-(Customized introductory remarks) -Why this topic? Gasoline is a major source of burn injuries. (Bridge) This program was developed by people with special interest in fire and burn injury prevention .
Preventing Gasoline-Related Injuries Burn care professionals and fire service public educators from throughout the United States and Canada put together this program, as members of the American Burn Association Burn Prevention Committee. Their mutual interest in developing and distributing these messages about gasoline safety has been supported by a grant from the U.S. Fire Administration. Firefighters and the emergency service professionals that work with them in the field have a special interest in burn injury. In many regions, firefighters and others have created separate nonprofit organizations, to support burn centers and burn survivors and educate the public about fire and burn prevention. (For a local tie-in, the presenter can acknowledge the activities and service area of the regional burn center(s), the local fire department, and the separate regional burn support organization if there is one.) (Bridge) Before talking about gasoline, I’d like to give you some general ideas on the scope of the fire and burn injury problem.
Fire and Burn Death and Injury Up to 4,000 people a year die from fire and burn injuries. Most die at the scene. Most of those with severe fire and burn injuries who do not die at the scene are transported immediately to one of the 125 hospitals in the U.S. with specialized burn centers. Physicians, nurses, therapists and other members of the burn teams at these centers treat over 25,000 such admissions each year. Burn specialists also care for many of the 600,000 burn injuries treated in hospital emergency departments each year. These patients are often referred to burn specialists after initial treatment at the hospital where they were first seen. (Bridge) There are several things I want to discuss with you about gasoline.
What We Should Know About Gasoline Today we’re going to talk about The dangers of gasoline and related products, and how gasoline in particular can be dangerous to anyone in its vicinity Gasoline’s only proper use How gasoline-related injuries can be prevented What to do at the scene when such an injury occurs (Bridge) How do we know gasoline is so dangerous?
The Impact of Gasoline Fires and Injuries We know gasoline is dangerous because we know that each year: Some 500 people in the U.S. die from gasoline-related burns. Several thousand people are treated for gasoline-related burns at hospital emergency departments and over one thousand are admitted to burn centers. Gasoline ignition is involved in over 6,000 home fires, and $450 million in property damage occurs to vehicles and structures. (Bridge) Most of these injuries and deaths occur when gasoline is used for a purpose other than what it’s designed for. In fact, gasoline’s only proper purpose is……
Gasoline’s ONLY proper use is … … . to power engines . Most of us never give it much thought when we accelerate away from a traffic light or watch a NASCAR race on TV, but where does all that speed come from? It comes from explosions of course, which are continuously sparked inside the small confines of an engine. These explosions transmit huge amounts of energy to auto drive shafts. The same explosions that drive race car engines can happen many other places. They can cause injury or death if gasoline is ignited by any flame source or spark when it’s either mishandled or used for some other purpose than powering an engine. Improved product designs have reduced these deaths and injuries substantially, but most of the thousands that still occur could easily be prevented. (Bridge) Because gasoline is so powerful and so commonplace, people try to use it for many other purposes, often without realizing the risks involved. Can you name any of those purposes?
Gasoline Should Never Be Used As….. Gasoline should never be used as an accelerant for cooking, brush or trash fires. It should never be used as a solvent, a cleaning solution, a weed or insect killer, a mind-altering substance, or a fuel in devices designed for other fuels, such as kerosene. In any of these improper uses, the potential for explosive ignition, the presence of toxic chemicals or a combination of the two can lead to severe burns and internal injuries. (Bridge) The liquid form of gasoline is not the initial source of the explosion caused by a flame or spark. What is that source?
. It’s the Vapor It’s actually the vapor given off by a volatile liquid such as gasoline that ignites first, not the liquid itself. It’s the explosive ignition of this vapor that makes gasoline so dangerous, especially indoors. Gasoline used for vehicle engine fuel is so well-contained within the fuel system that we’re rarely conscious of its smell, which is transmitted through its vapor. We may be more conscious of the vapor odor of gasoline during fueling operations or when it’s used for a purpose it’s not meant to serve. At such times, we may think it’s just an unpleasant smell we soon get used to, not a serious injury risk. (Bridge) Why is gasoline vapor so dangerous, especially indoors? To understand why, we need to look at several aspects of gasoline and other related products which can also be dangerous.
