and advertise; graphic design
is omnipresent. Yet it is through the understanding
of the lengthy history of graphic design that allows
designers to have an added appreciation for this
creative process of communication.
Evolution of Design
Although graphic design, as a field, has a relatively
current history, as stated previously, graphic design
as a creative form of visual communication has
quite an extensive history. From the first cave
drawings in Lascaux, France, to the first sans-serif
font created in the 1800’s, to the iconic “I want
YOU” poster designed be James Montgomery
for the U.S Army in 1917 through to the first
introduction of Adobe Photoshop in the 1990s.
Graphic design has developed immensely and
through this development, it is quite obvious what
the similarities and therefore influences earlier
art forms have had in its progress. When looking
at fine art, sculpture, illustration and even music,
all these varying types of art forms have made a
significant impact on graphic design over time.
As graphic design has become increasingly
popular, the technology has supported and
assisted in allowing graphic design to be
omnipresent today. Although the many forms
of graphic design today are generally created
by Elisa Gato
84 | Array84 | Array
Society as we know it
would not function without it.
with the computer, this was not always the case.
Although initially, cavemen used rocks and stones
to create pictographs, print was and has been the
traditional medium for designers. However, what else
was used before print? Before print came about to
various countries, publications (mainly books) were
all developed with hand and paper one page at a
time with immense detail and required a high level of
skill. As this was quite time consuming, books were
rare, valuable, and often inaccessible to the masses
and were mainly produced only for religious purposes.
Different countries developed differing ways to make
printing more simple and efficient. Europe created
a “woodblock” form, whereas the Chinese had a
“punch and mould” structure that was eventually
developed further by Gutenberg, who created the first
printing press in 1450. Although the printing press was
time consuming and tedious, the type was reusable
and the process was more efficient then by hand.
The industrial revolution saw an excess product
production for the first time in history. As there was
a growing need to advertise and promote these
products, this helped fuel the printing industry as
the forerunner to all other media. The need for
faster printing saw the invention of the rotary press
which has been developed and is still used within
newspaper printing today. The typewriter was then
created, which had a keyboard attached. This was
then added to all kinds of devices to speed up the
time consuming process of setting type by hand.
As computer technology became available and the
invention and development of personal computers
and printers improved, it has allowed designers to
have total control over type, images and layouts all
on a simple screen.
From road signs to brochures, from manuals to
textbooks, graphic design is not only appealing,
it enhances more than the communication of
information. Society, as we know it, would not
function without it. More so, graphic design is used
to promote the products and ideas of companies
and business identities. Logos, packaging,
booklets, business cards, etc, are designs that
develop the brands that create corporate identities.
Graphic design, as an informational source, can
be seen within various textbooks for education
purposes. Each page is created via layouts that
illustrate theories and diagrams and blocks of text,
making information easily legible and accessible.
Further more, graphic design is used within the
entertainment industry in decoration, ambience,
novels and comics, magazines, DVD and CD covers,
movie credits, programs, t-shirts and so forth.
Graphic design is not only aesthetically pleasing; it
more so aids and entertains, allowing individuals to
understand various products and services effectively
Graphic design is a major aspect of our society
today and will continue to be. From the moment we
are awake we are faced with graphic design, to a
point where we no longer notice. As designers, an
understanding of the origins of design needs to be
recognised, as well as the immense developments for
print and technology, in order to fully appreciate this
creative process. Without all the aspects of graphic
design whether use for educational, informational or
entertainment purposes, the world would not be as
we know it today.
“They opened up the world of colour and
shape, and put an emphasis on things that
were really not paid attention to before.
- Robert Williams
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Drugs are bad. If you ask somebody their personal
thoughts in relation to drugs, something will
automatically click, similar to a defence mechanism.
It may be a defence against looking like a fool to
others, because in this day and age, people who use
drugs are shunned upon by most of society. Because
of this, drugs are indeed, by majority vote, bad.
