Eia of clp jhajjar


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Eia of clp jhajjar

  1. 1. Environmental Assessment Report Summary Environmental Impact Assessment Project Number: 42933 January 2009 India: Jhajjar Thermal Power Project Prepared by Jhajjar Power Limited for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) The summary environmental impact assessment is a document of the Borrower. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s Board of Directors, management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature.
  2. 2. CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS (as of 30 December 2008) Currency Unit Re1.00 $1.00 – = = Rupee (Re/Rs) $ 0.0205503 Rs. 48.661 ABBREVIATIONS AAS ADB APCPL ATPP BOD BOO CaCO3 CCL CDM CHP CLP PIPL CO CO2 COC COD DM DO EIA EP ESP F FD FGD GLC HC HPGCL HVPNL IAS ID IS ISCST JLN JPL JTPP LNG MECON – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – atomic absorption spectrophotometer Asian Development Bank Aravali Power Company Private Limited Aravali Thermal Power Plant biochemical oxygen demand build, own, and operate calcium carbonates Central Coalfields Limited Clean Development Mechanism coal handling and processing CLP Power India Private Limited carbon monoxide carbon dioxide cycles of concentration chemical oxygen demand demineralized dissolved oxygen environmental impact assessment environmental protection electrostatic precipitators fluoride forced draft flue gas desulfurization ground level concentration hydrocarbon Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited Haryana Power Vitaran Nigam Limited Indian Administrative Services induced draft Indian Standard (Bureau of Indian Standards) industrial source complex short term Jawahar Lal Nehru Jhajjar Power Limited Jhajjar Thermal Power Project liquid natural gas MECON Limited (formerly Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (India) Limited) a Government of India public sector undertaking under the Ministry of Steel
  3. 3. MoEF NAAQS NOx pH PLF PM PPAH RO RPM SEIA SHE SO2 SPM SPV SSC TSP TSS – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Ministry of Environment and Forests National Ambient Air Quality Standards oxides of nitrogen potential of hydrogen plant load factor particulate matter Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook reverse osmosis respirable particulate matter summary environmental impact assessment safety, health, and environment sulfur dioxide suspended particulate matter special purpose vehicle submerged scrapper conveyor total suspended particulates total suspended solids WEIGHTS AND MEASURES o C dB(A) GWh ha kcal/kg km m m3 m3/hr m/s m3/s mg/kg mg/l MPa mtpa MW ppm ppt t tpd tph µg/m3 µS/cm – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – degrees Celsius decibel acoustic (A-weighted) gigawatt hour hectare kilocalories per kilogram kilometer meter cubic meter cubic meters per hour meters per second cubic meter per second milligrams per kilogram milligrams per liter megapascals metric tons per annum megawatt parts per million parts per thousand tons tons per day tons per hour micrograms per cubic meter micro Siemens per centimeter
  4. 4. NOTES (i) The fiscal year (FY) of the Government and its agencies ends on 31 March. FY before a calendar year denotes the year in which the fiscal year starts, e.g., FY2008 ends on 31 March 2009. (ii) In this report, "$" refers to US dollars.
  5. 5. CONTENTS Page MAPS I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Project Facilities B. Design and Construction C. Power Plant Operations D. Land and Right-of-Way Acquisition E. Project Schedule and Contracts F. Project Management and Operations 2 2 6 7 7 8 8 III. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT A. Physical Environment B. Biological Environment C. Socio-cultural Environment 9 9 13 14 IV. ALTERNATIVES A. With and Without Project Alternatives B. Alternative Project Locations C. Alternative Fuels D. Alternative Boiler Technologies E. Alternative Cooling Systems F. Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems G. Alternative Water Resources 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 V. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES A. Physical Environment B. Biological Environment C. Socio-cultural Environment D. Induced Development E. Cumulative Impact F. Impacts of Associated Facilities 19 19 26 26 28 28 29 VI. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT A. Project Costs B. Project Socioeconomic Benefits 30 30 30 VII. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN A. Objectives and Scope of Environmental Management B. Organization for Project Environmental Management C. Mitigation Measures D. Monitoring and Evaluation Program E. Occupational Health and Safety Management F. Afforestation Program G. Ash Utilization Plan 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 VIII. PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND DISCLOSURE 33 IX. CONCLUSIONS 34
  6. 6. APPENDICES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Main Design and Operational Data of the Power Plant Methodology and Data for Ambient Air Quality - Summer Season Applicable Indian Ambient Air Quality Standards and World Bank Guidelines Summary of Noise Quality Observed and Applicable Indian Noise Standards and World Bank Guidelines Summary of Groundwater Quality Observed and Applicable Indian Standards Operating Conditions for Calculation of Emission Rates Results of Prediction of Ambient Air Quality for the Project Results of Prediction of Ambient Air Quality for the Project and the Aravali Thermal Power Project Summary of Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation Program Occupational Health and Safety Management Ash Utilization Plan Summary of Public Hearing 35 36 38 39 40 41 43 45 47 53 55 61 64
  7. 7. I. INTRODUCTION 1. Jhajjar Power Limited (JPL), a 100% subsidiary of CLP Power India Private Limited (CLP PIPL), which in turn is a 100% subsidiary of CLP Holdings, is developing the Jhajjar Thermal Power Project (JTPP). Under a reform program, the Government of the state of Haryana divided the electricity business owned by the Haryana State Electricity Board into three components: generation, transmission, and distribution. To meet the growing power and energy deficit, the Government of Haryana promoted the Project and subsequently awarded it to CLP PIPL through competitive bidding under the Electricity Act 2003 1 and standard bidding guidelines issued by the Government of India. 2. The Project comprises the construction of a supercritical 2, coal-fired power plant with a total capacity of 1,320 megawatts (MW). The plant will consist of two 660 MW units that will run on coal supplied by rail from India’s North Karanpura coal fields, which are operated by Central Coalfields Limited (CCL). The Project was awarded to CLP PIPL on a build, own, and operate (BOO) basis. Equipment sourcing through various packages has been finalized with suppliers and construction will commence in March 2009. The plant is scheduled for full commercial operation in April 2012. 