Flammable Liquid/Gas Danger Factors Here, the discussion gets technical, but it’s important to understand the dangers related to several characteristics of any liquid or gas product in common use. These include its flash point vapor density , and flammable range . Several consumer products are potentially dangerous in one or another of these respects. Often these products are designed for one of the purposes mentioned earlier for which gasoline should not be used. Gasoline, however, is hazardous in all three respects. It’s this combination that makes it unique, and especially important to use only for its one intended purpose. To these three technical factors we have added a fourth: “accessibility”. There are literally thousands of potentially dangerous products in liquid and gas form which are manufactured and used only in industry under carefully controlled conditions. By contrast, consumer products such as gasoline are available everywhere. (Bridge) Can anyone define flash point ?
Danger Factor #1: Flash Point Flash point is the temperature at which a product releases vapors that can explode and burn. The lower the flash point, the greater the danger. The higher the flash point, the less likely a product’s vapors will ignite. The flash point of a liquid and gas product is also what we use to classify it as flammable or merely combustible . This depends whether their flash point is below or above 100 °F (38°C). A stray spark or a flame source as small as a match can ignite the vapors of flammable products at almost any air temperature. Combustible products on the other hand do not release ignitable vapors in the air at temperatures below 100 degrees Fahrenheit. They would usually ignite and burn only when a fire has already started. Gasoline has a very low, and therefore very dangerous, flash point of 45 degrees below zero. That’s because it’s refined so its vapors can ignite to start vehicle engines at the lowest temperatures where vehicles are used. (Bridge) The next slide displays the flash points of several flammable and combustible substances.
Flash Points of Common Liquids and Gases Judged by flash point alone, propane, with a flash point of 156 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, might seem more dangerous than gasoline, whose vapors won’t ignite at temperatures below minus 45 degrees Fahrenheit. However, it’s the combination of flash point, vapor density, flammable range and especially accessibility that makes gasoline so dangerous on an everyday basis. Unlike gasoline, propane is not available in concentrated liquid form where its vapors are easily accessible to a spark or match. Turpentine barely ranks as a “flammable” liquid. Other common liquid and gas products, although easily combustible in the event of a fire, are far less likely to produce vapors that can ignite from an incidental source such as a spark or match. (Bridge) Next we’ll compare liquid and gas products according to their vapor density.
Danger Factor #2: Vapor Density Vapor density is defined as the ratio of a product’s vapor to the density of air. Substances with a vapor density greater than 1 are heavier than air and tend to accumulate at the low level of enclosed spaces. Several products on our list have heavier densities than gasoline. However, when their risk of vapor ignition is taken into account, they are not as dangerous, mainly because their flash points are much higher. Similarly, while propane has a lower flash point than the other products, its vapor is almost as light as air. ( Bridge) Finally, we’ll look at flammable range as a risk factor.
Danger Factor #3: Flammable Range The flammable range of a liquid or gas product is the range of its mixture with air in which It can ignite. It does not refer to the distance a flame source can travel to ignite it. Outside of this range, product vapors are either “too lean” or “too rich” to ignite. Gasoline is intended to have a relatively high flammable range. This enables its vapors to ignite and explode within engines across a wide range of air mixture conditions. They can ignite when they make up anywhere between 1.4% and 7.6% of their mixture with air. For gasoline, these numbers, which are called lower and upper explosive limits, embrace a very wide range. Along with its high density and low flash point, this wide flammable range makes gasoline a reliable source of engine fuel. Unfortunately, this combination also makes it more likely that its vapors will ignite when it’s not intended. (Bridge) Where are injuries resulting from the unintended ignition of gasoline most likely to take place?
Gasoline-Related Injuries Occur… Gasoline and other liquid or gas-related burns can occur in: outdoor recreation, especially during the peak seasons for water sports, camping, and barbecue grilling. They can occur on the job and they can occur in and around the household, potentially the most dangerous location of all. (Bridge) Which of these activities provides the most common setting for such injuries?