Let’s come to terms with the ‘bad aspects’ of drugs.
Some are very harmful to the body, cocaine, meth,
heroine and so forth. These drugs are very addictive
and by attempting to desist in their recreational use,
one will suffer withdrawal symptoms, which lead to
many damaging side effects.
On the other end of the drug scale, we have
hallucinogens. These drugs are defined by
casapalmera.com, as “psychedelic or mind-
expanding drugs that cause intense changes in
a person’s perception of reality”. These types of
tdrugs cause people to leave their physical reality
momentarily and explore new territory induced by
Take marijuana - it heightens certain senses and
lowers others, making you see things in a different
way. This allows people to be more open to
experiences, much like alcohol. Some people who
experiment with these drugs do so, in an attempt to
become ‘enlightened.’ In other words, to become
knowledgeable in accordance to the spiritual realm.
Native Americans conduct spiritual ceremonies using
a smoking device they called the ‘peace pipe’. This
involved smoking from the pipe, followed by a prayer
stated in four directions. It was their objectives to
become in touch with their spiritual sides by having
performed this ritual and their tool to the other side
The use of these drugs by creative people
throughout the decades has brought upon a broader
expanse of aspects within contemporary art, stranger
or deeper aspects, provoking deeper thought. For
example: the use of aliens in artwork, abstract art,
surreal art and psychedelic art, basically, art which
provokes onlookers into creating their own take on it.
Unlike many artists, H.G. Giger was open in relation
to his own use of drugs and their inspirations. It
inspired him to create the creature; we would most
probably all be familiar with, from the movie “Alien”,
as well as the sets for the film. These won went on to
win him an Academy Award.
Robert Williams is another strong example of a
person who became inspired by his use of drugs, later
directing his artwork in a certain way. The way in
which made it become a sensation for its market. Of
course I’m talking about ‘Zap’, the comic, although
this wasn’t the only work, which came out of this
man’s hallucinogen inspired mind. He also created
a collection of paintings he called “Zombie Mystery
by Oliver Bedon
Array | 87
Paintings” which have now become a “cult classic”.
Williams was actually directly asked about the
psychedelics he experimented with and their influence
over his work.
To this question he responded, “Tremendously... they
opened up the world of colour and shape, and put
an emphasis on things that were really not paid
attention to before.”
It is surprising to become aware of the many famous
people who have used and may have been inspired
by drugs such as these. Most of them relating to
the art industry, whether it be music or painting
or metaphysics and so on. Some of these famous
people as stated in Erowid.org, include Lewis
Armstrong, The Beatles, Salvador Dali, Charles
Dickens, Pablo Picasso and William Shakespeare,
Vincent van Gogh, Al Gore, George Washington
Queen Victoria and many others.
I’m not saying these people were exclusively inspired
by these drugs to make such significant movements
within society. I’m also not saying it was because
of these drugs that Dali painted the magnificent
‘Sacrament of the Last Supper’. I’m not saying that
Cubism came to be because Picasso enjoyed the
occasional opiate. But it is an interesting thought.
There is one specific drug that is said to cause the
most vivid hallucinations and unexplainable visual
and physical experiences. This drug is referred to
as DMT or Dimethyltryptamine. There is something
very peculiar about it. Every living human being
unknowingly becomes afflicted with the effects of
this drug every night when they go to sleep. This
drug used by everybody in the world, and naturally, is
one of the most illegal drugs to come by as well as it
being the most powerful psychedelic known to man.
Psychedelic art is the offspring of drug induced visual
creations. As are our dreams, which in effect, is the
same thing. Psychedelic art came to be in the 1960s,
the era of hippies. These paintings consisted of various
bright colours arousing surreal feels to the onlooker.
The objective of these paintings was to have the
onlooker feel what the painter felt when said painter
was experiencing effect from psychedelic drugs.
