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  • 1. organised chaos owns a secret collection of barbie dolls has a shoe fetish in love with dave in love with samin love with romain “i’m slow... so what?” goes to AA“i’m a perfectionist... so what?” pole dances on mondays loves Justin Bieber laughs at her own jokes
  • 2. Array | 1 1Array | CONTRIBUTERS hopeless optimisticrepresenting mature students since ‘09 likes triangles thinks her life is a sitcom “i like lamp...” tends to sneak up behind people secretly won’t stop ‘till it’s right hates zombies “heyyyy.... alright”
  • 3. 2 | Array Cover by Matt Robson Array pages: 17 Eddie Lam 36-37 Van Dang 49 Andrew Torrisi 58 Sam Corlett 81 Oliver Bedon 85 Romain Resplendino
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  • 6. Array | 5 RULE BREAKERS OF DESIGN - THE FREEDOM TO CREATE Design is considered an art form that is embodied with a variation of rules and techniques that must be followed, taught and learnt. When design rules are mastered, design becomes an art form that the designer manipulates and innovates to reflect his or her own individual creativity and style. However, to embrace the full potential and creativity of a designer, rules and limits should not confine innovations and creation. Thus, the quotation that is often played upon life comes into design, ‘Rules are meant to be broken because creativity shows no boundaries’. We, as young designers have all been lectured on the fundamental rules of design. What should be done and what shouldn’t. The common teaching of design is to follow a set of rules and boundaries that should structure a design situation to ensure its success. The main misconception is that without rules, the design is not a success. However, this is not the case. The common curse of designers is their belief in following rules to produce successful designs. D.H. Lawerence stated that “Design in art, is a recognition of the relation between various things, various elements in the creative flux. You can’t invent a design. You recognize it, in the fourth dimension. That is, with your blood and your bones, as well as with your eyes.” Design is limitless because design derives from your “blood and bones” as it is a natural embodied element that should not be caged with guides and rules. Creativity is inventing, growing, risk taking, rule breaking, anything that disrupts the capacity to create limits, the ability to imagine and envisage. by Rosemarie Romeo
  • 7. 6 | Array “ “ The biggest execution of rule breaking in the modern age has been within website design. Website design has been altered drastically due to the design trends, technology, photography innovations and programs. The fundamental rule within website design is to use conventional patterns and techniques that ensure the user has a positive experience. The most common conventions used within website design include: - Logos appearing on the top left of websites - Links featuring underlines and familiar colour schemes - Button appearance of rounded corners - Right sidebar navigation for blogs These common rules and conventions are followed because users are so used to experiencing such layouts within web browsing that navigating has become second nature. The applied conventions are followed because they ensure a positive user experience. However if a designer decides to use only these conventions all the time would lead to a very boring web browsing experience. User interface patterns and conventions can, and should be broken, provided one criterion is met: the new solution is better at its task than the one being replaced...
  • 8. Array | 7 Every rule comes with a limit, however within web design these limits can and are being broken. “User interface patterns and conventions can, and should be broken, provided one criterion is met: the new solution is better at its task than the one being replaced. Innovation by definition must introduce some new way of doing things, and it’s often impossible to do this without breaking the old norms.” (Thurman). To create change and break a rule within web design demonstrates a strive for innovation. In the last decade of web design, innovation and rule breaking has changed the way users browse the web today. The primary reason for rule breaking within web design is to stand out within the crowd. If a user comes across a well designed website which is not following the design norm, it will attract the user and hold the user’s attention. Many heavily designed based websites do not follow the norm of website design. The incorporation of imagery and animation is one of the biggest innovations in web design along with the creative structure of layout. Not just website designers, but all designers should have a rebellious nature towards the fundamental rules taught and recommended to follow. Structured or guided design is often aesthetically uninteresting, it should be an extension of artistic expression. Breaking the rules of design started amongst print designs which created a design fashion to withhold that rebellious nature. Website design has followed the design fashion of breaking the rules and other variations of design have followed. As a designer you should acknowledge the basic rules of design and know which ones to break to create a successful design. One must know design rules in order to break them effectively. If a designer does not know which rules are being broken, then aren’t they just rebels without a cause?
  • 9. FREEDOM to Create 8 | Array
  • 10. Graphic design is such a vast field and its growth is nearly limitless. Everything we see; road signs, book covers, graffiti, clothes, watches, shoes and technology, involve a series of design processes and thoughts. There are no limits to what a graphic designer can produce. Designers today either follow the trends of freedom within their work or choose to be limited by the restrictions of a brief. When it comes to working for a client, you are set firmly to the rules laid out by the interests of their design firm, which becomes a challenge for the designer to be creative because they have to work creatively within tight boundaries and restrictions. Freelance designers are given more opportunities to explore their creative side and it’s another way for them to come up with better designs. What attracts consumers is a unique identity among its competitors. You first see this brand of clothing you want and you wonder why it’s different. You immediately look at the design and the style and you determine how it will fit in with your status. We all have different styles of designs. Some may be similar and different but they all fit into consumer styles. An advantage of doing freelance design is the ability to put together your own brief. This can be a major plus as it allows the designer to interpret the brief without any means of restricting their creativity and their freedom to express it. Freelance designers get the benefit of coming up with more ideas, but that is always good thing. However, there’s a chance that the designer may end up with confused ideas and concepts causing setbacks. Graphic design plays a major role in consumer trends, but where do all these designs come from? We often associate these designs with events, objects, people and other things from parts of our everyday life. Inspiration enters as a tool to over come the traditional aspects of graphic design and places you with new ideas that distinctively portray you as a designer with your own identity. Absolut Vodka’s marketing campaign, “it’s an Absolut shift” has made a new approach to consumer advertising. In this campaign, the consumers begin to illustrate what life would be like in an imagined by Eddie Lam Photography by Marcus Lim (album: reportage obscura) Array | 9
  • 11. “ “ ‘Absolut’ world. Ms. Gillsvik, director of consumer marketing at Vin & Sprit AB, Sweden’s state-run distillery, stated “Our consumers say they want interaction, they want to get inspired, they want to get involved.” So what does design limitation mean for designers? It may be good because it allows designers to save valuable time, however, excessive design restraints can impact on a designer’s creativity.They are not permitted to make use of their full potential in the creation of new innovative ideas and styles. The best part of graphic design is that it lets you experiment with trends and techniques. With design limitations and strict regulations, you may find it difficult to think outside of the box. To get noticed, one has to come up with innovative and revolutionary ideas. But with excessive limitations around a graphic designer, this task is quite hard to accomplish. While working as a freelance designer, the majority will have to experience conventional design first hand, before they are able to play with experimental design. You still have to deal with client decisions, restrictions and choices. Given the power to control your creative side would change the way a designer will look at the brief and encourage new approaches. One of the major setbacks to design limitation is that it creates hurdles in the way of progress and growth for graphic designers. Since you stick to the fundamentals of the design and don’t explore new trends and practices of the industry, you are likely to lag behind as a graphic designer. It’s important that we always stay one step ahead because design keeps changing and it always gives out new opportunities in approaching consumers. It’s important to that we always stay one step aheavd because design keeps changing and it always gives out new opportunities to approach consumers. 10 | Array
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  • 13. Kim Eduardo interviews the creators of 8 OTHER REASONS Charlie Anthony Leesha and Anthony Norah on design fields joined. Why stick to one design profession when you can use your experience to branch into other design fields? by Kim Eduardo DESIGN FIELDS JOINED 12 | Array
  • 14. What was the inspiration for the name 8 OTHER REASONS? Charlie: “Well, there were 8 reasons why we did it. Anthony and I are born on the 8th, there are 8 people in both of our families. 8 is my lucky number, 8 is also the lucky Chinese number, combined we have 8 years of design experience, 8 is known as eternity and 8 is 2 entities.” What inspired your logo design? Anthony: “Wings represent freedom like an angel. It’s symbolic of freedom of expression. We design accessories that are affordable for all to express their individuality.” Coming from different design fields, what inspired both of you to go into a completely different field? Charlie: “Anthony comes from a fashion photography background and myself an interior designer we wanted to create something great. Two great backgrounds combined as one was a great opportunity to start something new. We saw a niche in the market that does not provide affordable unique men’s and women’s accessories. Initially this was a side project that has evolved into a successful business. What is your inspiration for each range? Anthony: “Each range takes the consumer on a journey of the mind, borrowing inspiration from nature, different muses, pop culture and the subconscious mind of the designers (US). Every rthange is designed with the same market in mind, so though the ranges vary they still speak to each other harmoniously. Every range we aim to include at least three new materials or fabrics, allowing us to have a bit more freedom and creativity with the range.” As designers in general do you find your role empowering? Charlie: “Like I always say designers are the psychologists of space, as designers we have the ability to bring ideas to life and share them with the rest of the world, whether it be through a space, a painting or a piece of jewellery. I don’t think as my profession as a role, it’s a lifestyle, it’s a choice it’s a way of life, so yes it is empowering to know that our profession is shared with the rest of the world. “ Visit Array | 13
  • 15. by Andrew Nguyen Technology is an always-evolving aspect of the design process. This article will highlight one major aspect that animators have come to love, 3D technology. New animation infrastructures are becoming available to Australia, along with improvements from the older generation software. evolving technology 14 | Array
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  • 17. “ “ Movies such as ‘Avatar’, are filmed using astonishing 3D motion cameras that “export directly to 3D animation software” says John Sinitsky of the ‘Avatar Official Blog’. This allows the designer to export the motions, and design the characters more efficiently. New graphic engines are being built to make skinning an animation character more simple and effective with ease of context and shape. Skinning is the process of animation which focuses primarily on the outside texture of the animation. Graphic designers can therefore work more effectively with the animation shape pre-drawn and previewed. A huge influx in technologies such as 3D television and improved graphic engines has enabled various design studios to evolve into a new and innovative type of design process. In a specific niche of the design community, gaming studios have taken new technologies and built innovative and inspiring worlds in games such as Battlefield 3. DICE, the creators of the First Person Shooter ‘Battlefield’ franchise has developed their own 3D animation motion sensor system which enables the animators to not only read the actors expression, but make a virtual copy of the actor and mirrored onto a animation program to be readily available for fine-tuning. The 3D animation motion sensors consist of a vast array of new technologies being used: “new animation limitations, lighting effects, destructible environments, texture quality and a faster processor” according to Ashish Koara author of the ‘3D Animation’ article. The new graphics engine has given designers and level programmers the ability to build a world the size of a country with more than 20,000 individual characters. Even games such as ‘Little Big Planet’ has allowed players and communities to build their own world from the editor toolbox provided by the programmers, giving gamers the inspiration to make their own games and puzzles With better access to motion sensors and motion capture cameras, animators have the ability to produce a character with a set of more than 20 unique postures and over 50 different animations for various events. This ‘event’ animation is being produced to further the realistic nature of the frames, which enables the Graphic Design studio to better express their work without the limitation of the past technology, which downgraded the character and the emotions they expressed. Game design studios aren’t the only ones profiting from the 3D technology. Animations studios such as ‘Animal Logic’, have built upon the success of ‘Happy Feet’ and studios that made ‘Ice Age’ featured the upcoming movie called ‘Rio’. The ‘Sunday’ magazine, written by Carrie Hutchinson explains how the studio has worked with “reinforced 3D expression capture,” h which improves on character depth and expression, making the animation more flexible and simpler to perform. Designers now have a more flexible ability to be inspired by anything and everything, building on their creativity and have it virtually rendered on a program with ease, however realistic or absurd the animation may be. The faster process of animation allows for animators to go crazy with ideas and creativeness, motivating animators to try out new concepts or be inspired to challenge their limits. (animal logic, 2008) Characterisation emphasizes a better value of animation techniques 16 | Array16 | Array
  • 18. arraydesign inspiration unearthed Array | 17
  • 19. by Francesca Wong 18 | Array