3. The Project is located near Khanpur village in Jhajjar district in the state of Haryana. The site is close to the Jharli railway station on the Dadari–Rewari section of the North Western Railway (Map 1). The project site covers 494.1 hectares (ha) of low-yield agricultural land in the villages of Khanpur Khurd, Khanpur Kalan, Wazidpur, and Jharli. The project area includes 214.5 ha for plant and equipment, and a switch yard, coal handling system, and related plant; 109.3 ha for ash disposal; 137.0 ha for the greenbelt and water storage facilities; and 33.2 ha for the township. The project site is located on Jhajjar–Matanhel–Kanina district road, which is 38 kilometers (km) southwest of Jhajjar town. 4. An environmental impact assessment (EIA) for the Project was completed by MECON Limited (MECON) in January 2008 based on terms of reference approved by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) on 7 October 2007. As part of the EIA process, a public hearing was held on 29 October 2007 and further consultations were subsequently conducted in local villages. The Project received environmental clearance from MoEF on 24 April 2008 based on the EIA. An application for the alteration of the MoEF environmental clearance has been submitted to MoEF to permit the use of supercritical boiler technology. All other key clearances and permits from national and state authorities required for construction and operation have 1 2 An Act promulgated by the Government of India to consolidate laws relating to the generation, transmission, distribution, trading and use of electricity and generally for taking measures conducive to development of the electricity industry, promoting competition therein, protection of interest of consumers and supply of electricity to all areas, rationalization of electricity tariff, ensuring transparent policies regarding subsidies, promotion of efficient and environmentally benign policies, constitution of Central Electricity Authority, Regulatory Commission and establishment of Appellate Tribunal and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The boiler technology options available for large, pulverized coal-fired power plants are subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical. Subcritical plants operate at steam pressure of less than 19 megapascals, where the steam is a mix of liquid and gas, and drum-type boilers are used. Supercritical plants operate at steam pressure of more than 22.1 megapascals and use once-through boilers. The steam at 22.56 megapascals and 374.15°C is said to be in a critical state. Ultra-supercritical plants are about 2% to 3% more efficient than supercritical plants. These plants operate at even higher steam pressures of about 30 megapascals and steam temperatures of about 600°C. Supercritical technology is becoming standard practice in the power industry in developed economies for large coal-fired power plants due to a higher efficiency than subcritical technology. More than 400 supercritical plants are operating in the United States, Europe, Russia, and Japan.
  8. 8. 2 been obtained. The preliminary design was completed in November 2008 and established all of the plant’s major design parameters. Detailed project design has commenced. 5. This summary environmental impact assessment (SEIA) was prepared by JPL for use by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in accordance with ADB’s environmental and social safeguard policies and information disclosure requirements for environmental category A projects. 3 This SEIA summarizes and consolidates the major findings and recommendations presented in the EIA. The EIA is available for public review at JPL and ADB offices upon request. The SEIA will be posted on ADB’s website 120 days before consideration of the requested loan by ADB’s Board of Directors. II. A. PROJECT DESCRIPTION Project Facilities 6. The main project facilities consist of two coal-fired 660 MW units, a power house, and auxiliary facilities that include a switch yard, raw water reservoir, water pre-treatment system, demineralization plant, cooling water pump house, coal handling plant (stockpiles and unloading system), ash handling and disposal system, and a residential township for project staff. Other project facilities that will be constructed by JPL include: (i) a railway siding for transporting coal from the Jharli railway line of the North Western Railways to the power plant, and (ii) a 14 km long water supply pipeline from the Jawahar Lal Nehru (JLN) feeder canal to the project site. 7. Power transmission lines for the evacuation of power from the Project will be built, owned, and operated by Haryana Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Limited (HVPNL), a Government of Haryana-owned enterprise. The transmission lines will connect the Project to substations at Sonipat (approximately 70 km to the northeast) and Mahindergarh (approximately 50 km to the southwest). The JLN feeder canal will be raised along a 70 km section to increase its capacity to meet the Project’s water supply requirements. 1. Facilities to be Constructed by Jhajjar Power Limited 8. Power Plant. The power plant consists of two 660 MW units. Both units will have steambased, pulverized coal-fired boiler units and steam turbines and generators. Each boiler unit will comprise a boiler proper, regenerative type air heaters, and forced draft (FD) fans and induced draft (ID) fans. The boilers will have steam conditions of about 25.4 megapascals (MPa)/571ºC for main steam and 569ºC for reheat steam. Low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) burners will be used. In addition to coal, light diesel fuel oil will be used for start-up as well as flame stabilization and during low-load operation. The main plant consists of three interconnected structures: (i) boiler structures, (ii) turbine building, and (iii) an integrated control and electrical building. Figure 1 illustrates the process flow of the Project. 9. Electrostatic Precipitators. Each steam generating unit will be provided with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with parallel gas paths. Each path will consist of a number of fields in a series for the collection of fly ash. The ESPs will have a dust collection efficiency of not less than 99.91%, while firing coal with the highest ash content (34.00%). 3 As per ADB’s Environmental Assessment Guidelines, projects in environmental category A are those that could result in significant adverse environmental impacts. An EIA report includes (i) description of the Project, (ii) description of the environment, (iii) anticipated environmental impacts and mitigation measures (iv) alternatives, (v) economic assessment, (vi) an environmental management plan that includes institutional requirements and an environmental monitoring program, (vii) public consultation and disclosure, and (viii) conclusion.