The psychedelic movement was a major branch
within cultural history and played its role as a
stepping-stone towards the state of our current
culture. The Beatles are an example of this. They
were inspired by drugs to create some of the music
they gave to us. They were also one of the first pop
rock bands to have existed, which influenced our
music culture dramatically leading it to the state it’s
There are many examples of the influence drugs have
had on people who have lead the world in certain
directions. Whether these directions would have been
for the better or worse, it is controversial to discuss.
However, there is no doubt; drugs have inspired these
people to do what they thought needed to be done.
Array | 89
90 | Array
by Sam Corlett
photos: Sam Corlett and Nina Harcus
Film. The old style, analog, manual, grainy,
unpredictable and complex are some words
that people describe film. As a result, some stay
away from the practice. Beginners and amateur
photographers these days tend to jump straight
onto the DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) camera
wagon and play with new features not knowing
that the origins of the camerawork itself. They are
missing out on the raw feel of the camera and the
ability to become one with the lens.
Fortunately, capturing life on film is back and it
is breathing new light and life into photography.
Some may say that film is too much of a hassle
and out dated. They may say,“Why use when
there’s digital cameras around?” Or “You know we
do have technology called a memory card?”
The reason why we use film isn’t because we think
it is cool or hipster. It’s because of the process and
the thinking behind taking a shot that you cannot
see until the end of the roll. The mechanical feel
of the camera when you take the photo and the
grainy, aging effect of the finished image is what
makes it a satisfying exercise.
But it’s not just the aesthetics of analogue film
that makes it appealing. It’s also the learning
behind it that when you develop your roll you know
exactly what went wrong and how to fix it rather
than taking a million photos of one object and
comparing on a screen. There is a raw sense and
a greater depth for experimenting with exposures,
shutter speed, the chance to try different lighting
techniques, use of shadows and sun, and the use
of expired film.
The method and the rawness of film photography
is exciting as you never know how your photos are
going to turn out or what exactly fits in the frame
and what doesn’t. You have to change the way
you see and think for photography. You have to
imagine your surrounds and subjects as a one off
photo, concentrating on perfect lighting, exposure,
the contrast of colour, the clarity and what is in
focus and also looking at life through the lens as
The difference between digital and analogue film
is the media format. One uses a raw negative
roll whilst the other uses digital image processing
F I L M R E B I R T H
Array | 93
is exciting as you
never know how
your photos are
going to turn out
or what exactly
fits in the frame
and what doesn’t
stored on a flash drive. The method of taking
photographs has grown and expanded with a wide
variety of settings in the DSLR.
However I can’t help but feel one may have more
control and enjoyment in setting up and turning
the dials on the metal body for shutter speeds and
apertures by hand and to witness the changing of
focus through the view finder every time you turn the
lens as opposed to lightly holding down the button
and point towards the object you want. The ability
to actually hold your prints in your hands is a big
plus as you physically see the results and mistakes.
The negatives are like a keepsake of your process
and adventure with the 24 or 36 exposure
companions. It is easier just to load them up on a
screen, but it’s just not the same. The colours are
more natural and sometimes well saturated. The
photographs differ depending on what the weather
and light is like and it makes it that much more of
an occasion to go out shooting other than tagging
along a flash or going through the complicated
routine of swapping the lighting and curves on
Photoshop for that film effect.
Lomography are one of the main companies
pushing for this rebirth of film photography by
releasing specialty toy cameras that have a fixed
lens or style each unique to its own. Cameras such
as the Holga, Fish Eye and the 360-degree camera
all create different effects and yet are the same
with ease of taking a photo.
The Fish Eye has a permanent fish eye lens
attached to the camera and also comes with a
fish eye viewfinder so you can see how the photos
will turn out. It is the world’s only 35mm fixed lens
fisheye camera and views life out side the camera
at a sweeping 170°.
