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Ch10

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Motivation, Personality, and Emotion

Motivation, Personality, and Emotion

Published in: Business, Technology
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  • 1. CHAPTER TEN Motivation, Personality, and EmotionMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. 2 Consumer Motivation Involvement and Affect Actual State Goal- Need Drive directed Incentive Stimulus State Objects Recognition Behavior Desired State Motivation: An activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior. It is the reason for behavior. Motive: An unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response.CHAPTER 10
  • 3. 3 Maslow’s Motive Hierarchy 5. Self-actualization: This involves the desire for self- Advanced fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming. 4. Esteem: Desires for status, superiority, self-respect, and prestige are examples of esteem needs. These needs relate to the individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. 3. Belongingness: Belongingness motives are reflected in a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, and group acceptance. 2. Safety: Feeling physical safety and security, stability, familiar surroundings, and so forth are manifestations of safety needs. They are aroused after physiological motives are minimally satisfied, and before other motives. 1. Physiological: Food, water, sleep, and to a limited extent, sex, are physiological motives. Unless they are minimally satisfied, other motives are not activated. BasicCHAPTER 10
  • 4. 4 Marketing Strategies and Maslow’s HierarchyCHAPTER 10
  • 5. 5 McGuire’s Psychological Motives • Classification System with 16 categories • Two criteria determine 4 major categories: • Is mode of motivation cognitive or affective? • Is the motive focused on preservation or growth? • Four categories subdivided further: • Is the behavior initiated or a response? • Is this behavior internal or external?CHAPTER 10
  • 6. 6 McGuire’s Cognitive Motives • Cognitive Preservation Motives • Need for Consistency (active, internal) • Need for Attribution (active, external) • Need to Categorize (passive, internal) • Need for Objectification (passive, external) • Cognitive Growth Motives • Need for Autonomy (active, internal) • Need for Stimulation (active, external) • Teleological Need (passive, internal) • Utilitarian Need (passive, external)CHAPTER 10
  • 7. 7 McGuire’s Affective Motives • Affective Preservation Motives: • Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) • Need for Expression (active, external) • Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) • Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) • Affective Growth Motives: • Need for Assertion (active, internal) • Need for Affiliation (active, external) • Need for Identification (passive, internal) • Need for Modeling (passive, external)CHAPTER 10
  • 8. 8 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy • Discovering Purchase Motives • Marketing Strategies Based on Multiple Motives • Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation Conflict • Do Marketers Create Needs?CHAPTER 10
  • 9. 9 Latent and Manifest MotivesCHAPTER 10
  • 10. 10 Motivation Research TechniquesCHAPTER 10
  • 11. 11 Most Ads appeal to Multiple MotivesCHAPTER 10
  • 12. 12 Motivation Conflict • Approach-Approach Conflict • Approach-Avoidance Conflict • Avoidance-Avoidance ConflictCHAPTER 10
  • 13. 13 Create Needs? Do marketers create needs?CHAPTER 10
  • 14. 14 Discussion Describe Adam SandlerCHAPTER 10
  • 15. 15 Personality Theory Two Common Assumptions: • All individuals have internal characteristics or traits • Consistent and Measurable differences between individualsCHAPTER 10
  • 16. 16 Consumer Insight 10-1 • What problems and issues would arise in segmenting a market into high- and low-NFC s egments? • What implications does each of the nine research findings described above have for ma rketing practice? • How do you think media preferences would vary between high- and low-NFC consumers?CHAPTER 10
  • 17. 17 The Five-Factor Model of PersonalityCHAPTER 10
  • 18. 18 Dimensions of Brand PersonalityCHAPTER 10
  • 19. 19 Brand personality Describe the personality of the following: • Arizona Iced Tea • Intel • Blockbuster Video • Wal-Mart • Toyota • Dr. Pepper • Aquafina • Seiko • Texas Instruments • NordstromsCHAPTER 10
  • 20. 20 Brand personality What personality characteristics come to mind for the following: • Brand is repositioned several times or changes its slogan repeatedly • Brand uses continuing character in its advertising • Brand charges a high price and uses exclusive distribution • Brand frequently available on deal • Brand offers many line extensions • Brand sponsors show on PBS or uses recycled materials • Brand features easy-to-use packaging or speaks at consumer’s level in advertising • Brand offers seasonal clearance sale • Brand offers five-year warranty or free customer hot lineCHAPTER 10
  • 21. 21 The Nature of EmotionsCHAPTER 10
  • 22. 22 Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Pleasure Duty Moral, virtuous, dutiful Faith Reverent, worshipful, spiritual Pride Proud, superior, worthy Affection Loving, affectionate, friendly Innocence Innocent, pure, blameless Gratitude Grateful, thankful, appreciative Serenity Restful, serene, comfortable, soothed Desire Desirous, wishful, craving, hopeful Joy Joyful, happy, delighted Competence Confident, in control, competent Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.CHAPTER 10
  • 23. 23 Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Arousal Interest Attentive, curious Hypoactivation Bored, drowsy, sluggish Activation Aroused, active, excited Surprise Surprised, annoyed, astonished Déjà vu Unimpressed, uninformed, ,unexcited Involvement Involved, informed, enlightened, benefited Distraction Distracted, preoccupied, inattentive Surgency Playful, entertained, lighthearted Contempt Scornful, contemptuous, disdainful Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.CHAPTER 10
  • 24. 24 Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Dominance Conflict Tense, frustrated, conflictful Guilt Guilty, remorseful, regretful Helplessness Powerless, helpless, dominated Sadness Sad, distressed, sorrowful, dejected Fear Fearful, afraid, anxious Shame Ashamed, embarrassed, humiliated Anger Angry, initiated, enraged, mad Hyperactivation Panicked, confused, overstimulated Disgust Disgusted, revolted, annoyed, full of loathing Skepticism Skeptical, suspicious, distrustful Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.CHAPTER 10
  • 25. 25 Emotions and Marketing Strategy • Emotion arousal as a product benefit • Emotion reduction as a product benefit • Emotion in advertising • Enhances attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities • Processed more thoroughly • May be remembered betterCHAPTER 10
  • 26. 26 Measuring Emotional Arousal • Emotional Measurement System • Developed by BBDO • 26 emotions triggered by ads • Galvanic Skin Response • Small electrodes that monitor the skin • Lie detector testCHAPTER 10
  • 27. 27 Emotional Arousal & Mail Response RatesCHAPTER 10

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