  • 20. ““ Graphic design is not art. However, when I asked my family, friends and even my fellow peers what the difference between graphic design and art was, they simply answered “I don’t know”. So this got me thinking; what really differentiates graphic design from art and art from graphic design? Where is the line drawn between the two and why does this line get blurred so often? One of the operating factors as to why the public view both professions under the same light is due to the fact that they both require creativity and visual communication skills; they can both be labelled as beautiful. Many graphic designers have artistic skills and many artists become graphic designers. However, at the end of the day they are, in essence, two different professions. Graphic design is calculated and strategic. We are bounded by design rules of typography, layouts, colours, trends and the needs of a client or employer. We start off with a purpose or a problem presented by a client – either to communicate or evoke certain feelings, ideas, action and/or messages to a targeted audience and as designers we need to meet these aims and solve the presented problems. If our clients or employers were mathematicians we would be their calculator. (Perkins, Shel.) Art, on the other hand, is something that is ‘free’. It is not bounded by as many rules or limitations, as it is a visual expression of the thoughts and feelings or the personal exploration of the artist. Art can also be interpreted differently and evoke different feelings from different people – it doesn’t need to be explained. To some degree, art can even be seen as somewhat selfish in its practises. With the differences being so different between graphic design and art, why do people still see graphic design and art as one? The lines between the two professions become hazy when design becomes art and art becomes design. Take photography for example, this is a medium used by both artists and graphic designers. If an artist takes a picture for design purposes, then does that become art or design? One would automatically assume it to be design because it began with a purpose. However, recently at an Annie Leibovitzart exhibition I came by a portrait of Demi Moore, the infamous one that was initially taken for the cover of Vanity Fair. Does the fact that she used it in her art exhibition render it art or is it essentially a work of magazine design? Craig Elimeliah, a New York designer, highlighted an interesting point about art and design in his article “Art Vs Graphic”. He suggests that the saying ‘artist inspire artists’ is something that contradicts the definition of fine arts. By using similar styles, methods or standards of past artists, they are following guidelines, in turn, rendering it as design not art. They are not creating anything new but simply, as Elimeliah put it, “…refreshed for public consumption.”, therefore, categorising it as more design than art. (aiga) David Carson’s work often lies on the line that separates graphic design from art. An acclaimed and revolutionary typographic designer of the 1990s, he is most known for his ‘innovative magazine designs and experimental typography’ (David). He argues that design can be interpretive and used as an expressive medium and claims that his work is not supposed to be restrained by the rules of design, but rather, to create something new. (dcd) Carson’s work is often controversial and attracts critiques that claim his work is more artistic than design. I believe that as graphic designers, we should practice art on the side – art that moves people, which is both original and creative. It is through the practise of art that we build on our creativity, skills and originality. This can then be applied to our design work, thus, creating new trends and more effective and expressive designs that meet our clients’ needs. With this we can have a healthy balance and a clear distinction between graphic design and art. The reason why the line between graphic design and art is often blurred is based on the combination of public perceptions of graphic design and art, and sometimes as both graphic designers and artists, we forget about the rules and foundations of what differentiates the two –that art is interpretive and design problem solving. the end of the day, they are, in its essence, two different professions. Array | 19
  • 21. Life of a 3rd Year W hat is your prim ary interest in design? AnimationW eb-based Print Illustration Photography SerifSan-Serif ScriptOriginal None Both M AC PC Overall what is your favourite typeface? W hat’s your preference: PC or a M AC? <$50 $50 - $100 $100 - $150 $150 > How much would you spend on university over the semester (including transport)? It’s Stressful It’s challenging but I manage If I didn’t have to work I’d be fine It’s easy How do you feel about your current university workload? How many hours do you spend studying outside of contact uni time/week? Zero-Four Five-Seven Seven-Ten Ten+ Zero-Four Zero-Four Five-Seven Five-Seven Seven-Ten Seven-Ten Ten+ Ten+ 6am-9am 9am-12pm 12pm-3pm 3pm-7pm 7pm-Late How many hours do you spend on recreational activities/week? How many hours do you work/week? What time of the day is best for you to be active? 100 design students from UWS were surveyed about their experiences as a 3rd year design student. This visual representation is a piece of informative design. It visually demonstrates data such as: - the technology design students use, - their expenses, - how much time they spent on assignments - and how often they see their friends. 20 | Array
  • 22. Design Student <$100 $100-$150 $150-$200 >$200 How much would you spend on living expenses/week? Of the 200 or so students in your year - how many do you think you know by name? Budget: Food Board/Rent Rates & Bills Transport Recreational Debt/Uni Fees 83/100 23/100 44/100 89/100 75/100 45/100 Responses: < 3 months 3-6 months 6> months Will have one before I leave 18.2% 50.2% 22.2% 9.1% How long do you think it will take you to get a job after university? Yes No Haven’t Decided 34% 27% Do you plan to do more study after your degree? What type of work do you do? Casual/ Fullt time/ Intership/ None 51% of students have a phone 56% of students have an iPhone 72% of students have a laptop 44% of students have an iPod 25 - 50 < 25 50 - 100 100> Array | 21
  • 23. h 22 | Array22 | Array| Array “ “In science, you have a short amount of time to communicate a complex theory. This is why graphic design is so important to this community. DESIGNING FOR SCIENCE This is a bold statement to make, considering how drastically different these two industries are from one another. However, very few people are aware of how interrelated they are. Science, like all other industries, needs to communicate effectively. The purpose of this article is to show how important graphic design is to science and to highlight how inspiring infographics can be. I will show how much science embraces graphic design through the instigation of the Design4Science Symposium. I’ll then explain what an info-graphic is and why it is important to science. Lastly, you’ll be able to see what constitutes as an info-graphic as well as some resources you might want to look at if you wish to explore this topic further. As an industry, we traditionally see ourselves working in media, entertainment, marketing or advertising. But do we consider other unrelated areas? The answer to this is probably not. Do you remember your science textbooks back in high school? Can you recall the countless diagrams and charts that were presented to you? Just reminisce how easy it was to look at a diagram rather than text. You can already start to appreciate how much science needs graphic design. Science seeks to expand human kind’s knowledge. Graphic design endeavours to communicate a message to the mass population. Both of these industries focus on logical thinking and problem solving. Science and design are constantly discovering new techniques, knowledge and rules. If they are not doing that, then they are searching for ways to break them or to acquire new ways of thinking. These two communities have much in common. There is already a move to embrace graphic design in science. The University of Sunderland, who are based in the United Kingdom, annually invites speakers to present at the symposium. Both designers and scientists, from many parts of the world come and present to students, educators and scientists about the benefits these two industries can bring to each other. On their website they wrote (that the), ”…Symposium’s aim was to encourage lively debate across science and design whilst forging closer cultural connections between the two communities” (University of Sunderland) They also go on to say “…Designers are ‘cultural intermediaries’ and problem solvers. In the context of this project it has been recognised that design can make a powerful intersection between the As graphic designers, we don’t always recognise how other industries require our skills. Even science needs graphic design. by Emma Egan DESIGNING FOR SCIENCE
  • 24. Array | 23 23Array | 23Array | “ “…Designers are ‘cultural intermediaries’ and problem solvers. A collection of graphs can make a stunning piece of design such as this pie graph of graphs
  • 25. 24 | Array24 | Array Science can be visually beautiful.
  • 26. Array | 25 t 25Array | ““ Science relies heavily on raw and highly objective data. These results are often presented to other scientists, researchers, companies and government agencies. They are also published to the wider academic community for peer review and educational purposes. Much of this data would be difficult to understand if it were to be presented on a piece of paper. This means that there are times when the data has to be made into a graphical representation to help communhicate the meaning of the experiment or study of research. We know what an info-graphic is and why it is important to science, but when do we need info- graphics? In White Space Is Not Your Enemy: A Beginner’s Guide to Communicating Visually it says you need it when, “- You need to communicate quickly - A verbal or written account is too complicated – or tedious- for comprehension - Your audience can’t hear or read well – or at all.“ (Golombisky and Hagen) In science, you have a short amount of time to communicate a complex theory. This is why graphic design is so important to this community. We, as an industry, are taught these principals and are required to exercise them on many occasions. Science not only adheres to these three principals, it also adds a forth. “The general public will eventually see these results. We have to make this information accessible and understandable.” Both science and graphic design strive for the same thing. They operate to deliver knowledge and wisdom to the world. We uncover codes, information, meaning and understanding and find a means to pass on that message. This is what we should all endeavour to do as designers. public and science; it can enhance the accessibility of science and can encourage public engagement with science through design.” (University of Sunderland) Apart from lectures, the Univeristy of Sunderland also holds exhibitions and design competitions for students. The catagories cover many graphic design streams. These include illustration, product design, multimedia, animation and web design. The University of Sunderland is pioneering the way for recognition in graphic design within the science community. This demonstrates how important our industry is. Earlier I asked you to remember your high school science books. Let’s return back to that memory for a moment. The charts, diagrams, images and visual examples in those books are all examples of info- graphics. Paul Martin Lester explained it like this. “Infographics combine the aesthetic sensitivity of artistic values with the quantitative precision of numerical data in a format that is both understandable and dramatic.” (Lester, 182) To put that in laymen’s terms, info-graphics is the shortened term for information graphics. These are visual representations of data. Their purpose is to communicate raw data in a way that can be understood by the wider audience. This form of graphic design is used constantly in other industries as well as science. These include economics, business, marketing, and the media. If data has been represented visually, it’s an info-graphic. We uncover codes, information, meaning and understanding and find a means to pass on that message...
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  • 28. Array | 27 Can music really impact the overall creative process of design? by Andrew Torrisi Like graphic design, music aims to communicate a certain message or vision. However being a different form of art to graphic design, music strives to communicate its messages through a different medium. We, as graphic designers communicate our thoughts and ideas through image and sight, whilst musicians communicate theirs using sound and time. As designers, it is possible to say that we can feed off the messages we gain through sound, and put them on paper or screen, thus translating them on a subconscious level. Yes, I know it’s a bit hard to understand, but just bare with me here while I go into a lot of psychological information just to help open your eyes to this theory. Ok, so ever since we were born, our minds have been subjects to the mental and physical experiences we have encountered. Ultimately, these experiences have shaped and morphed our thoughts and emotions on a subconscious level. For example, a child sees light and wishes to hold it, he burns his fingers and feels pain. He develops a fear and proper respect for the flame. Later he learns that light has a friendly side as well ‑ that it drives away the darkness, makes the day longer and keeps us warm from the cold. So pretty much when we see an artwork or hear a song, the psychological thought and process that give it a certain emotion is often due to the association of both physical and mental perceptions, including our experiences of the world built around us through both our physical and mental senses. It’s because of these experience and perceptions that we learn to develop and create certain emotional symbols and meanings for particular images and sounds. Make sense? In theory, we see the colour red and it could remind us of a flame and it’s pain. Therefore, we translate different meanings for the colour red, such as danger, blood and so forth. Yet, based on other experiences, it reminds us of love, passion and romance. As designers these symbols are crucial in communicating messages to people. The same goes with music and sound, we hear a fast heavy metal band and we think of anger and aggression, we hear a classical orchestra and our minds are taken into a world of fantasy. In the end, it all comes down to the relationship with the individual and the music itself, if you love your music and feel something from the sounds and messages within the song, then music is more likely to influence you. Like many designers, I always listen
  • 29. 28 | Array “ “ If you’re designing an in-your-face project, you want music that gets you there.Music shapes the message. to music during those long endless nights when I’m trying to figure my head around a design. I know for a fact, being a musician most my life, the music I listen to can trigger certain psychological emotions or thoughts that impact my creative process. It just changes my whole mindset. Whether you listen to music just to fill up the dead silence or to relax your mind, music can affect us on a subconscious level which we are totally unaware of even happening! I can remember numerous times I’d be stuck on a design and I wouldn’t know where to go with it, the next thing I know, I plug in some good old fast and melodic rock such as “Iron Maiden”, and the creative juices start to kick in. These days depending on my theme or vision of a design, I would usually play something that reflects upon that vision. John Besmer, the principal of “Planet Design Co” says the connection between music and creativity is undeniable. “If you’re working on a project like Jazz, something that puts you in that mood”, he says “But if you’re designing an in-your-face project, you want music that gets you there. After all, you wouldn’t go to the gym and work out to a lullaby, right? Music shapes the message.” (John Besmer the principal of Planet Design Co) This obviously proves that music can have a creative impact on us designers “individually”. Individually, we have the power and freedom to select our own choice of songs that we “feel” can aid us in the creative process, we choose certain songs or styles because we have developed a subconscious and psychological connection with it. In larger working environments, studios often employ music as a way to get the brain pumping during those early mornings and brace ahead for the long day. Design studios often use music to give the team a boost in morale as well as a positive mind set. Designer Campbell doesn’t turn on music in his office until 10 a.m. “Around that time, music adds the extra boost we all need mid-morning” he says. “And after lunch is when music is most vital in the workplace. Music can help you through that 2:00 pm slump, which sometimes goes on until 5:00 pm.” Due to the common clash of musical taste within design studios between staff, some design firms often choose to slap in a CD with an assortment of songs for everyone and just hit the play button and let the tracks roll. However, it can start to get annoying listening to music 8 hours straight whilst trying to work. Designer Campbell advises “always allow some down time when no music is playing, ideally you don’t want to play music more than half the time you’re working.”
  • 30. Array | 29 Over the past few days of my research I managed to interview former Art director and Cover Designer of Mushroom Records Alison Smith, to find out how music has influenced her design process. Alison Smith has created the works for many international artists such as Paul Kelly, The living End and Kasey Chambers. Hi Alison, once again thanks for giving me your time. Hi Andrew, thank you for choosing me for this interview. Hoow long where you working with Mushroom records? I was with them for about four years. And how did you apply and gain the position of Art Director? Well I saw an ad in the paper saying the position was available, I then contacted them and went through a process of interviews and got the job. It was only a small studio with 5 team members. In terms of cover design, where does your source of inspiration come from? I usually listening to the music that I’m creating the artwork for first, from there I design concepts which are then discussed with the artist. Do you listen to music when you’re designing at work? Yes I do, only because I think it helps boost creative thinking, and it provides a positive and relaxed working environment. Do you think that music influences and triggers certain emotions and thoughts that can then be translated within your works? Yes I do, I’m a better designer when I listen to music, and it triggers certain ideas and helps you think in different ways. I think it triggers a certain thought or memory that you might not have remembered without the sound of music. And finally, how would you describe the current industry for CD and album artwork for artists? The industry is actually quite dead, artist are now turning towards professional freelancers rather than studios.
