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# Electric vehicles

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### Electric vehicles

2. 2. Powered by battery operated electric motor     The gasoline engine is replaced by an electric motor The electric motor gets its power from a controller The controller gets its power from an array of rechargeable batteries (typical lead-acid battery ) A gasoline engine, with its fuel lines, exhaust pipes, coolant hoses and intake manifold, look like a plumbing project. An electric car is definitely a wiring project
3. 3. Schematic with DC motor
4. 4. DC Controller    The controller takes power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The accelerator pedal hooks to a pair of potentiometers (variable resistors), which provide the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to deliver The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers and regulates the power accordingly. If the accelerator pushed halfway down, the controller reads rapidly switches the power to the motor on and off so that it is on half the time and off half the time. If you have the accelerator pedal 25 percent of the way down, the controller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of the time and off 75 percent of the time Most controllers pulse the power more than 15,000 times per second, in order to keep the pulsation outside the range of human hearing
5. 5. Schematic with AC motor
6. 6. AC Controller     AC controller creates three pseudo-sine waves. It does this by taking the DC voltage from the batteries and pulsing it on and off In an AC controller, there is the additional need to reverse the polarity of the voltage 60 times a second Therefore, you actually need six sets of transistors in an AC controller, while you need only one set in a DC controller For each phase one set of transistors to pulse the voltage and another set to reverse the polarity
7. 7. Motors     If the motor is a DC motor, then it may run on anything from 96 to 192 volts If it is an AC motor, then it probably is a three-phase AC motor running at 240 volts AC with a 300 volt battery pack DC installations tend to be simpler and less expensive. A typical motor will be in the 20,000-watt to 30,000-watt range. This is great for short bursts of acceleration. The only limitation is heat build-up in the motor AC motors and controllers often have a regeneration feature. During braking the motor turns into a generator and delivers power back to the batteries
8. 8. Some interesting statistics      The range is about 50 miles (80 km) The 0-to-60 mph time is about 15 seconds It takes about 12 kilowatt-hours of electricity to charge the car after a 50-mile trip The batteries weigh about 500 kg The batteries last three to four years
9. 9. Why a Hybrid Car?      Pure electric vehicles, while emission "free," can't go the distances or provide the same power of vehicles with internal combustion engines IC engines pollute. H.E.V.'s combine both, so the vehicle can go as far and as long as most people would want and emit only a fraction of the harmful gases The H.E.V. does this by balancing when and how each motor is used On the highway, when IC engines are at their most efficient, the I.C.E. is used For shorter, city driving trips, the electric motor is either used exclusively, or in such a manner that the I.C.E. also runs, at its peak efficiency
10. 10. Hybrid Structure  Gasoline engine - smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency  Fuel tank  Electric motor - The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries
11. 11. Hybrid Structure    contd.. Generator - The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids Batteries - The batteries are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them Transmission - The transmission performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car
12. 12. Basic Geometry-parallel 3 & 5 engaged
13. 13. Solenoid & Overrunning clutch     solenoid clutch #1 controls the connection between the I.C.E. and the generator solenoid clutch #2 controls the connection between the I.C.E. and the transmission overrunning clutch #3 controls the connection between the I.C.E. and the system overrunning clutches #4 & 5 control the connections between the electric motors and the system.
14. 14. Basic Geometry-parallel 4 & 5 engaged
15. 15. Basic Geometry-parallel 2,3, 4 & 5 engaged
16. 16. Battery charging All engaged
17. 17. Regeneration 1 & 2 engaged
18. 18. Basic Geometry-series
19. 19. Powered by fuel cells What is a Fuel Cell?   Is an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity A battery has all of its chemicals stored inside, and it converts those chemicals into electricity too. This means that a battery eventually "goes dead" and you either throw it away or recharge it