  9. 9. Figure 1: Process Flow Diagram 3
  10. 10. 4 10. Flue Gas Desulfurization Units. Each generating unit will have one limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit, including a booster fan, three de-aeration fans, four slurry recirculation pumps, one absorber tower, one emergency slurry tank (for both units), and three air compressors (for both units). The gypsum produced as a by-product of this process will be stored on site and sold to vendors for use in building materials. 11. Coal Handling and Processing System. The coal handling and processing (CHP) system will consist of two fuel streams, one operating conveyor, and one standby conveyor. Each stream will have a guaranteed capacity of 1,600 tons per hour (tph). The complete CHP equipment will be designed for simultaneous operation of both fuel streams at a capacity of 1,600 tph each. Coal will be unloaded at the plant using a wagon tipper system. Two spur rail lines with a total length of approximately 2 km will be constructed from two points on the Jharli rail line. The lines will meet and then run parallel to the Jhajjar–Matanhel–Kanina district road. The CHP system will have a crusher house with two crushers, two crushed coal storage yards, two stacker reclaimers (for crushed and stored coal reclaiming), and inter-connecting conveyors. The coal bunkers for each unit will have 16 hours aggregate storage capacity. The CHP system will also have a dust suppression and extraction system. All chutes will be lined to ensure the smooth flow and discharge of coal, and the longer operating life of the chutes. All junction towers and the crusher house will have floor cleaning chutes. 12. Cooling Water System. The power plant will have a closed-circuit cooling water system using water from the JLN feeder canal. The Project’s total water requirement is 120,000 cubic meters per day (m3/day). The cooling water cycle of concentration (COC) will be maintained at five to maximize water reuse. Chlorine or hypochlorite dosing will be undertaken to curb organic growth. Hardness stabilizer dosing will be performed to maintain the high cooling water COC. Water use by the plant will mainly consist of cooling tower make-up water, amounting to about 81,840 m3/day. 13. Water Supply Pipeline. Water will be drawn from the JLN feeder canal about 14 km from the project site. This water will be reticulated to the plant through a 2 meter (m) diameter underground pipeline, with a pump station located near the canal offtake near Akeidi Madanpur village. The underground pipeline will be established within a 20 m wide right-of-way (10 m on either side of the centerline), traversing agricultural land owned by landholders in Akeidi Madanpur, Sunreti, Sasroli, and Jharli villages. The pump house will be located close to the JLN feeder canal. 14. Water Treatment System. Water to be consumed in power plant processes will be clarified before being used. Clarified water will mainly be used as cooling water. The balance of the clarified water will be further treated in the filtration and demineralization plant for steam raising, auxiliary cooling, service, and drinking purposes. The Project will require about 4,800 m3/day of demineralized (DM) water, 9,600 m3/day of service water, and 1,800 m3/day of drinking water for the plant and township. 15. Wastewater Management System. Most of the wastewater produced will be in the form of blowdown from the closed cooling water system. While fly ash will mainly be collected in dry form and does not normally require any water for handling, some amount of cooling tower blowdown may be used in the bottom ash handling system. A suitable recovery system is proposed to recover ash water from the ash handling system or from ash pond overflow. The recovered water will be recycled and reused. Wastewater with fine suspended particles from different areas and other effluents, such as boiler blowdown and DM plant regeneration effluent, will be neutralized and collected in a central monitoring basin. All effluent collected in the central
  11. 11. 5 monitoring basin will be treated in the clarification plant. Clarified water produced from the waste treatment plant and/or any cooling water blowdown not used for ash handling will be further treated in an ultra-filtration cum reverse osmosis (RO) module. Permeate from the RO plant will be taken to the clarified water system for reuse. Wastewater generated from the RO system will be used to irrigate the project site. 16. Access Roads. The proposed plant site is located on the Jhajjar–Matanhel–Kanina district road. The main plant access road will be about 1 km long and built from the district road to the plant. A second site road about 1.5 km in length will be constructed further south to provide access for heavy vehicles between the district road and plant. Two rail line crossings will be constructed on the district road and a local village road where the Project’s rail line crosses these roads. 17. Ash Disposal System. Ash generated by the Project will be in form of fly ash, coarse ash, and bottom ash. Fly and coarse ash will be collected in dry form and conveyed to silos for storage, then transferred in enclosed trucks for secondary use by local industries. Bottom ash will be collected in wet form and also be stored in silos for subsequent secondary use by external users to the greatest extent possible. Ash dykes will be provided on-site for the temporary storage of ash. 18. Residential Complex. During plant operation and maintenance, the Project will employ about 325 people consisting of 275 JPL staff and 50 outsourced staff. A housing complex consisting of 250 units of family accommodations and field hostels will be developed on 36.8 ha of land to provide accommodations for most company staff and some outsourced staff. 19. Site Drainage. Rainwater runoff from the plant area will be directed through lined drains, channels, and culverts into a harvesting pond. This runoff will be used for spraying the coal stockyard and landscape irrigation. Any excess rainwater during the monsoon season will overflow into a local drain. 2. Associated Facilities 20. Canal Upgrading. The JLN feeder canal upgrading works will consist of raising the bund walls by 30 centimeters (cm) over a distance of around 70 km. This will increase canal capacity by approximately 8.5 cubic meters per second (m3/s), or 300 cusecs, providing sufficient additional capacity to supply both the Project and the adjacent Aravali Thermal Power Plant (ATPP). 21. Transmission Lines. As per the power purchase agreement, 90% of the power generated by the Project will be sold to two distribution companies owned by the Government of Haryana for distribution in the state of Haryana. The balance of the power will be sold outside the state. HVPNL, the Government of Haryana-owned enterprise responsible for power transmission, will build, own, and operate the transmission lines that will connect the Project to the electricity grid. The power plant will feed electricity from a 400 kilovolt (kV) switchyard via two separate 400 kV transmission lines to the nearest feeder substations located at Sonipat and Mahendragarh. The right-of-way of each transmission line will be 35 m wide (17.5 m on either side of the centerline) and 120 km in length.