Array | 95
Ever wondered what world would be like viewed
from a fish? The warped glass lens can transform
your normal eye to one of alien. It also gives your
photos bright colours, knock out contrasts and a
huge depth of field. It lets both foreground and
background come into complete focus. Get right
up your friends nose or crash head first into an
object and let the lens distort your surroundings
The Spinner 360° camera doesn’t have a special
effect or filter for the image however it does take
a panoramic photo of your surround area. The
standard panoramic picture takes an impressive
120° perspective stretching wide from left to right
to capture the details infront of the camera, now
with the Lomo Spinner you can add an extra 240°
to the shot just with a pull of the chord the camera
does a full 360° shot spinning on its own axis. The
result is 4x larger then the standard landscape
picture and creates awesome photos and lots of
fun for experimenting.
The Holga camera acts like your standard point
and shoot film camera however it does have a
nifty feature. No need for Photoshop to add that
saturated old style as the Holga does it for you.
Their unique vignette effect adds mystery to every
photo. It comes with the ability to blacken out
corners, which, gives you a refreshing new way of
documenting your surroundings. It’s like looking
through a tube with the main focus and the height
of colour being the middle.
The Holga’s plastic lens also holds four focus
modes for when you went to get on all fours and up
close to your subject to taking the landscape shot
with everything in focus, the camera also comes
with two v`shutter speed settings, the standard
being a 125 of a second shot and the other for as
long as your want till your finger falls off.
Film has emerged as the new thing with special
mention to Lomography, even though the
mechanics and the method of taking a photo has
evolved the thinking and creative is still the same,
and I predict the future of art and design film will
still be strong and always a part of the photography
96 | Array
What Inspires You?
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98 | Array98
Rosemary: Design Rebels -The Rule Breakers
Thurman, Chris. “15 websites that break the rules.”
Visual Swirl Design Resources. Web. <http://www.
Unknown. “Design, Art, Architecture Quotes.” Avoca
Design. 27 Oct. 2010. Web. <http://www.avocadesign.
Eddie Lam Freedom to Create.
“Absolut Vodka Maker Replaces Iconic Ad Campaign.”
Great-Ads. Apr. 2007. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://great-ads.
“Freedom in Limitations.” Graphic Design |
the Persuasive Art. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.
Shaughnessy, Adrian. “How to Find a Job”. How to Be
a Graphic Designer, Without Losing Your Soul. 2nd ed.
London: Laurence King, 2010: 37-48. Print.
Andrew Nguyen: Evolving with Technology
3D Animation. Ashish K Aorora. March 9, 2011. Articles
Factory. Viewed on March 28, 2011.
Hutchinson, Carrie. “The Golden Age of Animation”.
Sunday. April 3, 2011: Page 4-7
What 3D Technology Was Used to Make AVATAR? John
Sinitsky. 29 April, 2010. AVATAR Official Blog. Viewed
on March 28, 2011.
Emma Egan: Designing For Science
University of Sunderland. Home: SimplyScience
SimplyDesign. 29 March 2011 <http://www.
Lester, Paul Martin. Visual communication: images with
messages . Ed. Darlene Amidon-Brent. 4, illustrated.
California: Holly J. Allen, n.d.
Golombisky, Kim and Rebecca Hagen. White Space Is
Not Your Enemy: A Beginner’s Guide to Communicating
Visually Through Graphic, Web & Multimedia Design.
illustrated. Oxford: Focal Press, 2010.
Andrew Torrisi: Designing With Your Ears
“Boboroshi | Does Music Influence Design?” Boboroshi |
Fitter. Happier. More 70s Wallpaper. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.
“HOW Design - Designers Tell How Music Influences
Creativity.” HOW Design - The Leading Creativity,
Business and Technology Magazine for Graphic
Designers. Web. 03 May 2011. <http://www.howdesign.
“Physical and Psychological Effects of Music.” CRCA
- Center for Research in Computing and the Arts.
Web. 03 May 2011. <http://crca.ucsd.edu/~syadegar/
”the Effect of Music on the Human Psychology” - St.
Olaf Essay.” Term Paper Writing, Essay Editing, and
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