  • 31. 30 | Array30 | Array That’s enough cake for you! A healthy human diet is very important in the makings of the human biology. We consume food for energy, yet consuming too much food can have terrible side effects. Understanding this, let me relate it to a common problem that designers, especially young designers face, when the unlimited design works they can be inspired by, can make them ‘unhealthy’. Are we eating too much inspiration? Are we succumbing to inspiration obesity? Or are we exercising all this inspiration to create muscles of creativity? As a young designer, I’m constantly asked to look for inspiration to feed my creativity. I am constantly influenced by other designers’ practice to help shape my own understanding for my own design philosophy. This is a common problem of being stuffed with inspiration allows designers to succumb to symptoms of laziness and crush their hopes of being a good designer. Which in fairness Are we eating too much inspiration? Are we succumbing to inspiration obesity? ometimes all the mighty glory of being a brilliant designer is to just stand out. So in this article I will try to break this notion, try to make young designers and our readers aware of this growing epidemic. The Internet has become a souce for a quick easy fix of inspiration. We can easily find examples of design by searching anything on search engines such as Google. It has been a common practice to then bookmark or follow a RSS feed for any instant updates to (other designers’) work or activity. The Internet is a highway of instant information, and with the assistance of new media such as smart phones. According to the Australian bureau of statistics mobile wireless (excluding mobile handset connections) was the fastest growing internet access technology ever, in actual numbers ‑ increasing from 2.8 million in December 2009 to 4.2 million in December 2010. Information is literally in the palm of our hands. So besides being obese with inspiration, we, like society, are already becoming fattened by information. Looking for inspiration via the Internet can distract us from things that actually matter or cripple a designers’ creativity, not to mention their productivity (Wagner, Mindy). The Internet is addictive fodder for procrastinators and at times can be seen as a place for perfect confluence of misinformation, disinformation and useless information (Scotford, Martha). Various other new media have helped with the making of decisions by informing us. For example, it can help us decide what kind of restaurants we should go to or what movie to watch. But having to look through limitless reviews, we can see how we can be distracted and indecisive in these kinds of situations. It is like looking for what kind of food we should eat in a food court. We should try to not be distracted by the by Jerel Boquiren
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  • 33. 32 | Array32 | Array we need to be aware of the changes in society and how this would in turn affect our practice. So I hope I did not make you hate looking for inspiration or hate the Internet, I am just saying to eat in moderation and to always exercise your creative processes. Weigh yourselves regularly and see that you are not overweight all the time. Inspiration influence, encourage and uplift us to grow and help us pursue what we went to achieve. Knowing your current environment, acknowleding that it changes all the time and adapting to survive. In order to continue “healthy design,” we must continue to exercise our creative juices and serve up a healthy design menu to society. “ “try something different, experiment and make bad decisions. for what kind of food we should eat in a food court. We should try to not be distracted by the variety of options or what food is popular to eat right now, but to sometimes try something different, experiment and make bad decisions. So as a young designer, I suggest one step to prevent inspiration obesity, is make sure, you eat in moderation. That’s not to say the Internet is an unhealthy fast food. Designers may just feel that we are being burdened to create original design that is different all the time. It’s good, sometimes, to whip up, something, from an old cookbook once in a while. Finding your style is one of the ambitions of a designer. Besides being a designer for conventional reasons, there are designers that aim to define their style and promote this to show the kind of styles and works they want to be involved in. It is good for a designer to have original recipes of their work which define them, but the notion we all face is being compared in this massive global village we live in. Works are now easier to compare, as global boundaries are broken, with the Internet being a major contributor in creating this global village. Styles may be deemed borrowed, or in some cases plagiarised. Thus, making it hard to impress ourselves and that the style has been done before and is not original enough to stand out. A common trend I have experienced is that we are designing based on designs we thought were cool when we should be starting from scratch and exercising our creative juices (Wagner, Mindy). These days, the layman community are more design literate. This is a good thing. Again this has been a result of the Internet. As people are more exposed to healthy design we find that it becomes more challenging to sell one’s recipe. As designers,
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  • 35. 34 | Array Lou Dorfsman, a renowned graphic designer with more then forty years of design experience, has summed up the basis of how every design begins – with an idea. Sounds easy enough, but just where do we derive these “ideas” from? This is where a little something called inspiration makes an appearance. As a graphic designer, inspiration is a must for any piece of design work. It is what gets designers motivated and drives them to complete their work. As stated by Energize Design, a graphic design studio based in Queensland, inspiration is part of the arsenal a designer must employ when designing for a client or for oneself (Energize Design). So just what is inspiration? Many designers don’t realise the beauty of inspiration. It can come from anywhere and can be anything. From shop signs, advertisements and posters to the latest Tony Bianco shoes. Even your dog can prove to be an inspiration! Anything that can spark the creative mind is considered inspiration. One of the scariest and most important place inspiration can be drawn from, suggested by a designer from Chicago, is going outside. by Janet Nguyen Creativity is essentially a lonely art. An even lonelier struggle. To some a blessimg. To others a curse. It is in reality the ability to reach inside yourself and drag forth from your very soul an idea - Lou Dorfsman
  • 36. Array | 35 “ “ There is more to the design world then just sitting in front of the computer and you may never know just what might inspire you in a world away from that computer (Finding). Despite this, many designers tend to stick to other graphic design works for inspiration, spending hours raiding DeviantArt, or other design communities, looking for the piece of work to light up their creative minds. One of the biggest issues with inspiration is the fine line between ‘inspired by’ and ‘copied’. Living in a world surrounded by design can be both a blessing and a burden. Inspiration is right atour fingers and easily accessible, particularly since the invention of the Internet. Yet, with all the constant exposure, are the works created really original pieces? Inspiration is a means for designers to take something, such as an idea or theme which has been used, and twist it to form their own interpretations and meanings. It allows them to address the idea/theme by expressing their individual opinions. Everyone has different experiences and thus sees the world differently and the work they produce reflects these differences. So, despite the overload of inspiration, originality is definitely achievable. There is no definite way or method for how a designer is meant to use inspiration on his or her works. However, Patrick McNeil, a web developer and author, has compiled a checklist to help ensure you are not copying the designers’ work but using it for inspiration. His advice is to use more then one piece of work for inspiration. To break down each of the designs and pick your favourite aspects. By doing this, ideas are integrated with the designer’s own ideas, hence creating new meanings. The styles of design have broadened and the outcome of the finished design is something original (Using Inspiration). So you decide. Are we creating work that is original? Or are designs today being influenced too heavily by existing designs? CASE STUDY Chris Hill, an illustrator and digital artist from Canada, drew inspiration from a number of sources to create his collection, The Seven Disney Sins. Completed early this year, the collection consists of seven pieces of art depicting the seven sins using the Disney characters: Ariel, Beauty, Belle, Jasmine, Snow White, Cinderella and Tinkerbell. When asked what inspired or influenced his designs, Hill stated that what inspired him initially was not the inspiration he used for the pieces. He began with the idea to “depict a person who was affected by the sin and who conquered it”. His intentions for the pieces were to reveal the characters’ humanity and “strengthen their positions as role-models”. Using the Greed piece as an example, (Greed), Hill drew inspiration from Alphonse Mucha, a painter best known for his work during the Art Nouveau movement, and references from both the Disney movie and the sin, to create a piece that had strong reference points yet at the same time, revealed a new perspective in his interpretation of classic themes and ideas.
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  • 38. “ “ Emulate your heroes and develop your own style out of that, by thinking about what it is that you’re trying to do. We stand on the shoulders of the great men before us and hopefully we might even be a quarter of their height. - Lynn Smith. Array | 37
  • 39. What kind of photography do you do? I do street photography at night. On the streets of Sydney and Melbourne at night, and hopefully other cities when I get a chance to get to them. No people, mostly longer exposures. I figure that the absence of people creates a desire for people. If you come and see a show with pictures of no people in an urban environment where you expect to see them, then the absence of people creates questions in your mind. I’m hoping people will think ‘okay why are there no people? What sort of people should there be here? What should they be doing? Is this a statement about lack of community? And things like that. I don’t really have any specific things I’d like people to feel about them, but I would like them to feel something. So, is this a reflection of your own experiences? Or is it more about other people drawing from their experiences and putting them into your photos? Well, you shoot from the point of view of what draws you, so you shoot what attracts you; not necessarily knowing why it attracts you, and you are hoping that it will strike some sort of chord in your viewer. If you’re not too didactic and if you don’t set things up in a logical way, then you are hoping that work will be open ended and people will have various interpretations and find some way into the work themselves. I checked that with friends and relatives recently. I gave them a look at my stream of pictures on the internet. I said, “Look. I don’t want to know why you like or dislike these pictures but I want to know if you feel something when you see them, and if so what?” I was interested in exploring their feelings more than I wanted their judgement. I don’t really care if they like them or don’t like them. I’m trying to get some response. That’s why I’m doing them. And that was interesting, because people had a variety of responses, and their emotions were quite strong. Did they have the same reaction as you? No they didn’t, their reactions were all different. When taking photographs, how do you decide what you’re going to shoot? Ahh, that’s a good question. It’s got to hit me, that’s how I decide. I have no agenda. When I go out there, I don’t know what I’m looking for. I’m expecting to be surprised and if I’m not surprised then I just go home and sleep. I wait for something to surprise me, and it’s usually a collection of shapes and textures and things, I start from sort of grunge and pathos, and if there’s other things going on there in relation to light, if light exists in the picture, in such a way that it can pull you into it, I’m interested. And if there are accidents happening around that may change the picture, I’m interested in them as well. do. My mind is a blank canvas when I go out onto the street. If nothing strikes me, then I never shoot anything. So you never have a set idea when you go out to shoot? No, I have a feeling I’m looking for, but that’s just an ambiguous sort of a thing. I don’t respond to pristine environments, there has to be something anarchic or contradictory in them to attract me, because I think, that’s how I live. I live in a sort of unpredictable way. I don’t have set things I do every day. Are your photos a reflection of your life? I’m looking for metaphors. I’m looking for things which symbolise what’s going on in my life. So it’s about showing your own identity in the work? Yes, the artist is the person who is brave enough to put their life out there in whatever medium they choose, whether it’s literacy ballet or performance. They’re putting their own blood out there in the public eye and hoping there will be some repour there with the audience. But you don’t start with the audience as an artist; you start unlike everybody else, in capitalist society. You don’t start with a product, you start with what you want to articulate and you hope that there will be a response, and if there isn’t then you just keep doing it anyway.If you’re not creating Lynn Smith by Ashleigh West Photo of Lynn by Ashleigh West Photography by Lynn Smith 38 | Array
  • 40. “ “ out of your life, then what’s the point in doing it? Why not do a job like engineering or accounting? If you were concerned about living a sort of functional life then you wouldn’t be an artist. An artist puts their life out there in the public eye. They are willing to reveal themselves. If you’re not willing to reveal yourself then you shouldn’t be an artist. What are you revealing? Patterns that other people have developed? Recycling other people’s images and thinking? Why is photography your method of expression rather than other art forms? Ahh yeah, because I was a writer for 30 years, so I know technically how to write things. I made a living as writer. But I was a writer in a more social context, I was an advertising writer so I collaborated with people all the time - with film directors, musicians, producers and people like that, and art directors. I enjoyed that very much, and so I could probably evolve as a fiction writer, likw a lot of my friends from those days. People like Peter Carey and Murray Bale, people that I used to work with, that I know quite well. They have become fiction writers. I could have taken that projectory, but I’m too social for that. I couldn’t bear the thought of sitting in a room for months and years just typing at a computer. I know oddly, here I am taking pictures with no people around, but I’m out on the street, I’m out where there are things happening. I’m in the city, I’m a city person, so it’s like photography is lonely but social. Fiction writing is lonely period. I couldn’t face that. How did you come up with your ideas for advertising campaigns? Was there a certain method to that? There are methods to it, yeah. I taught at Billy Blue for about four years, how to generate ideas. There are various techniques. They mainly come from the ancient Greeks. They’re not things that’ve been invented recently metaphor, analogy, exaggeration, pathos. All of these things are techniquesyou can use. The thing about ideas is that they’re not discussed much in University, unfortunately. I think this is one of the weaknesses of University life, in that I’ve seen other students doing similar degrees to me, hoping to get an idea, yet not managing to find one, well it’s your job to get an idea. If you don’t get one too bad, and they kind of wander off, they’re out there, whereas there are techniques you can teach people. Kant, for example, made the clearest statement of what an idea is. An idea is a notion that takes you beyond experience. So I think if you look at a piece of art or media work, and it’s a simple reflection of experience, then there’s no idea in it. If it’s something that takes you beyond experience, whether it be music, drama, photography or whatever else, if it takes you into a different world then there’s an idea there. The question is, how do you get to people? What techniques can you give people to take their idea beyond experience, and I think it’s an important thing to do. There’s not much being done. You need to find a medium that can express what you’re going through in a way that dramatises it. So you’re looking for a way to articulate what’s vaguely circulating around in your head, in your nervous system and blood stream. Artists are people who have more to say than anyone wants to listen to. The artist is the person who feels like they don’t want to bore people by just telling them stuff; they want to find a way to articulate it. They don’t want to waste it in conversation when nobody is listening, so they have to find a medium. I regard myself as a publicly funded artist, as I am 68 years old, therefore I get the aged pension. So I am able to more or less live, with a bit of teaching, without having to go out and do a regular job. I’ve still got my wits about me. I regard this as a second adolescence; it’s a fantastic period in my life. I haven’t got dependent children, I can live where I like, I’ve got collaborators who can help me express my ideas. I think it’s a fantastic time. An idea is a notion that takes you beyond experience. Array | 39