  12. 12. 6 B. Design and Construction 1. Design 22. The Project is being designed in accordance with international standards for supercritical steam power plants. The design of support facilities and associated works is in accordance with appropriate national and international standards. The plant design will cope with local seismic conditions. The Project is located in seismic zone III 4 as per IS: 1893 (part-I):2002, for which a basic horizontal co-efficient of 0.04 is considered. 23. The plant site ranges from relatively flat to slightly undulating and will require nominal filling and grading to achieve the proposed final level of about 226 m above mean sea level. Fill material will be derived from excavation of the on-site, raw water reservoir. 24. The design life of the plant will be at least 30 years. Civil works, structures, and foundations will be designed for a life exceeding 45 years. Equipment for units 1 and 2 will be arranged in a slide along configuration and not in a mirror image. The station layout and the operability of equipment will require a station operation and maintenance staff team of around 275 persons, excluding contracted laborers. 25. The general arrangement and layout of the plant has been designed to ensure convenient access to the equipment for operation and maintenance. All valves, gates, dampers, and other devices will be located and oriented in such a way that they are easily accessible from the operating floor level wherever possible. Platforms and walkways with access ladders will be provided to facilitate access for operation and maintenance. The main plant will include a turbine house, de-aerator bay, bunker bay, and boiler house. The rating and frame size of the equipment will be consistent with plant requirements and will provide sufficiently-redundant plant and design margins in accordance with industry best practices. Appendix 1 provides a summary of the main design and operational data of the Project. 2. Construction 26. The site requires filling and grading to establish the final landform. Site soils consist of sandy to sandy loam topsoil and subsoil, which will require that excavation be undertaken with bulldozers and excavators. Site leveling will use all excess soil produced from excavation with no additional soil brought onto the site from outside sources. 27. Civil works will involve construction of the main power plant and auxiliary facilities and buildings, the water supply pipeline from the JLN feeder canal, two plant access roads, and two rail lines. Mechanical and electrical works will include both on-site and off-site fabrication, assembly, installation, and erection of power plant equipment, pollution control equipment including FGD units and the chimney structure, demineralization plant, control system, power system, and various utility systems. 28. Construction will require between 2,000 and 4,000 skilled and unskilled workers. Construction workers will be engaged by contractors responsible for different construction packages. The power supply for construction will be provided by a single 33 kV distribution line 4 An area classed as seismic zone III can experience earthquakes of such intensity that structures and or buildings of good design and construction suffer slight damage, while poorly designed or built structures or buildings suffer considerable damage. The intensity of an earthquake on the Modified Merecalli Intensity is VII for seismic zone III.
  13. 13. 7 of about 6 MVA rating from Bahu substation, which is located about 3 km from the site. Construction water will be sourced through authorized vendors and from groundwater sources prior to the operation of the plant water supply pipeline. C. Power Plant Operations 29. Coal Supply and Transport. Coal will be supplied from the North Karanpura coalfields in Jharkhand state. These fields are owned and operated by CCL, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited, which is a Government of India-owned enterprise. Coal will be transported from the coalfields to the plant in open-top coal wagons by Indian Railways. Coal handling will be designed to operate throughout the year from CCL. As per MoEF guidelines, the coal will have a maximum ash content of 34%. The average gross calorific value of coal is expected to be 3,800 kilocalories per kilogram (kcal/kg). Daily coal consumption, based on average gross calorific value, is estimated to be 16,164 tons (5.9 million tons per year at 87% average plant load factor [PLF]). 30. Fuel Oil Transport and Storage. The light diesel fuel oil that will be used for boiler startup, flame stabilization, and low-load operation will be transported to the site in road tankers from refineries in either Panipat or Mathura. The light diesel fuel oil will be pumped into storage tanks at the plant using unloading pump sets. Annual light diesel fuel oil consumption is estimated to be 20,000 m3. 31. Ash Transport and Storage. The ash handling system will be designed for a coal consumption load of 857 tons per hour (t/h). This volume of coal usage will produce up to 291 t/h of ash based on an ash content of 34%. The ash will consist of bottom ash (20%), coarse ash (10%), and fly ash (70%). The ash handling system will have 10% additional capacity in excess of the anticipated maximum ash generation rate to provide sufficient capacity to handle a higher load. 32. Bottom Ash. A submerged scrapper conveyor facility will collect and transfer bottom ash from the furnace via a conveyor to the storage silo. Bottom ash will be dewatered then provided to off-site users or transported by covered dump truck to the ash yard for disposal. 33. Fly Ash. The ash handling system associated with the ESPs will collect fly ash from the economizer hopper and ESP hoppers. Fly ash from these separate locations will be transferred to the fly ash silo by a dry pneumatic vacuum. Suitable capacity will be provided to store the fly ash in dry form. Stored dry fly ash will either be loaded into the covered trucks of off-site users or watered and transferred to the ash yard for disposal. 34. Water Abstraction and Irrigation. About 120,000 m3/day of water will be drawn from the JLN feeder canal and pumped to the site via the 2 m diameter underground pipeline on a 16-day cycle. Water will be stored in the 1.50 million m3 raw water storage tank on site, which will be adequate to supply the plant for 20 days. Cooling water blowdown will be treated and partially reused in plant processes, with the remaining portion used to irrigate the greenbelt and other onsite plantings. D. Land and Right-of-Way Acquisition 35. The Project requires 494.1 ha of land for the main plant area, ash disposal pond, and residential complex, plus an additional 27.8 ha for the water supply pipeline and rail line right-ofways. Table 1 summarizes the land areas required for project implementation and the current