Most Gasoline-Related Injuries Occur These injuries most frequently occur in household situations, when gasoline or a related product is improperly stored or handled, or misused as a cleaning agent. Even products such as turpentine or tile bonding agents can present a serious risk of flame or chemical injury if not used with fire safety in mind. (Bridge) Why is gasoline so dangerous when used indoors ?
Gasoline Vapor Risk Factors Combine Indoors Each of the three danger factors of gasoline vapor is aggravated by typical indoor conditions. Its low flash point is exposed to more ignition sources. With its high density , it will concentrate along the floor. And since there is usually less air flow indoors than outdoors, any such vapor concentration, instead of dissipating, is more likely to remain within gasoline’s wide flammable range . (Bridge) In what areas around the household are these factors most likely to combine to produce the greatest risk?
High Risk Areas for Gasoline Vapor Explosion Basements and closed garages are the household areas where gasoline vapor ignition is most likely to occur. Think of them as small engine compartments, just waiting to explode when someone handles gasoline carelessly or uses it for a purpose it was never meant to serve. They are the areas where any gasoline in the house is most likely to be stored, and used for a purpose for which it was not intended. They likely have little air movement. And they may be contain several potential ignition sources. (Bridge) What are those potential ignition sources?
Potential Gasoline Vapor Ignition Sources Smoking around gasoline vapors increases the risk of an explosion, from the spark of a lighter or the flame of a carelessly discarded match or cigarette. The pilot lights in the safest water heaters and furnaces are raised off the floor 12 to 18 inches. This lowers but does not eliminate the risk that gasoline vapor concentrated on the floor of a basement or a garage could be ignited by a pilot light flame. Many people put freezers or second refrigerators in basements or garages. They may use store or gasoline nearby without realizing that the spark of a motor being turned on by a thermostat could ignite gasoline vapor. (Bridge) What other fuels are potentially dangerous?
What Other Liquids and Gases Can be Dangerous? Gasoline is the most dangerous liquid or gas product in common everyday use by the general public. However, several other consumer products have the potential to cause injury or even death, in certain instances. These include: Propane and kerosene, as used for cooking and heating Turpentine and a variety of other cleaners and solvents Ethanol and methanol, being developed for use as partial alternative fuels in combination with gasoline. (Bridge) What fire and burn injury risk is posed by kerosene?
Kerosene Heater Dangers Kerosene was once a major fuel for stoves. We now use it mainly as fuel for space heaters. Improved insulation and other protective measures have greatly reduced injuries from kerosene-fueled space heaters. However, there are certain risks, now found mainly in older kerosene space heaters, that should not be ignored. An explosion can occur if gasoline is mistakenly used as fuel. Young children who trip or fall against a heater’s hot surface can experience a contact burn injury. Children have also been scalded from spills of hot food or beverages being heated on top of space heaters. Fires have started in papers or other combustibles placed too close to a heater. Carpets or rugs saturated from frequent spills when heaters of any age are fueled in place can also ignite. (Bridge) What other liquid or gas products are potentially dangerous, and other what conditions?
Household Products Subject to Ignition Under Certain Conditions Since the flash points of the vapors of solvents, tile adhesives and paint thinners such as turpentine are much higher than those of gasoline, their vapors are much less likely to ignite. Nonetheless they can be dangerous if exposed in a large concentration, in a poorly ventilated space under high heat conditions. Their careless use too close to the pilot light of a stove, a water heater, a furnace or a cigarette, is occasionally responsible for explosions resulting in injury or death. (Bridge) Propane and gas grills are a source of fires and personal injuries from products with some of the qualities of gasoline. Let’s look at some grill safety guidelines.
Propane and Gas Grill Safety Adequate ventilation is important to avoid the danger that containers of propane and natural gas could leak. Propane and natural gas cause less injury and death mainly because they do reach the consumer in the liquid form whose vapors makes gasoline so dangerous. Propane and natural gas grill users should still observe carefully the manufacturer’s instructions and safety warnings. All such warnings normally include instructions such as the following: Check all connections carefully before each use Keep lid open when starting grill Open valve only ¼ to ½ turn before lighting, to avoid flare-ups Keep valve closed when not in use (Bridge) While we’re discussing fuels used in cooking grills, we should also talk about charcoal-fired grills. What are some ways we can cook safely using charcoal?