  • 41. So it’s about finding your own power and how you want to represent yourself in your photographs? Yes exactly, it’s just fluid and anarchic and unpredictable a medium as paint and clay. Because there is a machine involved, people think all photographers are people on the other end of a machine. It’s just a question of where you point it. Well, there is conceptual photography which is booming. People like Jeff Wall, Gregory Krutzen, construct images like film directors. Gillian Wearing who goes out on the street with blank pieces of A3 paper and textas, hands these to people and says to them ‘write down what you’re feeling right now’ and photographs them in a snapshot style. They are not decisive moments; they are processes that a photographer has gone through. Cindi Lee, who does portraits of groups of people in which she embrangles, takes on their colouration. She photographs different cultural groups, and she’ll dress herself up as one of them. Photography is quite an elaborate and flexible medium, it’s just a question of the practitioners, whether they want to explore the possibilities or not. So Rutblees Luxemberg is someone who inspires you? Yes, she teachers in the Royal College of Arts in London. She photographs on the streets of London at night using a 4x5 camera. It’s interesting because I invited her to come and show with us in a show in Sydney. She didn’t agree or disagree, but she did say, “well the first thing I would say is don’t call yourself photographers. I’ve avoided that description my entire career, I’m an artist and I explore things. ”She said that you need to widen the discourse, and find yourself artists in other media. It’s worth talking to people you admire, even if they’re way further up the tree than you may be. Luxemberg is highly successful, her work is in the secondary market, she’s much more developed in terms of her career than I am, and yet she was willing to talk about concepts and so on. You can talk to artists if you’ve got an idea that you want to discuss and they’ll reply. Never think they’re much more famous, have a go and if you’ve got something to say, then they’ll be listening and can communicate with you. So a way of expanding your own practise is to go and view other artists to see why you are attracted to their work? Not just see why, but shamelessly copy them. When I first started doing street photography Lee Friedlander and Garry Winogrand were my heroes. Because if you don’t emulate them, then you’ll never move beyond them. I think it’s important to emulate them and accept that they’re the influence. Don’t try and hide it, everyone does it. Emulate your heroes and develop your own style out of that by thinking about what it is that you’re trying to do. But, no, I don’t think that everything is original. We stand on the shoulders of the great men before us and hopefully we might even be a quarter of their height. What kind of advice do you give to people wanting to get into photography? I think go to the library, a University library, and look at the photography books. All University libraries are free. I would spend hours at a time, looking through thousands of images looking at what stood out and stay in my mind. I would go through 2000 images in one afternoon and whatever stuck to me was what I felt had an influence. I didn’t try and figure out a style, just whatever images stayed in my head. Thank you Lynn! 40 | Array
  • 42. LOOK INSPIRED Through fashion we are all considered designers as we hold the power to ‘design ourselves’. With the vision and skills of both fashion & graphic designers combined, endorsement of a collection is far from futile. By Kim Eduardo Array | 41
  • 43. Fashion is a form of individual expression. Every morning we dress ourselves not because we don’t want to walk out naked. We go to our closets to find an outfit that can reflect how we, as individuals, want to be perceived by society. These garments that we intentionally choose may be following current fashion trends or styles from a bygone era. Within our society we are presented with numerous designers and collections. We oversee the actual production of fashion and how print media, advertisements and campaigns create a path for fashion and graphic designers to work in tandem. Marketing of a fashion brand is critical in the respect of setting a distinct image and gaining a prosperous outcome from consumers and critics. Different styles represent the different expression from individuals these styles are pieces of clothing and accessories developed by some form of encouragement. The idea for these designs may have come from one who is inspired by celebrities, seeing someone wear an item, music, hobbies or past trends. All items of clothing are a design inspiration. Celebrities are considered pinnacles of inspiration. They play major roles in promoting the new, using their status of constantly being in the public eye. They have the power to create trends, inspiring the public to dress a certain way. The first American First :ady, Jackie Kennedy made pencil skirts very popular. Untill this day many females continue to wear this style, as its silhouette flatters all shapes, making the hips look sleek and legs appear longer. Audrey Hepburn is referred to as the most important ‘style icon’ of the 20th century. Miss Hepburn’s style had a strong influence upon fashion. Through the unflawed film Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Audrey Hepburn popularized the little black dress. Women all over the world used this wardrobe essential for black tie events, weddings and more, paying homage to Audrey’s unique sense of style, which possessed elegance and wit. Simplicity was key through Hepburn’s style; ‘Put bold jewelry with it, and you can’t go wrong.’ Breakfast at Tiffany’s and Audrey Hepburn’s panache produced a doorway for designers. Created within that doorway was an opportunity to build an unrivaled reputation for sophisticated luxury that became the empire of Tiffany & Co, one of the most world’s most renowned jewelers. Tiffany & Co’s advertisement’s are publicised through magazines, commercials and print media, portraying timeless pieces - ‘jewelry for special occasions’ to maintain a strong elite image. Through the branding and packaging, designers incorporated the elements of Hepburn’s style and characteristics from the movie to maintain and enhance this image. Graphic design comes into play through the marketing strategy of Tiffany & Co’s strongest marketing tool, the luxurious blue box. The popularity of the Tiffany & Co blue box has led to the introduction of the item as a regular feature in the company’s advertising campaign as Caroline Naggiar, Vice President of Marketing, stated in the 2002 Tiffany & Co. annual report (2003). Audrey Hepburn possesses elegance and wit. 42 | Array42 T | Array
  • 44. ” ” Successful Tiffany & Co branding known to all. The blue box was able visually in magazine advertising to symbolize the whole institution of Tiffany. It would be absurd not to harness this incredible piece of brand equity. Tiffany & Co try to evoke an emotional attachment between the consumer and the blue box, inviting the customer to live the lifestyle the blue box symbolises. Which is deliver through the consumption of Tiffany products.Through fashion magazine advertising, Tiffany & Co maintains a successful marketing campaign through the use of graphic designers as they have established the powerful image of the blue box that is instantly recognisable. In one of Tiffany & Co’s attempts to convert an image of snobbery and to attract potential consumers in 1996, the company launched marketing campaigns that included “How to Buy a Diamond” and “Pearl Authority” (Bongiorno, 1996). Tiffany & Co produced brochures explaining what qualities of each stone a prospective consumer should consider before making a significant purchase. Through each piece and collection, Tiffany & Co continues to launch new product lines, taking advantage of the growing popularity of branding among jewelry consumers today through constant fashion, magazine advertising and campaigns. As graphic designers we have to take into consideration the target market of fashion brands. We have to work harmoniously with the client to produce a successful logo design that is an important aspect of marketing, as it can make or break the brand name. There’s nothing worse than producing a logo or brand which isn’t captivating. As graphic designers it is our responsibility to produce amazing works that are memorable enough to be embedded into consumers; minds. Ralph Lauren has successfully achieved a distinctive brand and logo design as it employs a serif typeface which is big bold and easy to read. The polo logo is placed in the middle of the brand to break it up. Ralph Lauren levels off its creative facet across all channels to strengthen its impact which is evident in their insignia. The importance of a strong brand in marketing is crucial. Ralph Lauren’s plush advertising has put emphasis on a stateside counterpoint to the chateaus and parlors of European high society. The 2011line up displayed pure innovation, building upon the themes and imagery that the brand has been promoting for years. Ralph Laurens 2011 campaign is ultra-modern, (Gomelsky, 2003) Array | 43 43Array |
  • 45. sleek and refined. Great branding means more than just beautiful imagery. A graphic designer uses the visuals and their own design aesthetic to make all the difference. Photographer Arnaldo Anaya-Lucca captured the essence of the 2011 Ralph Lauren’s campaign going from the beach to the field and the office. Ralph Lauren’s market strategy shows off its theme of ‘ever-preppy,’ evident through their Spring collection ‘The Purple Label’. It has been promoted through the stunning photography work, which has been used in catalogues, magazines and other print media, creating captivating advertisements. Fashion designers work on par with graphic designers as they construct websites for the brand, assisting in customer interaction and allowing individuals to go through collections on their screens. The hallmark polo logo, the inspiration of horses that represents the equestrian image is effectively displayed through print media such as newspapers, billboards and fashion magazines. Graphic artists are employed to lay out their publications which aid to publicise the brand allowing consumers to marvel at ‘the king of class’, Ralph Lauren. Fashion design doesn’t end at the production of garments. It continues onto the brand’s logo, print media and advertising/campaigns. It utilises graphic design through the brand’s image from their marketing strategy. Graphic artists assist fashion designers with their collections by creating an inimitable image for their line to stand out above the rest. As graphic designers, we convey information through visual solutions, we’re given the opportunity to promote and assist the consumption of a product by providing our skills and vision. Fashion has an impact upon graphic design as it inspires designers to build upon something great. Polo Ralph Lauren inspires the style of ‘ever preppy’ in youth today. 44 | Array
  • 46. Inspiration from the Streetsby Melissa Karatzas Array | 45
  • 47. Free speech and story telling was an influence on graffiti, street graffiti was an influence on graphic designers, and graphic designers have produced the digital graffiti we see today. How did graffiti start? No, it wasn’t in New York or Los Angeles, nor was it London. Would you believe that graffiti started as early as the prehistoric times - with writing, engraving and scriptures on the caves walls and floors? Graffiti originated from the Italian word ‘graffito’, meaning ‘a scratch’. According to the Oxford dictionary, graffiti is defined as writing or drawings scribbled, scratched or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other semi flat surface. Graffiti has evolved over time. In ancient Athens, the walls served as a scribbling ground for citizens’ demands and fantasies. Underneath the Roman Empire, humorous, sarcastic or democratic tags were discovered on the walls of Pompeii. French literature in the 1800’s also had references to graffiti by well- known authors as they walked through towns. Graffiti went through an art period by the surrealists, such as Picasso and Picabia. During the Second World War, the Nazis used graffiti as a weapon by smearing on the walls with hate filled propaganda against their enemies. (Ganz) In the 1960’s and 1970’s street culture emerged and wall slogans became more popular. The Berlin Wall became a focus of graffiti, where slogans appeared on the West side, but not on the East side as freedom of expression was banned. (Ganz) 46 | Array
  • 48. “ “ Computer technology has been instrumental in preserving graffiti and street art. ( Martha Cooper) Fast forward a few more years and we reached the era where hip-hop took off and the world of graffiti expanded in New York, eventually spreading all over the world. Graffiti developed from tagging to spray painting of names and images on trains, concrete walls, signage, and pretty much anywhere that had space and a fairly flat surface. It was seen to be an art form that was only created by criminals or vandals. Today that does not hold true. After a long history, graffiti arrived to what it is today. Currently, graffiti is not only made by hand but also made in digital forms. Graphic design vhas changed from a traditional style to expanding ventures that incorporate all different forms of design disciplines. Graffiti art and design have changed due to the development of art technology, computers, software and the internet, which heavily influenced the graffiti design industry. This has caused some designers to fight against the development, but others to continue on with their passion. Graffiti within Australia started in the early 1950’s and is now generally found in large cities and towns. (Dew) Australia’s technology and design is constantly developing. Graffiti artists and graphic designers have emerged together to develop fantastic design works that inspire other designers today. ‘Computer technology has been instrumental in preserving graffiti and street art’ as graffiti photographer, Martha Cooper stated. (Computer Arts - Digital Graffiti). Therefore, with the rise in technology, especially the popularity of computers, it was inevitable for graffiti design to take the turn into digital form. Cooper added that ‘there are numerous graffiti fonts you can download, and there are online shops to buy hard to find supplies, the web has spread this design form to all around the world, and yet it is still evolving.’ (Computer Arts - Digital Graffiti). Many graffiti artists have expanded their venture to the online platform; websites, blogs and online photo galleries being the popular forms of interacting with fans. Websites such as allows people to simulate creating traditional graffiti on a wall with a virtual spray can. Graffiti designers are able to expand their designs with the use of computer programs such as Photoshop, where you can download brushes and create markings. Illustrator also allows for a designer to draw and InDesign allows room for the layouts. Array | 47
  • 49. “ “ Graffiti has become an inspiration for many designers as it has allowed them to explore different types of art forms and mediums to express and portray their messages. However, does this mean that graphic designers have become lazier? No. Combining different forms of design have become worthwhile to designers. Being able to stretch your skills into all areas is a talent for many. Photography, illustration, graphic design and graffiti art have become a standard toolbox for many designers. There are many Australian graffiti artists that are also graphic designers. Andy Steel, also known as ‘Az One’, was originally from the United Kingdom but is now based in Sydney. He is one of the most successful graffiti artists and graphic designers, having done a range of paintings and graphic work. ‘My work is highly influenced by the organic but futuristic structure that is present in much of graphic design and contemporary illustration today. This, combined with electronic music continues to influence much of what I do when it comes to graffiti art. As well as traditional graffiti, colour, composition and design always will play an important part in shaping the forms I paint.’ (Artist Online. Art. Graffiti Artists) Graffiti demands your attention. Besides traditional graffiti work, Steel has integrated much of his graffiti work with the graphic design world. He stated, ‘I always try to design my graphics with style.’ (Artist Online. Art. Graffiti Artists) Influenced by the latest trends in graphic design, Steel also combines his love for graffiti art with his graphic design work. This is illustrated through his work with companies such as Beck’s, Xbox, Red Bull and Hewlett Packard, just to name a few. Toby Caves, who is another Australian artist, illustrator and graphic designer, combines his skills with flash and website design. A lot of Caves’ work is influenced by hip hop music and surfing. Like Andy Steel, Caves has worked his digital graffiti style on big brands such as Xbox, Pepsi, MTV, Channel V and Smirnoff. (Artist Online. Art. Graffiti Artists) Graffiti demands your attention. It has been an inspiration for many designers starting from the streets to the studio. Graffiti is a reference tool that can be used for all designers to enable them to create fun and interesting design work. 48 | Array