  14. 14. 8 owners of this land. Land acquisition is occurring in accordance with the Land Acquisition Act 1894 5 and is due to be finalized in December 2008. Table 1: Project Land Areas and Ownership Facility Main plant area,* ash pond, and residential complex Rail line easement Pipeline easement Total Village Khanpur Khurd Khanpur Kalan Jharli Wazidpur Sub-total Jharli Railway line to plant JLN feeder canal to plant Area (ha) 258.1 172.0 51.0 13.0 494.1 3.8 24.0 521.9 Ownership/ Type of Land Private (revenue & Panchayat land) Private (revenue land) Private (revenue land) Private (revenue land) Private (revenue land) Private (revenue land) *Transmission line right-of-way for the power evacuation from the project site will be the responsibility of HVPNL (a Government of Haryana-owned enterprise) JLN = Jawahar Lal Nehru, ha = hectare. Sources: Section 6 Notification released for the Project under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 and the Census of India, 2001; Consultations with representatives of project proponents and the community. E. Project Schedule and Contracts 36. The design and construction of the Project will involve a number of contract packages implemented by reputable international and local companies with proven experience. The contracts will be negotiated on a fixed-price, time-certain basis. The first unit is scheduled to be commissioned 42 months after the issuance of the letter of intent, which was issued on 23 July 2008, while the second unit will be commissioned within 46 months from the same date. 37. Construction management will be the responsibility of JPL. The project management company will be supported by the owner’s engineer and other consultants in finalizing the design and overseeing construction. F. Project Management and Operations 38. JPL will be responsible for ensuring full implementation of the environmental management plan (EMP) during project construction and operation, while each contractor will be responsible for complying with the EMP. During construction, the Project will have a Safety, Health, and Environment (SHE) Department consisting of experienced engineers and staff whose primary responsibility will be to facilitate a culture of safety and environmental concern among the Project’s workforce. Professionals within the SHE Department will establish a management system that includes regular checks to maintain safe working conditions at the site. Drills will be carried out to check the preparedness and adequacy of the SHE management system. Regular reports will be produced highlighting SHE statistics and activities to promote responsible workplace management. 5 The Land Acquisition Act (1894), as amended, enables the State to acquire private land for public purpose and has provisions for acquisition for industrial purposes. The Act ensures that no person is deprived of land except under law and entitles affected persons (landowner, tenant or licensee) to a hearing before acquisition, with due and adequate compensation made thereafter. The Act deals with cash compensation and provides several methods of valuing compensation.
  15. 15. 9 39. The station manager will be responsible for the power station during plant operation. He will be supported by three general managers. The head of the SHE Department will lead all SHE initiatives. He will be supported by experienced engineers, chemists, and other staff. Safety engineers will conduct risk analysis and regular checks and drills to ensure safe working conditions for all activities undertaken at the project site. III. A. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT Physical Environment 1. Overview of the Project Area 40. The Project is located on a flat-to-gently-undulating rural site. There are no settlements on the site, although a number of villages and larger rural communities are situated within 10 km of the site. (The Project study area is defined in the EIA.) The nearest villages are Khanpur Khurd, Khanpur Kalan, Jharli, and Wazidpur. The site is far from major towns, located 38 km from Jhajjar and 90 km from Delhi. The site is also distant from sensitive sites such as national parks, biosphere reserves, and historic and cultural sites (Table 2). The nearest sensitive site is the Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary, located 18 km to the northeast. There are no reserve forests located within 10 km of the project site and nearest protected forest is located about 9.5 km southeast of the site. Table 2: Significant Local and Regional Sites and Features Significant Feature National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Cultural or Historical Site Reservoir Irrigation Tank Power Plant Nearest Major Religious Site Location Sariska National Park Keoladeo National Park (World Heritage site) Sambhar Lake (Ramsar site) Bindawas Wildlife Sanctuary Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary Jahazgarh Fort Qutab Minar (World Heritage site) Humayun’s Tomb (World Heritage site) Red Fort, Delhi Fethpur Sekri (World Heritage site) Agra Fort (World Heritage site) Taj Mahal (World Heritage site) Tank at Surajgarh Sahibi Nadi (river) Aravali Thermal Power Plant, Jhajjar (3 x 500 MW), under construction Navada Koh combined cycle gas plant, Badkhal, Faridabad (3 x 360 MW), under construction Indraprastha Power Plant Badarpur Power Plant Panipat Power Plant Shheetla Devi Mandir, Gurgaon Lal ki Masjid, Hissar Chattarpur temple, Delhi E = east, N = north, S = south, W = west. Source: JPL research (unpublished). Distance (km) Bearing from Project 120 183 200 18 55 20 90 95 95 190 220 220 16 45 S SE SW NE E NNE E ENE ENE SE SE SE NE E 1 E 90 SE 90 95 120 55 60 80 ENE E NE ESE NW ENE