Charcoal Grills: Safe Lighting Procedure Every year, thousands of burn injuries occur as the result of careless use or improper choice of lighter and starter fluids for outdoor grills. Approved charcoal grill starter fuels are far less explosive than gasoline or kerosene. But even when using the correct fuel, always use an insulated fire retardant mitt when lighting coals. After soaking the coals with starter fluid, wait a minute before lighting them. This gives the vapors time to dissipate. (Bridge) This takes care of getting started. What guidelines should be followed while cooking, and when extinguishing the coals after finishing or in a fire emergency?
Charcoal Grills: Cooking and Extinguishing While using a charcoal or propane grill, establish a “kid-safe” zone and keep children outside it. Never add starter fluid to warm or hot coals. This can cause dangerous flare-ups. Keep a bucket of water handy in case of a fire emergency When extinguishing coals after cooking, use ample water. (Bridge) Now we’ll turn to injuries related specifically to gasoline. We’ll focus on how we can prevent them, away from as well as around the home.
How Can Gasoline-related Burns Be Prevented ? We’ve already emphasized the only proper use of gasoline, which is to fuel engines. In this section we’ll focus on proper storage proper fueling practice , and proper transportation of gasoline. (Bridge) What are guidelines for proper storage of gasoline?
How Should Gasoline Be Stored? Please reflect on whether you observe each of these guidelines for gasoline storage: Store gasoline -only in containers approved specifically for that purpose. - only what is needed in the short term. - away from the house or mobile home. -in a cool, well-ventilated area. -with a Class B fire extinguisher handy. Note especially our concern about access to gasoline by children. The safest storage location is a locked, but ventilated storage shed away from the house. (Bridge) What is an approved gasoline container?
An Approved Gasoline Container… Approved gasoline containers are used to store fuel for small engines. Such cans typically are bright red, labeled “GASOLINE” and are small enough to carry. They come in sizes that hold from 1 to 5 gallons. For safe and convenient storage, use the smallest can you are likely to need. They have two tight-fitting caps, one of them serving as a fill tube, the other as a pressure release valve. They carry the seal of a standards-setting organization such as UL ® (Universal Laboratories ® ) (Bridge) What’s the safest way to fill a gasoline container?
How Should Portable Gasoline Containers Be Filled? Make sure to place the container on the ground prior to filling. Portable containers should be filled at a safe distance—at least five feet—from any ignition source. Keep the dispenser nozzle in contact with the opening of the container or the fuel tank of any gasoline-powered equipment being filled directly at a service station. This will prevent the build up of static electricity, which could ignite the gasoline. To prevent overfilling or a spill, portable containers should be filled slowly. Fill containers to no more than 95% of capacity to allow for expansion of the gasoline in hot weather. Small engines and gasoline-powered equipment, such as power mowers, weed eaters, and personal watercraft should normally be allowed to cool down before being filled from portable containers. (Bridge) Once you’ve filled (but not completely) your container, what precautions should you take in transporting it?
How Should Gasoline Be Transported? After filling the container (less than full), wipe away any liquid or gasoline residue. When transporting gasoline, use an approved container with the caps tightly closed. If you are transporting gasoline in a car, use the trunk in preference to the back seat, and secure the container in the trunk so that it will not tip. If possible, secure the trunk lid in a slightly open position, to allow gasoline fumes to escape. In the bed of a truck, make sure the container is secured to prevent tipping or spillage. Do not leave a filled container exposed to the sun while parked or while driving. The heat will cause the gasoline to expand and build up pressure in the container. Transport gasoline for only short distances and make it your last errand before returning home or reaching your travel destination. Don’t stop for other errands when you’re carrying a filled gasoline container. (Bridge) The same vapors that give off unpleasant odors and present an explosion risk unfortunately can be abused by teenagers trying to get high. What is “huffing” and what effect does it have?
What is “Huffing”? Some children and adolescents abuse gasoline as a means of “getting high.” Gasoline sniffing, also known as “huffing,” has been noted in children as young as 5 and it usually peaks at age 15. Inhaling as few as 15-20 breaths from an open container of gasoline or a petroleum-based solvent can result in euphoria, unsteady walk, and confusion. This state can last five or six hours, with effects similar to those created by alcohol and hallucinogens. Repeated huffing can have a significant long-lasting harmful effect on the body, especially the nerves. (Bridge) How does huffing also present a fire and burn injury risk?
