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Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
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Research design

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  • 1. What%is%Research%Design%!  Research design refers to the basic strategy of the research by defining an action plan that proceeds from the primary research questions up to the conclusions and the justification behind it (Oppenheim, 1992).!  Yin (2003), “a research design is an action plan for getting from here to there, where here is defined as the initial set of questions to be answered, and there is some set of conclusion” (p, 20).
  • 2. The%Analogy%of%RD%!  How do we build a house?!  Do we buy the materials first, select fittings or setting artificial dates without first establishing the type of the house we want to build?!  Different types of house will require a very different building strategies, materials, permits and timeliness.!  Only when the type of the house (design) is specified, only then we know what materials, fittings etc that are appropriate and suitable.
  • 3. Research%Methodology%!  Research methodology is a strategy or plan of action that links methods to outcomes. It directs our choice and use of methods (eg, experimental research, survey research, ethnography, etc).!  Research methods – techniques and procedures do we propose to use (e.g. questionnaire, interview, focus group, etc).!  Not all methods can be applied to all research questions, so the choice of method is limited by the area of research that you wish to explore.!
  • 4. Research%Design%!  Research design involves determining how your chosen method will be applied to answer your research question.!  The design of your study can be thought of as a blueprint detailing what will be done and how this will be accomplished.!  Key aspects of research design include: research methodology; participant/sample collection and assignment (if different conditions are being explored); and data collection procedures and instruments.
  • 5. Exploratory%Research%!  Designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant issues uncover variables associated with a problem, uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives for addressing research objectives.!  Not intended to test specific research hypotheses.!  A very flexible, open-ended process.!  Typical exploratory design – focus group, in-depth interview, case studies, videotaped/photograph
  • 6. Descriptive%Research%% (who,%what,%where,%how)%%!  Designed to provide further insight into the research problem by describing the variables of interest. For example: " Who is likely to be most satisfied? " How much investment is required? " Which brands is most preferred?!  DR usually structured and specifically designed to measure characteristics described in RQs.!  Can be used for profiling, defining, segmentation, estimating, predicting, and examining associative relationships.
  • 7. Explanatory+,+Hypothesis+Testing++ (Analytical+and+Predictive)+ !  Studies that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain the nature of certain relationships, or establish the differences among groups or the independence of two or more factors in a situation. !  Hypotheses testing is undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predict organizational outcomes. !  Designed to provide information on potential cause- and-effect relationships.
  • 8. Qualitative%%!  The inquirer makes knowledge claims based primarily on constructivist perspectives, " i.e. the multiple meanings of individual experiences, meanings socially and historically constructed, with a intent of developing a theory or pattern) or participatory perspectives (i.e, political issue-oriented, collaborative or change oriented).!  Other strategies – narratives, phenomenologies, ethnographies, grounded theory studies, or case studies.!  The researcher collect open-ended, emerging data with the primary intent of developing themes from the data.
  • 9. Quantitative%!  Investigator primarily uses post-positivist claims for developing knowledge " i.e, cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypotheses and questions, use of measurement and observation, and test of theories!  Employ strategies of inquiry such as experiments and surveys!  Collect data on predetermined instruments that yield statistical data
  • 10. MixedAMethod%!  The researcher tends to base knowledge claims on pragmatic grounds (eg, consequence-oriented, problem-centred and pluralistic)!  It employs strategies of inquiry that involve collecting data either simultaneously or sequentially to best understand research problems.!  Data collection involve numeric information (on instruments) as well as text information (on interview).!  The final database represents both qualitative and quantitative information.
  • 11. Type%of%Research%(Salkind,%2011)%
  • 12. Time Horizon!  Cross-sectional design !  Collects data at one time!  Longitudinal Designs !  Takes place over time with two or more data collections Trend design !  Each survey collects data on the same items or variables with a new independent sample of the same target population Panel studies !  Each survey collects data at different times from the same respondents
  • 13. Prior%To%Research%Design%!  Variable: what is measured or varied. An attribute or characteristic of a person (or object) that can change from person to person.①  Independent Variable: a variable that is manipulated, measured or selected by the researcher in order to observe its relation to the subjects "response” on another variable.②  Dependent Variable: the variable that is observed and measured in response to an independent variable.

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