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  • 51. With words, symbols and the advancement of technologies, graphic design has undertaken a more sustainable position in conveying specific messages in visual communications. Graphic design has allowed the information to be more accessible and understandable in both local society and our global village. The presentation of facts or messages can be expressed and extended with graphics, thoughtful compositions and strategic initiatives. It plays an important role in communication to seek influence from the powerful and the power of people in tranforming iniatives. An effective graphic design can bring attention and discussion to an issue. It encourages public awareness about the needs of others as well as the nature of compassionate responses to issues, such as the causes of poverty. Designers are in a position to collaborate the with media and gain community participation. As social and cultural issues tend to be one of the most misunderstood areas, there are different opinions that atleast need to be discussed. Graphic designers understand that they have to talk straight here. Societies’ orientation can be changed by design. Our work is able to provide an integration to shape attitudes, values, behaviors, assumptions and beliefs of an individual or community. by Ling Lau 50 | Array50 | Array
  • 52. Our demand must be that design, at its core, be able to communicate. It can reveal things often hidden or forgotten. Designers' ambitions will be to dream of a new day, displaying our awareness and to be noticeable. A lot of times, many of these ambitions are overblown and the results can be disappointing. Our job can be rough riding, especially in the commercial world. Works like Oliver Toscani’s remind us that this is an ideal worth pursuing. The integration of design concepts can be found behind Toscani’s Faces project. It displayed 20th century youth within the one human race. His advertising graphics demonstrated commitment and denunciation with popularizing art. (Paolo, p48) The framework of his advertising was to position ideas to attract global attention. There is the possibility of both dominant and alternative readings of ads. His projects encourage and rely on consumers creativity to determine the meaning/s. They are often very intense and focused on multicultural diversity. Toscani’s bloody uniform of a Bosnian Soldier. “ “ It is just the same as posing a question about where we once stood, where we stand today and where we will tomorrow. Array | 51 51Array |
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  • 54. He confronts themes such as racism, fear and world hunger. His photographic demonstration also poses questions of man’s connection with the world. The bloody uniform of a Bosnian soldier, Marinko Gagro, addressed significant impressions and beliefs of men about their lives. Critics saw him as controversial, while many others, commented on him as a smart salesman for the Benetton. He deployed his design with strategy because he could identify the territory it could work in. He put it into action and he knew how to exploit it. He avoided images becoming too explanatory as he believed the issue could be more discussed. His practice, presentation and anti-bourgeois spirit disregarded preconceptions, prejudgments and rules in the industry. Although advertising might not be well received with aesthetic recognition by most, he was a radical and a revolutionary designer. Toscani’s advertising campaigns dealt with varied aspects of daily life covering sex, life and death. While advertising usually displayed formal perfection, Toscani did not follow the norm. His graphics enabled social issues to become visual in order to become more addressed. He acted as an intermediary in encoding the meaning more than promoting modernisation. This makes us to think and to rethink the remification of how we see ourselves day-to-day. Sometimes, modern advertising has lost its faith. Design is not restricted to just entertainment, commercial value or to grab attention to itself. More importantly, it should be our desire to analyse design and take ownership of the future. There are designers who do not worry that their designs are vilified by the moralists or about gaining an ambivalent reputation. They have their own form, avoid creating oring slogans and they will remain in people's minds. In this information era, graphic designers will have to see their role in a more radical, important way; and, above all, we have to consider ourselves vital in the production of social culture. It does not need to be a passive or pretentious display. The form is ours. If the message leads, they will let your form free. Our mission statement: simplicity and confidence in trusting our core values. Designing for humanity can be more than advertising, publicity and flattery. Life is not voluntary renunciation. Design cannot escape life. We can find harmony that does not primarily look at perfection but inner expression, that is, ultimately apparent in the graphic world. Left: Based on Toscani’s advertising campaign from March 1998 about human rights, it inspired me by its respect for the different races to the values of tolerance, peace and diversity. Array | 53
  • 55. FOR THE LOVE OF PRINT... What has happened to print and what does the future look like? by Romain Resplendino 54 | Array
  • 56. “ “It has been so influential in design that it would be irrational to say goodbye. In this day and age, printed materials are being replaced more and more with digital copies and the nostalgic essence of enjoying a pleasing designed print is becoming less of a specialty, and more of a hassle. With these changing times in design and publications, will the constant flow of beautifully designed print still hang around? What is to become of print design? Print design should stay around for as long as it deserves to be appreciated. How can we forget it? It has been so influential in design it would be irrational to say goodbye. We still discover and produce new and aesthetically pleasing print, and we, as designers will continue to do so in the years to come because it is what we’re accustomed to. In order to determine the path print may take, we must first establish its history and evolution. From history, we can pinpoint the first signs of printed type, which occurred in 1440, when Johann Gutenberg, “realised that much could be gained in speed and efficiency if the letters of the alphabet were cut in the form of reusable type rather than woodcut blocks” (Manguel). The printing press was born allowing for the efficient and mass production of printed material throughout humanity, thus the dawn of printing began. Since Gutenberg’s infamous bible, we have developed new technologies such as radio, television and now, the computer. These technologies seem to have attempted to remove the printed material we use to consume information, the proof is that it has already been on the decline. If you’re still reading this wondering why this has occurred then I implore you to read on, as the answer is quite simple. Printed material, for example the book, is on the decline not only because of new and emerging technologies, but because the change in technologies has rendered the object of the material,impractical. Let’s face it, no one wants to carry around something that is heavy, cumbersome and not entirely important in concurrence to the amount of events and tasks we need to complete in our day, so therefore, no one wants to carry around books and printed materials. Array | 55
  • 57. frees the mind of conservative tasks, that is, of memory work, and thus enables the mind to turn itself to new speculation”, (Ong). Our thoughts, processes and consciousness have been developed through the help of printed materials. Therefore, we are still producing these materials and we are re-producing them in new forms and styles. Take ‘kikki.K’ for example, a retail outlet that sells stylish stationary, home/office goods and gifts for people. They have taken advantage and developed a clever brand around this love for print and material design. As a result of kikki.K’ success, it is evident that people are still loving print design and, this means, print design is here to stay. We need to delve into our graphic principles that we will employ, in our everyday work, to produce this love for design. When a publication or printed design utilises grid structure, coherent and limited use of serif and/or sans serif typefaces, imagery, colour, hierarchy and white space in an efficient and aesthetic way, we have a superior design that is worthy of printing. It is up to us as designers to use these tools and more to develop aesthetically pleasing, elegant and effective design print material. The physical object of the printed material is the reason why this change has taken place, it is being re-interpreted, digitally. I sure hope printed material stays with us for many years to come. It should not be forgotten that the history of printed design has been a key factor in the development of design and its principles to graphic design. From the early stages of printed, ornamented publications such as the leather-bound books in the 18th and 19th century to the new typography and design of the 20th century; and now, the graphic design of the 21st century. If we are to keep printed materials, we must design according to its practicality. If this is the case, will we no longer be able to hold, touch, feel or smell the authenticity of something so beautifully designed and printed? I for one, don’t believe so. Nothing should take away the nostalgia. Looking at what is happening, it is clear that publications are still being made, books are still being published and the whole world is still rotating. We are in an age where we have been defined by printed material, “Writing is of coarse conservative… by taking conservative functions on itself, the text 56 | Array
  • 58. To develop and design, not only the look of a printed design, but the feel of the design as well, is something designers should begin taking into consideration seeing as though people are hesitant in collecting printed materials. It is up to designers to design the look and feel of printed materials, whether it be the paper used, the size, cut and content of the material. These are all key factors to which designers need to match, if they are to preserve this love for printed design. In regards to the book, maybe the design of the object of the book can be designed accordingly to a printed material, but if not, the new technology of eBooks is evidently the new surge, “In trying to preserve the printed form of the book, the book trade was happy to change its contents to suit the shifting publishing environment. In order to save the object, the book was changed into something else entirely”, (Young). This evidence suggests that the book has already changed its shape, and has already begun taking hold in society. Publications, which are usually thrown out in the hundreds, could be better served recycled and remade into new magazines. This is just a proposition to the issue of the object of printed materials, but the answer may inevitably lie only in digital copies, that answer though will come about only in time itself and the trends of new technologies that are yet to evolve. In this age of new and rising technologies, print design is not dead! It is only enduring a metamorphosis which will determine whether it stays with us in the future, or is remediated into something entirely new. All I hope is that printed material, that which has been given sufficient thought and an attention to detail, will continue to inspire designers of all levels. Array | 57
  • 59. Sam’s Cover. 58 | Array
  • 60. Each Array-Inspire poster has been handmade from start to finish. It was designed and constructed using traditional wood block type. With the help of the Penrith Museum of Print team, it was prepared for printing, inked up and placed on the Vandercook printing press to produce a run of just 30 posters. Each one slightly different. YOUR POSTER Array | 59
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  • 62. Designers Looking closer to home for design inspiration whilst trying to avoid catching creative constipation Block Array | 61 When I first receive a graphic design assignment for uni, or get a small job to knock out a flyer or mock up of some kind, “I often think no sweat, this should be easy.” I’ll jump online and look at some creative networks that display professionals finished works or some cool design magazines for creative inspiration. I will look through all these works thinking about the layout or typographic style to get those creative juices flowing - to be inspired. However on some occasions, doing this has the opposite effect. This approach becomes a process of emulation or imitation rather than inspiration. Or worse yet I suffer from designer block! I look at the fantastic completed work of other professionals and become frustrated by my own efforts not looking as striking or refined. I get so caught up in trying to produce something to the standard within the industry or of that of an established design professional that originality and personality within my work takes a back seat to fitting the look of what I’m using for inspiration. Then my creative drive runs out of pep completely. I find that with my own designs, my favourite and best work came about not by looking for inspiration in others’ final polished results, but by finding inspiration out of something else I was interested in or passionate about. I would became obsessive about a particular typeface and use it in a few projects. I might happen upon some stencil graffiti in the street andthink to myself, “I’ll have a crack at that”, and make something original that had personality. What inspired me to do this work and why did I feel prouder about this than other design work in my portfolio? Because the spark of inspiration did not come from being glutted on accomplished final works by others but by something simple I was interested in, something I was passionate about. I didn’t find it online or in some design magazine. I found it walking through the street on my way to work. I found it sitting in a cool café surrounded by good company and awesome band posters. I found it in deep discussion with a drunken bewildered club go’er concerning an illegible typeface used in a promotional poster above the urinals. You can find it in the most unlikely of places. All you have to do is keep your eyes open to exercise those creative muscles and get those creative juices flowing. Design is everywhere as are the things that can give you the creative urge or design inspiration. Take my mundane, everyday example of going out for food and a coffee, rather than the conversation in a wet thumping club bathroom. My favourite café to grab breakfast is the Deus Café Camperdown. Deus Ex Machina is a custom motorcycle brand which also has a little clothing label. The Café is on the site of the workshop, bike showroom and retial outlet for their clothing. Over breakfast one can look around to see fantastic artwork, illustration methods, graffiti, fashion, “ “Design is everywhere! As are the things that can give you the creative urge or design inspiration. by Matt Robson
  • 63. 62 | Array 1 2 3Notice these beautiful bikes and an equally good looking illustration on the wall in the background. Looking at the art or posters that adorns the walls in a café, such as this could spark inspiration or at least expose you to a style you may not have seen The socialable trendy environment in and around the shop is enough to get those artistic juices flowing and give me an inspirational creative spur. I find that I feel most creative and driven to be artistic when happy, and charged with first hand visual Typography within posters at Deus have a unique flavour which gets me thinking about organic type and encourage me to get away from the computer in some cases. I love the freeform lines and textures of these letterforms. Illustrative styles Fashion / Culture Typography
  • 64. Array | 63 4Look around. You will find design inspiration in the most unlikely of places. Personally I love looking at band/event posters whenever I see one about. They can be so different from one another as they each cater to different genres, audiences and ages. Also, they often employ interesting design choices in typography, illustration, photography and layout. These posters are everywhere... Event Posters typography along with some nice rides. ‘Deus’ has a very specific brand identity and associates itself with retro bike culture and has a distinct rockabilly feel to it. It has its own style, its own voice, it portrays this through its unique typography, photography, illustrations and fashion. It’s just a cool place I like to hang out and is my personal inspiration Mecca. Other scenes we might associate ourselves with have their own style or feel from which we can get design inspiration. I love going out to some dirty dank club to hear baselines dirtier than two 40 year olds on chat roulette. So I find myself looking upon set times, club promotional material and the outfits of all party go’ers. I take in the cool T-shirts and the massive blocky typefaces of the posters along with the shots…er I mean heavy music... Each scene has a creative look or feel associated with it and one can become inspired design-wise while having a good time in a place or environment they like. I feel more often than not the spark of inspiration and that creative tickle when out engaging with something I like, rather thanfeeding my imagination something more than a final work done by some sleek designer I have never heard of. It is when we get our inspiration from sources closer to home that we do our best work, or at least work that means something to us. We are design students and should value exploring and cultivating our own individual creative style rather than reproducing someone else’s work. As young designers, go out and be actively creative, look for design and inspiration all around you. Give things a go and learn from the creative process rather than from the process of creative replication/ apropriation. And at all costs try to avoid the becoming creatively constipated… “ “ We are design students and should value exploring and cultivating our own individual creative style rather than reproducing someone else’s’ work.