  16. 16. 10 2. Climate 41. The climate of the project area, based on meteorological data from the Indian Meteorological Department station at Gurgaon, located 60 km east of the site, is categorized as sub-tropical, semi-arid monsoon with four distinct seasons: (i) summer from March to June; (ii) wet monsoon (southwest monsoon) from July to September; (iii) post-monsoon from October to November; and (iv) winter from December to February. Temperatures during the year vary from 1.1°C in January to 45.8°C in May. 42. Rainfall comes primarily during the southwest monsoon (from July to September). The mean annual rainfall at Gurgaon is 743.4 millimeters (mm), with an average of 34.8 days of rain occurring each year during the period 1965–1980. The predominant wind directions are from the west and northwest, with calm conditions prevailing 22% of the time. Seasonal prevailing wind directions are: (i) summer - west, northwest, and southwest; (ii) monsoon - southeast, east, west, and northeast; (iii) post-monsoon - west, northwest, and southwest; and (iv) winter - west, northwest, and southwest. 43. Local climatic conditions were monitored at Sasrauli village for three months from April to June 2007 (Table 3). The predominant wind directions during the monitoring period were from the west and northwest. Winds from the east and southeast increase in prevalence during the night. Calm conditions are more prevalent during the night than during the day. Table 3: Wind Speeds and Temperature at Sasrauli Village Parameter Wind Speed (m/s) Temperature (°C) Relative Humidity (%) Rainfall (mm) Number of Rain Days Maximum 9.0 47.0 95.0 42.0 15.0 Average 2.1 35.4 42.0 – – Minimum – 20.0 15.0 – – O C = degree Celsius, m/s = meters per second. Data represents summer season (April to June 2007). Source: EIA/EMP Report for 1,320 MW Thermal Power Plant, Jhajjar, Haryana. January 2008. 3. Drainage 44. The drainage pattern in the project area is poorly defined due to flat terrain and a sandy upper layer of soil. The area grades towards the northeast in the direction of the Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary to form part of the Sahibi river basin. The elevation of the project site varies between 220 m and 232 m. The highest point in the project area is at an elevation of 241 m to the north of the site, with the lowest point being 220 m on the southern side of the site. 4. Geology and Hydrogeology 45. The area forms part of the Indo Gangetic alluvial plain and is capped with aeolian deposits. These deposits have led to the formation of sift layers that act as caps on the formations and reduce the permeability of the soil. Soils in the region, including the Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh blocks, are sandy loam in texture, while soils in the study area mainly consist of silt and kankar (gravel).
  17. 17. 11 46. The area can be categorized as recent aeolian deposits comprising clay, sand, and kankar-mixed formations. Groundwater occurs in an unconfined aquifer at depths of between 3.0 m and 31.5 m, depending upon surface elevation and the level of groundwater harvesting. The groundwater gradient is towards the east. 5. Ambient Air Quality 47. Ambient air quality was monitored at ten locations within the study area (within a 10 km radius of the project site) during April–June 2007. Sampling sites were selected based on the outcome of the screening model, MoEF guidelines pertaining to upwind and downwind sampling, topography, local habitation, and site accessibility. The location of sampling sites, the sampling method, and results are summarized in Appendix 2. Air quality values for suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable particulate matter (RPM) exceeded the norms for residential, rural, and other areas at all locations during the summer monitoring period (Table 4). High SPM and RPM levels occurred due to strong winds that generated dust storms during the summer sampling period when airborne dust levels are usually highest. Strong winds and dry soils during summer are common in this northern part of India, leading to localised high levels of particulate matter prior to the onset of the monsoon. The significant agricultural activity and harvesting season that precedes the monsoon also contributes to air borne dust. In addition, sampling occurred when major earthworks were underway on the adjacent ATPP site, thus contributing to the high levels of SPM. Accordingly, the average SPM level over 12 months is expected to be considerably lower than the levels recorded during the monitored period. Levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx were well within the norms for residential, rural, and other areas as per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and World Bank guidelines (Appendix 3). Background air quality monitoring will be extended across all seasons to provide more comprehensive baseline data, involving monitoring air quality at the original sampling sites for one year, commencing in February 2009. Table 4: Summary of Ambient Air Quality (April to June 2007) (μg/m3) Value SPM RPM SO2 NOX Minimum 105.0 58.0 1.0 4.0 Maximum 385.0 153.0 9.3 38.0 Average Range 212.8–309.0 89.0–123.0 2.0–4.0 11.2–23.4 th 283.5–384.5 112.9–148.6 3.5–8.2 16.6–33.9 th 281.5–381.6 112.8–146.7 3.4–6.7 15.0–33.0 98 Percentile Range 95 Percentile Range CO = carbon monoxide, NOX = oxides of nitrogen, RPM = respirable particulate matter, SO2 = sulfur dioxide, SPM = 3 suspended particulate matter, μg/m = microgram per cubic meter. Source: HPGCL baseline data as collected by MECON Limited for summer season 2007; EIA/EMP Report for 1,320 MW Thermal Power Plant at Jhajjar, Haryana. MECON Limited, 2008. 6. Noise 48. Ambient noise monitoring was carried out at five locations surrounding the plant site. Noise levels were measured using a precision noise level meter on an hourly basis for 24 hours. The monitored average noise levels on rural and residential areas around the project site varied from 46.8 to 54.4 decibel acoustic (dB[A]) during the day and 40.1 to 43.6 dB(A) at night. Monitored noise levels were within the NAAQS prescribed limits for locations near villages, except near the Jharli Railway Station. Recorded day time noise levels near the station averaged