Why is Huffing with Gasoline Especially Dangerous ? Gasoline huffers are at a significant risk of severe burn injury or death. It’s not hard to imagine the following scenario, which has played out all too often in recent years. A young teenager, huffing alone or with friends in a basement or the back seat of a car, becomes confused and spills gasoline on his/her clothing. He or she attempts to light a cigarette, .but the match or lighter or the lit cigarette itself falls on gasoline-saturated clothing, which bursts into flame. In their disoriented state, the huffer may be unable either to douse the flames or escape them, suffering a severe injury. How do you prevent such risky behavior? That’s a question parents ask about all kinds of dangerous behavior that tempt their adolescent children. Do you warn your children about huffing or hope they don’t know about it? There’s no easy answer. (Bridge) Huffing isn’t the only way contact with gasoline can lead to health problems, even in the absence of flame. Let’s look at some of those effects .
Other Forms of Gasoline Exposure that Present Health Risks The chemical properties of flammable liquids and vapors also represent considerable health risks to both external areas and internal body systems. Exposure of the skin or the eyes to gasoline and other gasoline-related products can cause irritations, rashes and significant chemical burns in the most serious exposures. Inhalation of vapors can cause considerable lung discomfort. This will be experienced as coughing and slow, shallow breathing. Swallowing even small amounts of such products can cause nausea and vomiting. Beyond a certain level of exposure, the heart and blood vessels, the central nervous system, and the body as a whole can be affected, The symptoms could include a rapid heartbeat, dizziness to the point of unconsciousness, fever, weakness, convulsions and burning sensations. (Bridge) What are the emergency response guidelines for significant gasoline exposure, inhalation or swallowing?
First Aid for Gasoline Exposure Here are basic guidelines for the emergency treatment of significant gasoline exposure. (There is no standard as to what level is “significant”. As always, err on the side of caution.) If someone becomes ill from breathing gasoline vapors, move them to fresh air. If this does not provide immediate relief, seek medical attention. Clothing, shoes and jewelry which might otherwise retain gasoline during flushing should be removed. If gasoline is on the clothing and skin, flush with running water for 20-30 minutes, then wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap until the gasoline is removed. If the gasoline is in the eyes, remove contact lenses if present. Then, while holding the eyes open when possible, flush them with gently flowing water from the inside corner to the outside for 20-30 minutes. Turn eyelids up to flush beneath. If the victim has swallowed gasoline, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have the victim drink 8-10 ounces of water to dilute the gasoline. Call both 9-1-1 and the National Poison Control Center, at 1-800-222-1222. (Bridge) What are the guidelines for immediate response to flame injuries caused by gasoline ignition ?
First Aid for Gasoline Flame Burns If a gasoline-related flame burn injury has occurred, your first concern as the closest person or persons should be to protect yourselves from similar injury. As soon as you can concentrate on the injury victim, remove them from any flame source and stop the burning process, by smothering any flames on the victim’s clothing. If possible, remove burned clothing not sticking to the body and any unburned clothing saturated with gasoline. Do this carefully to avoid causing further injury. Cool the body with water, flushing with water will also help reduce the amount of toxic gasoline chemicals entering the body through the burn wound. Call 9-1-1. Keep any gasoline-saturated clothing and belongings away from ignition sources. (Bridge) What are the most important safety messages to take away from this program?
In summary We hope you’ve gained an increased appreciation for the range and degree of the dangers posed by misuse and careless handling of gasoline. Here are some key reminders to take away with you: Gasoline’s only purpose is to fuel engines. Storing gasoline inside the house is dangerous. Handle, store and transport gasoline carefully. Wash off or flush gasoline quickly if skin or eyes are exposed. For gasoline flame injuries, follow the guidelines presented in this program.
Conclusion In conclusion, remember, gasoline-related burns are preventable! Do you have any questions or suggestions? Any experience with gasoline injury or exposure you’d like to share? Thank you!