  • 65. by David Le Gareth Pugh, ‘nough said, however I am supposed to be writing 750 words for my article. Pugh is foremost a fashion designer, however at 14 he started working as a costume designer for the National Youth Theatre. Seeing his work now you can see how elements of theatre design is still present. Pugh is the latest addition to the fashion-as-performance-art creators that stretches back through Alexander McQueen, John Galliano (aka the racist, anti-Semitic designer who got sacked by Dior) and Vivienne Westwood also to the eighties club culture of Leigh Bowery. Pugh’s collections are autobiographical rather then referential and draws inspiration from Britain’s extreme club scene. His trademark is his experimentation with form and volume, and often uses nonsensically shaped wearable sculpture to distort the human body almost beyond recognition. Britain’s extreme club scene revolves around elements of Gothic fashion, it’s very dark and cult- like. Pugh used to work under Rick Owens who’s style has been described as ‘glamour meets grunge’, however Owens says, “I try to make clothes the way Lou Reed does music, with minimal chord changes and direct. It is sweet but kind of creepy. It’s about giving everything I make a worn, softening feeling. It’`s about an elegance being tinged with a bit of barbaric, the sloppiness of something dragging and the luxury of not caring.” Even though Pugh’s iconic designs are not ‘soft’ there is something ‘sweet but kind of creepy’ about his designs, however there was a change in style in his Autumn/Winter ‘08 collection, the draping of the fabrics create elements of ‘soft’. But there is a common element in both designers, they both create with ‘an elegance tinged with a bit of barbaric’, however Pugh’s elegance is more directed with reflective materials and clean lines. With this information and studying his Fall/Winter ‘09/’10 collection for men and Spring/Summer ‘09/’10 collection for women I have deconstructed and have been influenced by the designs of certain fabrics, texture, pattern and cut and taken them out of the design so that I can view his collection in the most simplest form which can be hard when looking at his early work where distortion was the crux of his designs. Continuous pattern and layering is used quite a lot in both collections, the colours are very basic. premarily being black and white. However the cuts are quite sharp and slick giving the design that futuristic elegance. ESSENCE OF PUGH. 64 | Array
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  • 67. Pugh’s Autumn/Winter ‘09/’10 collection for men, uses a lot of textured fabrics, giving the designs the detailing it needs. One of the stand out pieces is the jacket with a rectangle shawl collar and the raised sleeve of the shoulder, creating that edge and sharpness that the human body does not have. His distortion is still there, but done in a much more subtle way rather then his earlier inflatable designs. In the Summer/Spring ‘09/’10 collection for women, there is a lot of layering, giving the design a relief sculpture-like-nature. What makes this sculptural aspect even more prominent is that the dress is split right down the middle (sideways) into black and white. The contrast heightens the sculptural look, but also reinforces the idea of ‘what you see is what you get’, which has a slightly ‘edgy’ feel about it, this in turn, has connotations of futurism. From the analysis, I have developed a photo shoot with all these elements in mind; trying to capture the essence of Pugh. It was difficult because Pugh doesn’t have any photo based campaigns - he prefers video. An interesting note about Pugh is that he has never done a photo shoot, his campaigns have always been video based which is perfect for him because it goes well with his futurtistic designs. The collaboration of graphic animation and fashion designers is a new bridge that creates a different spectrum of the fashion industry. A lot of designers have moved to this trend, but it’s rarely ever used in mainstream fashion, it’s more used in cult-like brands, such as Song for the Mute who’s designers are similar to Rick Owens and Carol Christian Poell. s are similar to Rick Owens and Carol Christian Poell. 66 | Array66 | Array
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  • 70. tv Nick Knight is the founder of SHOWstudio and has produced Pugh’s campaign videos and has worked closely with him. Knight has started the push of digital fashion the idea that fashion is not just simply a walk down a runway or two dimensional campaigns, but rather portrays them in a three dimensional world where movement can be captured. The campaigns are very dark; there is an atmosphere of sinister evil but the movements and sound balance it out. It is very surreal and there is a lot of symmetry involved, where the images have overlapped, doubled or reflected. Through viewing this you can see the distinct comparison of the futuristic look with the Goth culture. As a designer Pugh gives us a different perspective of the human body. The distortion gives us a new way of looking at how we can change something of the normal into something spectacular with the simplest of additions or changes. It gives the viewer to look ‘outside of the box’ as clichéd as that sounds, but in the end it’s the inspiration that Pugh gives to a designer. Pugh has always described his designs as the ‘struggle between light and dark’, his designs, up to date has always versed the black to white scale and has always manage to excite and ‘wow’ his viewers. Array | 69
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  • 72. as us mere mortal designers/artists. The process of artists inspiring artists and generations inspiring generations has been going on since the beginning of any art form and it won’t ever stop, which in itself, is thrilling. The animation industry is one with humble beginnings. Today it is a multi billion-dollar industry creating works that are as visually stimulating as it is profitable. Animation is the succession of images, which creates the illusion of movement. As development continues, it can create works that rival live action movies and even surpa`ss them. The only limitation of animation is its creativity. When you think of contemporary animation nowadays, you think of studios like Pixar, created films such as the ‘Toy Story’ trilogy and ‘Up’. These films have grossed over three hundred million dollars. Their films have propelled Pixar into the mainstream animation market. Pixar has become a celebrated Infections`Inspiration is a fickle thing. It may come to you in waves or it may not even come at all. It also comes in virtually any form, whether it is from life experiences, dreams, viewing existing artistic works or sometimes just comes to you from thin air. But if you are working or interested in a specific field of art it is safe to say it is near impossible not to admire the works of the people above you, or ignore the masterful works of artists who have poured their heart and soul and millions of hours into their works in their respective fields. If we strive to reach the top of our field it is imperative that we turn to the best of the best for some form of inspiration. Am I wrong? Ask a cinematographer if he’s heard of Quentin Tarrantino or if an animator has heard of studio Ghibli. There’s a pretty high chance they have at least heard of them, if not, seen or admired their works. The beautiful thing is that these respective artists and studios are just as hungry for inspiration by Nyleve Alejandrino Array | 71
  • 73. studio. Some are even going as far as to name the team ‘geniuses’ and a house hold name. As designers or artists, it interests us greatly as to where and how they get their inspiration. Interestingly enough, as soon as they get stuck on how to execute a scene, or such they turn to the master to Japanese 2d animation, Hayao Miyazaki and his studio, Studio Ghibli. Now Studio Ghibli is revered and is the most celebrated studio in the Eastern half of the world. Some may refer to it as the Disney of Japan as they’ve created work such as ‘My Neigbour Totoro’ and ‘Spirited Away,’ which, many critics hail as modern Vday masterpieces. Here’s where things get interesting - the foundation of Japanese animation is manga. Manga is basically Japanese comic books with enough differences to be able to identify it apart from its western counterpart (how? If you want we can have a big discussion about this another time). Now If we go back further to the origins of contemporary manga back in 1t952, Osamu Tezuka, creator of ‘Astro Boy,’ is referred to as the ‘father of manga.’ So basically speaking, he directly influenced the look of anime today thus indirectly influencing Pixar. It doesn’t stop there; guess where Osamu Tezuka got his inspiration? Western shores, yep. But it gets weirder. Apparently Tezuka owes his entire style to Donald Duck creator Carl Barks. Don’t believe me? Look at the character designs for Astro Boy and Donald duck, don’t their round eyes look eerily similar? Not enough? Well, Tezuka did send Christmas cards to Carl Barks with a quick scribble of Astro boy hugging Donald duck and thanking him for it. Looking back in retrospect, it’s amazing how one creative pebble can cause countless inspiration ripples. Western shores influencing the east then the east influencing the west. This all goes to show how powerful inspiration can be. How it influences artists/designers and, in turn, inspires another generation, rippling across pond to pond, shore to shore. For animation, the future looks bright, who knows what will influence the next exciting chapter. Left: Tezuka’s christmas card to Carl Banks. 72 | Array
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  • 75. 74 | Array Oh crap, oh crap, oh crap! How am I going to draw an artwork to fit a whole of the first spread of my article? People are already looking at this page... And I haven’t even drawn anything for the next panel yet! THE SEQUENTIAL ART OF coMICS Its evolution and influence in today’s world. By Van Dang
  • 76. Array | 75 One of the engravings from William Hogarth’s series “A Harlot’s Progress”, where it depicts the heroine Moll Flanders falling out of luxury and becoming a prostitute in the process. Comics are one of the most honoured forms of expression in modern times. They have the ability to tell a story visually in a compelling and constructive manner by capturing significant movements, actions and expressions of the characters. The potential of its sequential art can even be on par with film and television media. But how has the art form arrived at this point where its design is refined and can stimulate our design approach? What are the origins of this sequential art? The ancient Egyptians recorded their beliefs and everyday life in the form of paintings and hieroglyphs. Their hieroglyphs incorporated a pictorial writing system that, according to comic theorist Scott McCloud, became the “real descendant” of comics through the “written word” (p13). However, its origin does not begin with just that. An Egyptian scribe from the tomb of Menna documented events that transpired using not only the hieroglyphs, but also paintings in a sequential zigzag-ascending manner. This was what may have inspired the system of the sequential form before comics were ever created. Over the ages, the sequential art form had been passed down unknowingly in each generation and in different races, from Trajan’s Column in Rome (Sabin, p11) to Aztec picture manuscripts. [(McCloud, p10-12). In 1731 the first critical point in the development of the sequential art form arrived, when William Hogarth produced six paintings and engravings called “A Harlot’s Progress”. It depicted a linear event in each image. In the mid-1800’s, French cartoonist Rudolphe Töpffer became the first in Europe to combine cartooning with panel borders. It was a significant invention that both word and image were used. However, ‘comics’ were not officially named at the time and Töpffer himself failed to see the potential of his composition that he could have taken to new heights. (McCloud, p17). Despite that, Rudolphe’s contribution was traditionalised among his cartoonist successors. Eventually, the title of ‘comics’ began to appear in the late 19th Century. When British comics emerged in the years prior to World War I, its mainstream concentrated on strips of humour targeted towards children. Artists focused on polishing the image with bright colours, clean design and practical human or anthropomorphic characters with stylised traits for laughter. The sequential art was taken even further when the DC Thompson Company published “The Dandy” (1937) and “The Beano” (1938) comic strips, which were the first to replace the traditional use of captions underneath the panels with what we know today as word balloons (Sabin, p28). Adventure strips appeared in the newspapers after World War I. A realistic style was primarily needed for an adventure story and the details of the artwork became a top priority for comic artists. This was to avoid conflict with their readers over inconsistencies such as a sword design that have been drawn in the wrong period. Cinematic techniques such as close- ups and long shots were also introduced into the panels to give a more adventurous impression in the visual narrative. These unique aesthetics challenged artists left to go beyond the traditional chessboard layout as they leave the newspaper, establishing the “ “ These unique aesthetics challenged artists to go beyond the traditional chessboard layout
  • 77. 76 | Array “Golden Age of Comic Books” (Sabin, p57). The “comic book golden age” in the late 1930’s marked the boom of the superhero genre. Numerous comics depicting characters such as Superman and Batman appeared. This genre required a variety of panel shapes and sizes so as to allow room for the artists to capture every action that showed what makes a superhero a superhero. Word balloons and narrative boxes were also drawn first before applying the scenes within the panels (to maintain a cohesive narrative structure). With the appearance of the Marvel writer-artist team, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby (respectively), their involvement helped uncover another purpose for sequential panelling, while creating works, such as, the “Fantastic Four”. Lee wanted to humanisxe the assumed-to-be-perfect superheroes by having the plot focus more on the characters’ personalities, believing it to be an interesting storytelling for readers. By understanding his needs, Kirby focused on the human emotions of his drawn characters in each of the panels, capturing the realism of the heroes’ mindset within the comics (Sabin, p69). Outside the Western sphere, the emergence of manga (Japanese for “comic”) became a strong leading form of medium in Japan, and was gradually reaching out to overseas distribution. Since Commodore Perry’s arrival in 1953, Japan attempted to integrate their social life into Western Culture, including the publishing of their own newspaper comic strips. After the end of World War II, the transformation of manga began when Osamu Tezuka (regarded as the Father of Manga in our comic history) made his debut as a manga artist. His style of sequential art was similar to the Western concept of cinematic techniques used in comics. However, Tezuka’s approach was different. Being influenced by his admiration of the early Walt Disney animations, he developed a formula where every panel created profound expressions and powerful, silent meanings within the scenes. He also slowed the pace of the story within each panel, making the impression long lasting as opposed to the usual “slam-bang” tradition in Western comics (Sabin, p228). Manga uses a considerable amount of speed lines and dynamic layouts, something that Western comics lacked back then. Artist Frank Miller took interest in using those elements of this style, which was evident in his graphic novel “Sin City” (1993). An excerpt from Osamu Tezuka’s manga, “Black Jack”, where the title character continues transplating skin onto the child after a yakuza gang set off an explosion in the hospital. - Black Jack ©Tezuka Productions - Vertical, Inc.