  18. 18. 12 60 dB(A), which exceeded the prescribed norm of 55 dB(A), while night time noise levels averaged 46.1 dB(A), which marginally exceeded the prescribed limit of 45 dB(A). These high noise levels were attributed to train movements and other commercial activities near the station. The monitored noise levels for residential areas were within the NAAQS prescribed limits as indicated in Appendix 4. 7. Water Resources 49. Surface Water. The area surrounding the project site has no surface bodies of water except branch irrigation channels from the JLN feeder canal. The only surface water sample collected was from the JLN feeder canal, which is the proposed water source for the Project located more than 10 km east of the project site. 50. Groundwater. Nine groundwater samples were collected from the villages of Mohanbari, Khanpur Kalan, Jhamri, Khorra, Bahu, Sasrauli, Lilah, Goria, and Jhanswa. The results were compared with Bureau of Indian Standards for Drinking Water as specified in code IS:10500, 1991 (Appendix 5). Analysis results of the groundwater samples for total hardness, dissolved solids, chloride, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, and nitrate exceeded the desirable levels and permissible limits at Mohanbari (3.5 km from the site), while values for these parameters also exceeded the desirable limits at Khanpur Kalan (1.5 km), Khorra (2.5 km), and Goria (4 km). The pH of all groundwater samples exceeded the desirable alkaline limits. The values for other parameters for the collected samples were within the prescribed norms. 8. Land Use 51. Land use on the plant site and within a 10 km radius of the site was assessed based on satellite image interpretation and site visits (Table 5). Land use in the local area is dominated by agriculture. The project site is mainly used for grazing due to the poor soils and limited rainfall. The occasional crop is grown on small areas of the site when rainfall permits. The major crop grown in the area is wheat, with pulses, guvar, bajra, and gowar making up most of the remaining cropping. The main crops grown on the project site are bajra and gowar. The main type of livestock raised include buffaloes, goats, and sheep. No major industry exists in the study area except the adjacent ATPP, which is under construction. Table 5: Land Use Classification Project Area Land Use Class Agriculture and fallow land Open land Plantation, kikar, scrub Classified forests Built-up area (settlement) Body of water Proposed industrial use (ATPP) Total km2 2.50 2.30 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.94 % 50.6 46.5 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 ATPP = Aravali Thermal Power Plant, km = kilometer, km2 = square kilometer. Source: ERM India Private Limited (ERM). Area Within 10 km Radius km2 191.29 104.64 5.14 0.24 4.29 0.29 9.03 314.92 % 60.7 33.2 1.6 0.1 1.4 0.1 2.9 100.0
  19. 19. 13 9. Soil 52. Soil samples were collected from five locations near the project site: southwest, northeast, and at Khanpur Kalan, Goria, and Jhamri villages. The pH of these samples varied from 7.0 to 7.6 (neutral to slightly alkaline). Electrical conductivity varied from 832 to 2,154 micro Siemens per centimeter (µs/cm), with the samples from the Project site between 2,140 and 2,154 µs/cm. Organic carbon content in the soil varied from 0.20% (low) to 0.55% (medium). Nitrogen varied from 193-688 kilograms per ha (kg/ha), in the range of low to high. The higher level of nitrogen appeared to be due to fertilizer application. Available phosphorus was medium to high, while available potassium was low to medium. The micronutrients copper, zinc, and iron were in the range of 0.32 to 0.43 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 0.51 to 0.65 mg/kg, and 4.62 to 5.55 mg/kg, respectively, which indicates that the area is adequate for plant growth. B. Biological Environment 1. Terrestrial Environment 53. A survey of the local biological environment was conducted in the summer in 2007 and supplemented by an additional survey in early September 2008. The area has a dry to semi-arid climate with a few scattered trees and sparse shrubby vegetation. The nearest protected area is the Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary, located approximately 18 km northeast of the project site. The Nahad Protected Forest is located about 9.5 km southeast of the site. 54. Flora. According to the Champion and Seth Classification System for Indian Forests 6, native vegetation in the area is Desert Thorn Scrub (Type 6B/C1). Forest and scrub patches are dominated by thorny, hard-wooded tree species, mainly Acacia, with relatively short boles and low, branching crowns that rarely meet to form a canopy. Trees and bushes tend to occur in clumps, with bare areas of ground in between. The most common tree species included Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria. Other forest species included Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica, Balanites aegyptica, Calotropis procera, Capparis sp., Crotalaria burhia, Holoptelea integrifolia, Salvadora oleoides, Tephrosia purpurea and Zizyphus nummularia. Common herbs associated with grasslands included Abutilon indicum, Achyranthes aspera, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia obtusifolia, Chenopodium album, Corchorus species, Crotolaria medicaginea, Indigofera species, and Vernonia cinerea. 55. Fauna. The most commonly-sighted bird species in the study area was the Eurasian collared dove. Green bee-eaters and common mynas were seen at many locations. Red-wattled lapwings were sighted around most bodies of water, while rose-ringed parakeets and ashy prinias were sighted around forested areas. The Indian peafowl, a Schedule I species 7, was also frequently spotted. 56. Rhesus macaques, squirrels, mongoose, and garden lizards were sighted in the study area. Desert cat, caracal, Indian wolf, desert fox, chinkara, blackbuck, Indian pangolin, and ratel, which all fall under the Schedule I category, were also reported in the study area. Black-naped 6 7 Forest types of India have been classified by Champion and Seth (1968) in six major groups based on climatic factors. These major groups have been further divided into 16 type groups based on temperature and moisture. A few of these type groups have been further divided into several subgroups and ecologically stable communities. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 as amended in 2002 provide protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with a view to ensuring the ecological and environmental security of the country. The Act covers six schedules. Schedules I to V provide protection for animal species, while Schedule VI provides protection for plant species.