Gasoline-Related Injuries and How to Prevent Them
Preventing Gasoline-Related Injuries Developed by: American Burn Association Burn Prevention Committee Funded by: United States Fire Administration/ Federal Emergency Management Agency
Fire and Burn Death and Injury <ul><li>Deaths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,000 deaths a year from fire and burns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25,000 hospitalized in burn centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600,000 burn injuries treated at hospital ED’s </li></ul></ul>(Sources: National Fire Protection Association, National Center for Health Statistics)
What We Should Know About Gasoline <ul><li>Dangers of gasoline and related products </li></ul><ul><li>The proper use of gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing gasoline injury </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate injury treatment </li></ul>
The Impact of Gasoline Fires and Injuries <ul><li>500 fire deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Several thousand injuries treated at hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>6,000+ home fires </li></ul><ul><li>$450M+ property damage </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: National Center for Health Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association </li></ul></ul>
Gasoline’s ONLY Proper Use is… <ul><li>… TO POWER ENGINES </li></ul>Gasoline-powered Engines Require a Constant Explosion of Fuel
Gasoline Should Never Be Used as…. <ul><ul><li>An accelerant (to a cooking grill or any fire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A solvent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cleaning solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A weed or insect killer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mind-altering substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A fuel in devices designed for kerosene </li></ul></ul>
Usual Initial Source of a Gasoline Explosion <ul><li>“ It’s the vapor” </li></ul>
Flammable Liquid/Gas Danger Factors <ul><li>Flash Point </li></ul><ul><li>Vapor Density </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable Range </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul>
Danger Factor #1: Flash Point <ul><li>Definition: The temperature at which a product releases vapors that can explode and burn. The lower the flash point, the greater the danger. </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable : Vapors are released that can explode </li></ul><ul><li>and burn at temperatures below 100 °F (38°C) </li></ul><ul><li>Combustible : No ignitable vapors are released at temperatures below 100°F (38°C) </li></ul>
Flash Points of Common Liquids and Gases 100-140°F Safety Solvents 125°F Diesel Fuel 105°F Paint Thinner 100 °F Kerosene Combustible 95 °F Turpentine -45 °F Gasoline -156 °F Propane Flammable Flash Point Product
Danger Factor #2: Vapor Density <ul><li>Definition: The ratio of a product’s vapor to the density of air. (Air = 1) </li></ul>4.9 105°F Paint thinner 4.8 100-140°F Safety solvent 4.5 100°F Kerosene 4.8 95°F Turpentine 3 to 4 -45°F Gasoline 1.56 (at 329°F) -156° Propane Vapor Density Flash Point Product
Danger Factor #3: Flammable Range <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The range of concentration of a gas or vapor in air, between its lower and upper explosive limits, that will burn if ignited. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond this range, products are too lean or too rich for their vapors to ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline has a high flammable range </li></ul><ul><li>(Lower Explosive Limit=1.4 Upper Explosive Limit=7.6) </li></ul>
Gasoline-Related Injuries Occur… <ul><li>In outdoor recreation </li></ul><ul><li>On the job </li></ul><ul><li>In and around the household </li></ul>
Most Gasoline-Related Injuries Occur… <ul><li>In and around the household </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper storage or handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misuse as cleaning liquid, heater fuel, etc. </li></ul></ul>
Gasoline Vapor Risk Factors Combine Indoors <ul><li>Low flash point (more ignition sources) </li></ul><ul><li>High density (vapors descend to floor) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide flammable range (less ventilation) </li></ul>
High Risk Areas for Gasoline Vapor Ignition <ul><ul><li>Basements and Closed Garages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Most likely areas for gasoline storage and use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - May have little air movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- May contain ignition sources </li></ul></ul>
Potential Gasoline Vapor Ignition Sources <ul><li>Smoking items (cigarettes and lighters) </li></ul><ul><li>Heater and furnace pilot lights </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerators and freezers </li></ul><ul><li>(motors may spark when activated by thermostats) </li></ul>
What Other Liquids and Gases Can Be Dangerous? <ul><li>Propane </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene </li></ul><ul><li>Turpentine </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol (grain alcohol) </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol (wood alcohol) </li></ul>
Kerosene Heater Dangers <ul><li>Mistaken use of gasoline as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Contact or scald injury to young children </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion of papers placed nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Ignition of carpets or rugs if saturated from frequent spills </li></ul>