  • 78. Array | 77 McCloud describes the sequential art form of comics in Japan as “more than anywhere else… an art of intervals” (McCloud p81-2). In the present day, sequential art in comics delivers its vigorous impact to its target audience. Its strength is the result of many contributions to the development of its structure from Egyptian periods to late 19th century cartoon panels. From Western comics about humour and adventure to manga that takes more filmic influence in the flow of the panels. Every point of time, every place where it’s been developed, it has created sequential inspirations in each new generation of comic artists, and its influence is now being passed down through our generation as designers. A segment from the webcomic “Boxer Hockey”, where 3 of the team players sit together after a spur of events that happened in one night. - Boxer hockey ©Tyson Hesse A scene in the comic strip “Sakana”, where the main character Jiro attempts avoid making contact with his crush on the phone by telling Taisei what to say by sign-language. - Sakana © Madeline Rupert
  • 79. t NATURAL INSTINCTS child’s play by Ashleigh West 78 | Array
  • 80. “Graphic Design is the most universal of all the arts. It is all around us, explaining, decorating, and indentifying: imposing meaning on the world.” (Newark 6) As a Graphic Designer, you are creatively communicating and expressing a message. It doesn’t matter what type of creative work you pursue, you will always be putting a little bit of yourself into the work. For this reason, it is important to understand yourself and the ways in which you express yourself. Everyone has their own ‘perspective’- a unique way of viewing the world. As a young child you do not know how to be anyone but your true self, as you get older you start to lose this innocent perspective. We start to change in order to ‘fit in’ or conform to the rest of society. We are socially conditioned to strive for ‘normality’. (Shan) One particular example of this is introverted individuals, the ones who need to spend time on their own. Introverts thrive on time alone, whereas extraverts thrive on time spent with others. Being the more social type, extraverts tend to set the social standards of what is culturally ‘normal’ and what is not. (Rauch) The important thing however, is to realise that whilst this may be the norm for those around you, it may not be what suits you. This applies to all parts of life. When it comes to creative work, there are infinite ways to approach a problem or a project. The important thing is to figure out which way works for you. Social conditioning can have severe implications on our ability to develop original and creative thoughts. Being your true self and understanding the workings of your own mind is key to generating fresh and original work. As we get older, it is important to keep a hold of all the little things that make us unique. Every element of your life, every experience, has an influence on you and the way you perceive the world. However there are some things you did naturally as a child, these you need to understand and hold onto. As a designer you are aiming to communicate a message in a fresh and new way. You are looking for alternative perspectives on your problem or subject. You are ‘imposing meaning on the world,’ a new and fresh take on things. However, in order to develop a new perspective, you must first understand your own. An answer to this is personal creative work. Personal creative work is an essential tool for designers to develop and understand their own ways of working and ways of looking at things. Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up. - Picasso Every child is an artist, as every child has the ability to create. They create using elements from their own imagination, using the methods that come naturally to them. They do not need to know anything of art or design theories. There is no predisposed or constructed view on what or how they should create. “Art is not the same for a child as it is for an adult. For a child, art is primarily a means of expression. No two children are alike, and in fact, each child differs even from his earlier self as he constantly grows, perceives, understands, and interprets his environment. A child is a dynamic being; art becomes a language of thought.” (Lowenfeld & Brittain 7 cited in Mayesky 238) Creative play is an essential way that children learn and start to develop fine motor skills and in also helps them to develop a longer attention span. They are pushed to try out new materials, which Array | 79
  • 81. encourage ‘original, divergent thought.’ A child learns how to work independently and to develop new ideas. It helps them to develop a sense of who they are from an early age. (Mayesky 238) Why is art so different for an adult and child? Are original thought, a long attention span and the ability to independently develop new ideas not the skills needed to be a productive and effective designer? Children are given the creative freedom to create whatever they desire. There is no right or wrong. A child is told that whatever they create is a work of art, with the positive reinforcement they are encouraged to continue creating. As you grow and age, remembering to ‘play’ becomes even more vital and important. It is this that allows you to continue to grow and expand your mind, to find new and innovative ways of thinking, to generate new ideas or to just simply enjoy the creative process. Play allows you to express yourself simply for the experience, without judgement. It is not the end result which is important; it is simply the process of creating. Your personal creative work is the place where you can play. According to Jung, you would not be able to produce this creative work at all without the element of play. You play and develop your ideas with complete freedom. (Malchiodi 58) The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but by the play instinct acting from inner necessity. The creative mind plays with the objects it loves.- Jung The importance of creative play time needs to be understood by both individuals and employers. In a creative workplace, whilst there is the need to maintain a sense of structure and uniformity for both a project, creative staff cannot work effectively without the freedom to play. (Collin) Everybody needs some kind of structure to work efficiently, however employer’s need to realise that the same structure will not fit everyone. In order to maximise their potential, structures and processes, a workplace should be flexible enough to accommodate the needs of different individuals. A ‘cookie cutter’ approach will never work. The basic meaning of ‘art’ is personal creative work; it is “the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination.” (Oxford Dictionaries) Creative play should be a tool utilised by employers to get the most value out of their employees. The poor and penniless stereotype of an artist did not develop out of nothing. The truth of it is that a creative type is happiest when they choose to pursue their passion rather than something simply for financial gain. You ask an artist why they do what they do, and the answer is simply, it is what felt right. There is no logical answer; it the simple joy of expressing who they truly are. Your personal work is your way of saying to the world: this is who I am, this is what I stand for and this is how I feel. You show the world what makes you unique. Take the time to explore what it is you love, and who you are, you’ll be better for it. 80 | Array
  • 82. ““words are the physicians of a mind diseased” - Aeschylust Array | 81
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  • 84. Array | 83 Graphic design is simply a form of sending a message via visual communication. Graphic designers are those who work with drawn, painted, photographed or computer generated images as well as developing letter forms of typography for various productions and publications. These graphic designers organise and create these elements to communicate a particular message. Graphic design can be dated back to 15,000 BC and from this moment designers, as visual communicators, have been searching for new inspiration in order to develop a distinctive approach. Technological advancements seen throughout history have dramatically changed the way we design. In today’s chaotic society, whether graphic design is used in the assistance to direct and inform or simply to promote and advertise; graphic design is omnipresent. Yet it is through the understanding of the lengthy history of graphic design that allows designers to have an added appreciation for this creative process of communication. Evolution of Design Although graphic design, as a field, has a relatively current history, as stated previously, graphic design as a creative form of visual communication has quite an extensive history. From the first cave drawings in Lascaux, France, to the first sans-serif font created in the 1800’s, to the iconic “I want YOU” poster designed be James Montgomery for the U.S Army in 1917 through to the first introduction of Adobe Photoshop in the 1990s. Graphic design has developed immensely and through this development, it is quite obvious what the similarities and therefore influences earlier art forms have had in its progress. When looking at fine art, sculpture, illustration and even music, all these varying types of art forms have made a significant impact on graphic design over time. As graphic design has become increasingly popular, the technology has supported and assisted in allowing graphic design to be omnipresent today. Although the many forms of graphic design today are generally created by Elisa Gato
  • 85. 84 | Array84 | Array Society as we know it would not function without it. with the computer, this was not always the case. Although initially, cavemen used rocks and stones to create pictographs, print was and has been the traditional medium for designers. However, what else was used before print? Before print came about to various countries, publications (mainly books) were all developed with hand and paper one page at a time with immense detail and required a high level of skill. As this was quite time consuming, books were rare, valuable, and often inaccessible to the masses and were mainly produced only for religious purposes. Different countries developed differing ways to make printing more simple and efficient. Europe created a “woodblock” form, whereas the Chinese had a “punch and mould” structure that was eventually developed further by Gutenberg, who created the first printing press in 1450. Although the printing press was time consuming and tedious, the type was reusable and the process was more efficient then by hand. The industrial revolution saw an excess product production for the first time in history. As there was a growing need to advertise and promote these products, this helped fuel the printing industry as the forerunner to all other media. The need for faster printing saw the invention of the rotary press which has been developed and is still used within newspaper printing today. The typewriter was then created, which had a keyboard attached. This was then added to all kinds of devices to speed up the time consuming process of setting type by hand. As computer technology became available and the invention and development of personal computers and printers improved, it has allowed designers to have total control over type, images and layouts all on a simple screen. “ From road signs to brochures, from manuals to textbooks, graphic design is not only appealing, it enhances more than the communication of information. Society, as we know it, would not function without it. More so, graphic design is used to promote the products and ideas of companies and business identities. Logos, packaging, booklets, business cards, etc, are designs that develop the brands that create corporate identities. Graphic design, as an informational source, can be seen within various textbooks for education purposes. Each page is created via layouts that illustrate theories and diagrams and blocks of text, making information easily legible and accessible. Further more, graphic design is used within the entertainment industry in decoration, ambience, novels and comics, magazines, DVD and CD covers, movie credits, programs, t-shirts and so forth. Graphic design is not only aesthetically pleasing; it more so aids and entertains, allowing individuals to understand various products and services effectively and efficiently. Graphic design is a major aspect of our society today and will continue to be. From the moment we are awake we are faced with graphic design, to a point where we no longer notice. As designers, an understanding of the origins of design needs to be recognised, as well as the immense developments for print and technology, in order to fully appreciate this creative process. Without all the aspects of graphic design whether use for educational, informational or entertainment purposes, the world would not be as we know it today. desg“
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  • 87. “ “They opened up the world of colour and shape, and put an emphasis on things that were really not paid attention to before. - Robert Williams 86 | Array
  • 88. Drugs are bad. If you ask somebody their personal thoughts in relation to drugs, something will automatically click, similar to a defence mechanism. It may be a defence against looking like a fool to others, because in this day and age, people who use drugs are shunned upon by most of society. Because of this, drugs are indeed, by majority vote, bad. Let’s come to terms with the ‘bad aspects’ of drugs. Some are very harmful to the body, cocaine, meth, heroine and so forth. These drugs are very addictive and by attempting to desist in their recreational use, one will suffer withdrawal symptoms, which lead to many damaging side effects. On the other end of the drug scale, we have hallucinogens. These drugs are defined by, as “psychedelic or mind- expanding drugs that cause intense changes in a person’s perception of reality”. These types of tdrugs cause people to leave their physical reality momentarily and explore new territory induced by their minds. Take marijuana - it heightens certain senses and lowers others, making you see things in a different way. This allows people to be more open to experiences, much like alcohol. Some people who experiment with these drugs do so, in an attempt to become ‘enlightened.’ In other words, to become knowledgeable in accordance to the spiritual realm. Native Americans conduct spiritual ceremonies using a smoking device they called the ‘peace pipe’. This involved smoking from the pipe, followed by a prayer stated in four directions. It was their objectives to become in touch with their spiritual sides by having performed this ritual and their tool to the other side were drugs. The use of these drugs by creative people throughout the decades has brought upon a broader expanse of aspects within contemporary art, stranger or deeper aspects, provoking deeper thought. For example: the use of aliens in artwork, abstract art, surreal art and psychedelic art, basically, art which provokes onlookers into creating their own take on it. Unlike many artists, H.G. Giger was open in relation to his own use of drugs and their inspirations. It inspired him to create the creature; we would most probably all be familiar with, from the movie “Alien”, as well as the sets for the film. These won went on to win him an Academy Award. Robert Williams is another strong example of a person who became inspired by his use of drugs, later directing his artwork in a certain way. The way in which made it become a sensation for its market. Of course I’m talking about ‘Zap’, the comic, although this wasn’t the only work, which came out of this man’s hallucinogen inspired mind. He also created a collection of paintings he called “Zombie Mystery MIND by Oliver Bedon Array | 87
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  • 90. Paintings” which have now become a “cult classic”. Williams was actually directly asked about the psychedelics he experimented with and their influence over his work. To this question he responded, “Tremendously... they opened up the world of colour and shape, and put an emphasis on things that were really not paid attention to before.” It is surprising to become aware of the many famous people who have used and may have been inspired by drugs such as these. Most of them relating to the art industry, whether it be music or painting or metaphysics and so on. Some of these famous people as stated in, include Lewis Armstrong, The Beatles, Salvador Dali, Charles Dickens, Pablo Picasso and William Shakespeare, Vincent van Gogh, Al Gore, George Washington Queen Victoria and many others. I’m not saying these people were exclusively inspired by these drugs to make such significant movements within society. I’m also not saying it was because of these drugs that Dali painted the magnificent ‘Sacrament of the Last Supper’. I’m not saying that Cubism came to be because Picasso enjoyed the occasional opiate. But it is an interesting thought. There is one specific drug that is said to cause the most vivid hallucinations and unexplainable visual and physical experiences. This drug is referred to as DMT or Dimethyltryptamine. There is something very peculiar about it. Every living human being unknowingly becomes afflicted with the effects of this drug every night when they go to sleep. This drug used by everybody in the world, and naturally, is one of the most illegal drugs to come by as well as it being the most powerful psychedelic known to man. Psychedelic art is the offspring of drug induced visual creations. As are our dreams, which in effect, is the same thing. Psychedelic art came to be in the 1960s, the era of hippies. These paintings consisted of various bright colours arousing surreal feels to the onlooker. The objective of these paintings was to have the onlooker feel what the painter felt when said painter was experiencing effect from psychedelic drugs. The psychedelic movement was a major branch within cultural history and played its role as a stepping-stone towards the state of our current culture. The Beatles are an example of this. They were inspired by drugs to create some of the music they gave to us. They were also one of the first pop rock bands to have existed, which influenced our music culture dramatically leading it to the state it’s in today. There are many examples of the influence drugs have had on people who have lead the world in certain directions. Whether these directions would have been for the better or worse, it is controversial to discuss. However, there is no doubt; drugs have inspired these people to do what they thought needed to be done. Array | 89
  • 91. 90 | Array by Sam Corlett photos: Sam Corlett and Nina Harcus Film. The old style, analog, manual, grainy, unpredictable and complex are some words that people describe film. As a result, some stay away from the practice. Beginners and amateur photographers these days tend to jump straight onto the DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) camera wagon and play with new features not knowing that the origins of the camerawork itself. They are missing out on the raw feel of the camera and the ability to become one with the lens. Fortunately, capturing life on film is back and it is breathing new light and life into photography. Some may say that film is too much of a hassle and out dated. They may say,“Why use when there’s digital cameras around?” Or “You know we do have technology called a memory card?” The reason why we use film isn’t because we think it is cool or hipster. It’s because of the process and the thinking behind taking a shot that you cannot see until the end of the roll. The mechanical feel of the camera when you take the photo and the grainy, aging effect of the finished image is what makes it a satisfying exercise. But it’s not just the aesthetics of analogue film that makes it appealing. It’s also the learning behind it that when you develop your roll you know exactly what went wrong and how to fix it rather than taking a million photos of one object and comparing on a screen. There is a raw sense and a greater depth for experimenting with exposures, shutter speed, the chance to try different lighting techniques, use of shadows and sun, and the use of expired film. The method and the rawness of film photography is exciting as you never know how your photos are going to turn out or what exactly fits in the frame and what doesn’t. You have to change the way you see and think for photography. You have to imagine your surrounds and subjects as a one off photo, concentrating on perfect lighting, exposure, the contrast of colour, the clarity and what is in focus and also looking at life through the lens as a grid. The difference between digital and analogue film is the media format. One uses a raw negative roll whilst the other uses digital image processing F I L M R E B I R T H
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  • 94. Array | 93 film photography is exciting as you never know how your photos are going to turn out or what exactly fits in the frame and what doesn’t stored on a flash drive. The method of taking photographs has grown and expanded with a wide variety of settings in the DSLR. However I can’t help but feel one may have more control and enjoyment in setting up and turning the dials on the metal body for shutter speeds and apertures by hand and to witness the changing of focus through the view finder every time you turn the lens as opposed to lightly holding down the button and point towards the object you want. The ability to actually hold your prints in your hands is a big plus as you physically see the results and mistakes. The negatives are like a keepsake of your process and adventure with the 24 or 36 exposure companions. It is easier just to load them up on a screen, but it’s just not the same. The colours are more natural and sometimes well saturated. The photographs differ depending on what the weather and light is like and it makes it that much more of an occasion to go out shooting other than tagging along a flash or going through the complicated routine of swapping the lighting and curves on Photoshop for that film effect. Lomography Lomography are one of the main companies pushing for this rebirth of film photography by releasing specialty toy cameras that have a fixed lens or style each unique to its own. Cameras such as the Holga, Fish Eye and the 360-degree camera all create different effects and yet are the same with ease of taking a photo. The Fish Eye has a permanent fish eye lens attached to the camera and also comes with a fish eye viewfinder so you can see how the photos will turn out. It is the world’s only 35mm fixed lens fisheye camera and views life out side the camera at a sweeping 170°.
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  • 96. Array | 95 Ever wondered what world would be like viewed from a fish? The warped glass lens can transform your normal eye to one of alien. It also gives your photos bright colours, knock out contrasts and a huge depth of field. It lets both foreground and background come into complete focus. Get right up your friends nose or crash head first into an object and let the lens distort your surroundings The Spinner 360° camera doesn’t have a special effect or filter for the image however it does take a panoramic photo of your surround area. The standard panoramic picture takes an impressive 120° perspective stretching wide from left to right to capture the details infront of the camera, now with the Lomo Spinner you can add an extra 240° to the shot just with a pull of the chord the camera does a full 360° shot spinning on its own axis. The result is 4x larger then the standard landscape picture and creates awesome photos and lots of fun for experimenting. The Holga camera acts like your standard point and shoot film camera however it does have a nifty feature. No need for Photoshop to add that saturated old style as the Holga does it for you. Their unique vignette effect adds mystery to every photo. It comes with the ability to blacken out corners, which, gives you a refreshing new way of documenting your surroundings. It’s like looking through a tube with the main focus and the height of colour being the middle. The Holga’s plastic lens also holds four focus modes for when you went to get on all fours and up close to your subject to taking the landscape shot with everything in focus, the camera also comes with two v`shutter speed settings, the standard being a 125 of a second shot and the other for as long as your want till your finger falls off. Film has emerged as the new thing with special mention to Lomography, even though the mechanics and the method of taking a photo has evolved the thinking and creative is still the same, and I predict the future of art and design film will still be strong and always a part of the photography process.
  • 97. 96 | Array Magazines Famous Photographer Video Games Everyday Life My Past What’s Around Me Music Other Illustrations Everything Around me Accidents Artworks What Inspires You?
  • 98. Array | 97 Other graphic designers Abstract Sculptures Other People’s Works Design WebsitesEverything Print Things in my lifeAnything Strange My Friends
  • 99. 98 | Array98 Rosemary: Design Rebels -The Rule Breakers Thurman, Chris. “15 websites that break the rules.” Visual Swirl Design Resources. Web. <http://www. rules/> Unknown. “Design, Art, Architecture Quotes.” Avoca Design. 27 Oct. 2010. Web. <http://www.avocadesign. com/Template_Site/quotes.html>. Eddie Lam Freedom to Create. “Absolut Vodka Maker Replaces Iconic Ad Campaign.” Great-Ads. Apr. 2007. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://great-ads. iconic-ad.html>. Web. “Freedom in Limitations.” Graphic Design | the Persuasive Art. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.>. Web. Shaughnessy, Adrian. “How to Find a Job”. How to Be a Graphic Designer, Without Losing Your Soul. 2nd ed. London: Laurence King, 2010: 37-48. Print. Andrew Nguyen: Evolving with Technology 3D Animation. Ashish K Aorora. March 9, 2011. Articles Factory. Viewed on March 28, 2011. Hutchinson, Carrie. “The Golden Age of Animation”. Sunday. April 3, 2011: Page 4-7 What 3D Technology Was Used to Make AVATAR? John Sinitsky. 29 April, 2010. AVATAR Official Blog. Viewed on March 28, 2011. Emma Egan: Designing For Science University of Sunderland. Home: SimplyScience SimplyDesign. 29 March 2011 <http://www.>. Lester, Paul Martin. Visual communication: images with messages . Ed. Darlene Amidon-Brent. 4, illustrated. California: Holly J. Allen, n.d. Golombisky, Kim and Rebecca Hagen. White Space Is Not Your Enemy: A Beginner’s Guide to Communicating Visually Through Graphic, Web & Multimedia Design. illustrated. Oxford: Focal Press, 2010. Andrew Torrisi: Designing With Your Ears “Boboroshi | Does Music Influence Design?” Boboroshi | Fitter. Happier. More 70s Wallpaper. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. < influence-design>. “HOW Design - Designers Tell How Music Influences Creativity.” HOW Design - The Leading Creativity, Business and Technology Magazine for Graphic Designers. Web. 03 May 2011. <http://www.howdesign. com/article/musiccreativity/>. “Physical and Psychological Effects of Music.” CRCA - Center for Research in Computing and the Arts. Web. 03 May 2011. < MasterThesis/node10.html>. ”the Effect of Music on the Human Psychology” - St. Olaf Essay.” Term Paper Writing, Essay Editing, and Research Help. Web. 03 May 2011. <http://www. music-human-psychology-st-olaf-essay-25994/>. Francesca Wong: Graphic Designs Vs Fine Arts “Art Vs. Design — AIGA | the Professional Association for Design.” AIGA | the Professional Association for Design. Craig Elimeliah, 13 Jan. 2006. Web. 29 Mar. 2011. < design#authorbio>. Dcd. Web. 29 Mar. 2011. <http://www.>. Perkins, Shel. “Chapter 01: Making a living as a professional” & “Chapter 02: Job hunting”. Talent Is Not Enough: Business Secrets for Designers. 2nd ed. Berkeley: New Riders, 2010. 19-57. Print. Janet Nguyen: Inspiration of Imitation? Energize Design. Gold Coast Graphic Designer | Cutting Edge Designs | Energize Design. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <>. McNeil, Patrick. “Using Inspiration In the Design Process | Inspired Magazine.” Inspired Magazine - Daily Graphic Design Inspiration. 8 Dec. 2010. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. < the-design-process/>. P2H. “Finding Graphic Design Inspiration.” Convert PSD to HTML / XHTML and CSS - P2H / PSD2HTML. 20 Sept. 2010. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <http://www.psd2html. com/blog/graphic-design-inspiration.html>. The Center For Design Study. “Lou Dorfsman.” The Center for Design Study. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <http://>. Jerel Boquiren: That’s enough cake for you? Internet Activity, Australia, Dec 2010, Australian Bureau of Statistics, n.d. Wed. 7 April. 2011. <http://> Wagner, Mindy “Overcoming Inspiration Overload”,, n.d Wed 7 April, 2011. <http://www.viget. com/inspire/overcoming-inspiration-overload/> Scotford, Martha. “Be careful out there, people: what names dominate the Web 2.0 canon?” Eye issue 68 (2001). Web. 7 April. 2011.<http://www.eyemagazine. com> Melissa Karatzas Graffiti: Inspiration from the Streets Dew, Christine. Uncommissioned Art: an A-Z of Australian Graffiti. Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah, 2007. Print. Ganz, Nicholas, and Tristan Manco. Graffiti World: Street Art from Five Continents. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2004. Print. Naar, Jon. The Birth of Graffiti. New York, NY: Prestel Pub., 2007. Print. Pereira, Sandrine. Graffiti. San Francisco, CA: Silverback, 2005. Print. Charchalis, Teresa. “Artist Online : Art : Graffiti Artists.” ArtsConnect - Australian Artists & Art Online. Feb. 2002. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <http://www.artsconnect.>.
  • 100. Array | 99 “Computer Arts - Digital Graffiti.” Computer Arts - Home. 2006. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <http://www.>. Rehnberg, Andreas. “Graffiti.” Graffiti Playdo. 2003. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <>. Kim Eduardo: Inspired Trends & Styles “Fashion & Style on New York Magazine - Designers The Olsen Twins, The Row.” New York Magazine NYC Guide to Restaurants, Fashion, Nightlife, Shopping, Politics, Movies. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. < fashion>. “Tiffany & Co : Advertising and Marketing Profile at” the Leading Advertising Agencies, Marketers and Brands Worldwide. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. < us.htm>. “Tiffany & Co. annual report (2003).” Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <>. Bongiorno, L. (1996, August 26). “How Tiffany’s took the tarnish off: Chaney restored the brand’s cachet and broadened its reach.” Business Week, pp. 67-68. Proquest Database. 15 Apr. 2011. Ling Lau: Graphic design, designing humanity Oliviero Toscani al muro :l’arte visiva nella comunicazione pubblicitaria di United colors of Benetton = Visual art in United colors of Benetton communication /[cura editoriale/ editorial direction by Paolo Landi]. Designing for change : a practical guide to business transformation / Colin Bainbridge. Emerging paradigm--design and change : inventing new forms of experience and communication / edited by Peter Zec, Vito Oražem. Romain Resplendino: For The Love Of Print Design. Karlsson, Kristina, et al. Kikki.K: Swedish Home/Office Style. n.d. Web. 3 April 2011. < about/>. Manguel, Alberto. ‘The Shape of the Book’, The History of Reading, London: Flamingo, 1997, pp 132. Young, Sherman. ‘The Book is Dead’, The Book is Dead: Long Live the Book, Sydney: University of NSW Press, 2007, pp 9. Ong, Walter. ‘Some psychodynamics of orality’, Orality and Literacy: The Technologising of the Word, London: Methuen, 2002, pp Nyleve Alejandrino: Inspiration infections “How Walt Disney Created Manga.” The Escapist. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. < articles/view/issues/issue_257/7659-How-Walt-Disney- Created-Manga>. “A God among Animators.” Interview. Web log post. The Guardian UK. 2005. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. < awardsandprizes>. “Toy Story (1995).” Box Office Mojo. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. < htm>. “Toy Story / Toy Story 2 (3D) (2009).” Box Office Mojo. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. < movies/?id=toystory3d.htm>. “Toy Story 3 (2010).” Box Office Mojo. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. < htm>. Van Dang: The Sequential Art of Comics Gravett, Paul. Manga - Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. New York: Laurence King, 2004. McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics. New York: Harpercollins, 1993. Sabin, Roger. Comics, Comix & Graphic Novels - A History of Comic Art. London: Phaidon, 2008. Schodt, Frederik L. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Kondansha International: New York, 1983. Ashleigh West: Natural Instincts: Child’s Play Malchiodi, C. A. The art therapy sourcebook. USA: McGraw-Hill., 2007. Print. Newark, Q. What is Graphic Design? UK: RotoVisionSA, 2007. Print. Van Lith, T. , Fenner, P., Schofield, M. , Quinn, P. Morgan, M. “Creativity, the arts and art therapy in mental health recovery: Developing a research agenda. A collaborative research project between Mind, Praham Mission and La Trobe University” Melbourne: La trobe University. 2008. Online. Viewed 23 March 2011. < research-projects_department/downloads/Creativity%20 the%20arts%20and%20art%20therapy%20in%20 mental%20health%20recovery.pdf> Rauch, Jonathan. “Caring for Your Introvert” The Atlantic. March 2003. Web. 08 April 2011. <http://www. your-introvert/2696/> Shan. “Social Conditioning” 22 January 2010. Online forum. 09 April 2011. < 5c13-4def-bea1-e3a3d5668879> Mullan, John. How Novels Work. Oxford: OUP, 2006. MyiLibrary. Web. 9 July 2009. Mayesky, Mary. Creative Activities for Young Children. USA: Cengage Learning, 2009. Google books. Web. 09 April 2011. SlpU0OI7LMC&lpg=PA238&dq=children%20self%20 expression%20art&pg=PR4#v=onepage&q=children%20 self%20expression%20art&f=false “art”. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford University Press. 9 April 2011 <> Collin, Nigel. “6 Ways to Frustrate Creative People” Ezine@rticles. 01 October 2009. Web. 09 April 2011. < People&id=2968031>
  • 101. 100 | Array array Oliver Bedon: The Distored Mind Are Hallucinogens harmful to your health? “Casa Palmera”. 2009. < are-hallucinogens-harmful-to-your-health/> Famous people and their drug use. “The Vaults of Erowid”. Feb, 1st, 2004. < characters/characters_drug_uses.html> Psychedelic art. Jay Brown, David. “Lycaeum”. <http://> Native American Peace Pipe. “”. 2010. < pipe.html> Affects of hallucinogenic drugs on the brain. Ebbit, Alicia. “Serendip”. Wed, 1/16/08. <http://serendip.> The drug prevention network. “Drug Laws”. Mon, 24th, Aug 09. < drug_laws> Drug Classification. “Addiction to Science”. Mar, 20th, 09.<> 60s Psychedelic Art. Kashmira, Lad. “ intelligent life on the web”. 2011. <http://www.buzzle. com/articles/60s-psychedelic-art.html> Elisa Gatto:Evolution of Design Unknown. Essay Town. “ The History of Graphic Design Technology”. 2011. technology-introduction-todays-world-32656. Last Accessed 16th March 2011. Unknown. Canley Vale Education. “Forms of Art”. 2009. Winning%20websites/art/toa.htm. Last accessed 16th March 2011. Miller, E. Graphic “Timeline: History of Graphic Design”. The New York Times Company. 2011. timeline1.htm. Last Accessed 18th March 2011. Unknown. Design History. “The History of Graphic Design”. 2000. Last Accessed 18th March 2011. Sam Corlett: Film Rebirth Lomography Australia - 2011 Film vs Digital - Rockwell, Ken. 2006.<http://www.> <> Film is Not Going Away - Rockwell, Ken. 2010. <http://>
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