Other Household Products Subject to Ignition Under Certain Conditions <ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>Turpentine and other paint thinners </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Tile Adhesive </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>When the vapor of a large amount of exposed liquid or solid product comes into contact with a spark or other flame source </li></ul>
Propane and Gas Grill Safety <ul><li>Store propane bottles in well ventilated areas away from house, potential flame sources </li></ul><ul><li>Check all connections frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Keep lid open when starting grill </li></ul><ul><li>Open valve only 1/4 to 1/2 turn before lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Keep valve closed when not in use </li></ul>
Charcoal Grills: Safe Lighting Procedure <ul><li>Use only approved lighter/starter fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Use mitt when lighting coals </li></ul><ul><li>After soaking the coals with starter fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait a minute before lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow vapors to dissipate </li></ul></ul>
Charcoal Grills: Cooking and Extinguishing <ul><li>Keep children away </li></ul><ul><li>Never add starter fluid to warm or hot coals </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a water supply handy in case of a fire emergency </li></ul><ul><li>When extinguishing coals, use ample water </li></ul>
How Can Gasoline-related Burns Be Prevented? <ul><ul><li>Proper Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Fueling Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Transportation </li></ul></ul>
How Should Gasoline Be Stored? <ul><li>In an approved portable container </li></ul><ul><li>In a small quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Away from the house or mobile home </li></ul><ul><li>In a cool, well-ventilated area </li></ul><ul><li>With a Class B fire extinguisher handy </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccessible to children </li></ul>
An Approved Gasoline Container … <ul><ul><li>Is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeled “GASOLINE” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small enough to carry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two tight-fitting caps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The seal of a standards organization </li></ul></ul>
How Should Portable Gasoline Containers Be Filled? <ul><li>Place the container on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>At least 5 feet from engine or power equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Keep dispensing nozzle in contact with lip of container or fuel tank fill tube </li></ul><ul><li>Fill slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Do not fill to capacity </li></ul>
How Should You Transport Gasoline? <ul><li>Use approved container </li></ul><ul><li>Wipe off any gas spilled on container </li></ul><ul><li>Secure to prevent sliding, tipping in vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Keep filled container in shade </li></ul><ul><li>Transport filled containers only for short distances </li></ul>
What is “Huffing”? <ul><li>A frequent form of solvent abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsteady walk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term physical damage </li></ul></ul>
Why is Huffing with Gasoline Especially Dangerous? <ul><li>Gasoline can spill on clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette or other flame source may ignite gas vapors or saturated clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Compromised “huffer” may be unable to extinguish or escape flames </li></ul>
Other Forms of Gasoline Exposure that Present Health Risks <ul><li>Skin Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive exposure can affect the entire body system </li></ul>
First Aid for Gasoline Exposure <ul><li>Move victim to fresh air </li></ul><ul><li>Remove affected clothing, shoes, jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Flush 20-30 minutes with running water </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes: Blot chemical and flush with water </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT induce vomiting; provide water </li></ul><ul><li>Call 9-1-1 and the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 </li></ul>
First Aid for Gasoline Flame Burns <ul><li>Protect yourself from similar injury </li></ul><ul><li>Remove victim from flame source </li></ul><ul><li>Stop burning process by smothering flames </li></ul><ul><li>Remove burned clothing that does not stick to the body </li></ul><ul><li>Cool body with running water </li></ul><ul><li>Cover victim with clean sheet or blanket </li></ul><ul><li>Call 9-1-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Keep gasoline-saturated clothing and belongings away from ignition sources </li></ul>
In Summary…. <ul><li>Gasoline’s only purpose is to fuel engines </li></ul><ul><li>Storing gasoline in the house is dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Handle, store and transport gasoline safely </li></ul><ul><li>Wash off or flush gasoline quickly if skin or eyes are exposed to gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>For flame injuries, follow first aid guidelines </li></ul>
Conclusion Gasoline-Related Burns Are Preventable!