  20. 20. 14 hares, Neelgai, and deer were reported by villagers to be present in local fields. Insects observed at the project site included varieties of butterflies, grass yellow dragonflies, and damselflies in a range of micro-habitats. C. Socio-cultural Environment 57. Population. The four villages of Matanhel tehsil, where land has been acquired for the Project, have a total population of about 8,000 and a combined area of 29 km2. The average household size is six and the population density is 275 persons per km2. The majority of local people (75%) belong to the Hindu Jat community, followed by Brahmins, Scheduled Castes, and the Backward Class. There are no Scheduled Tribes in these four villages or in Jhajjar district. The female literacy rate (28%–34%) is much lower than the male literacy rate (60%–65%). Most youth are educated up to Class X or XII level, but very few take up higher studies or vocational education. 58. Social Infrastructure and Services. The electricity supply in local villages is poor. The local drinking water supply is adequate with respect to volume, but the quality of the water is poor. Most villages rely upon bore water for domestic supply, with some small towns reticulating water from canals for domestic use. Basic social infrastructure and services—including schools, health and medical services, access roads, post and telephone services, and public transportation—are all accessible within 3 km to 5 km of the villages. The settlement pattern in nearby villages is guided by the caste system. There are separate settlements for higher (Jats, Brahmins) and lower (Harijans) castes. Facilities are better in the higher caste settlements compared to lower caste villages. Most local dwellings are pucca houses (i.e. brick and cement mortar walls with a concrete roof supported on reinforced cement concrete columns or girder and roof slabs). 59. Economy and Employment. The main source of income and livelihood in the local area is agriculture, principally cropping. Major agricultural crops grown for consumption and sale are wheat, pulses, guvar, bajri, and jowar. Livestock rearing is also an important activity, primarily for household consumption, with buffaloes, goats, and sheep being common. Employment opportunities outside agriculture are limited, with no industry in the immediate area apart from around 100 brick kilns in the broader locality (within the local airshed, defined as a 25 km radius from the project site). Landless Harijans mostly work as agricultural laborers on land owned by Jats. The local wage rate was reported to be in the range of Rs135–150 per day. However, work is only available for 5–6 months per year during the agricultural season. During the remainder of the year, laborers mainly migrate to the nearby industrial areas of Bahadurgarh, Najafgarh, and Delhi for employment in industry (e.g., factories and brick kilns) and construction. 60. Historic and Religious Sites. No major historic or religious sites are located on or in the vicinity of the project site. Small temples are located in most villages near the project site, but these features are not regionally significant. Jahazgarh Fort, an important tourist site and the venue of an annual cattle fair, is located about 20 km northeast of the project site. IV. A. ALTERNATIVES With and Without Project Alternatives 61. The “without project” option would see a continuation of the current power supply shortage in the northern region. While India’s generation and distribution capacity grew significantly over the last decade, many parts of the country continue to suffer power shortages,
  21. 21. 15 both in terms of unmet demand during peak periods and an overall energy shortage. This has largely been the result of high economic growth and the subsequent demand it places on the power supply. The annual deficit in peak power demand for the northern region was 3,040 MW as of August 2008. 8 The total installed generation capacity available in the state of Haryana was 4,668 MW 9, of which 2,188 MW was provided by the Panipat and Faridabad thermal power plants, and the Yamuna Nagar hydroelectric station. The available capacity varies between 2,500 MW to 3,300 MW during different seasons depending upon the river flows at hydropower plants and the planned and forced outages of generators. Some generating capacity is relatively old and realized plant load factors are on the low side. Electricity demand varies from 2,800 MW to 5,000 MW across different seasons and during peak and off-peak hours. Demand in Haryana is increasing at more than 14% per year due to industrialization, and greater consumption by the agricultural sector and the national capital region. Power availability from the above-mentioned projects is not sufficient to meet demand in the state of Haryana, particularly during the peak paddy and rabi crop seasons. 62. The Project seeks to close the electricity supply–demand gap. With the installation of the 1,320 MW power plant and the adjacent 1,500 MW Aravali project (assuming that 50% of the power produced by this project is supplied to Haryana state and 50% is supplied to Delhi), there would still be an electricity supply shortfall of about 1,250 MW in the state of Haryana in fiscal year (FY) 2011. The alternative without the Project is undesirable since an even greater power shortage would further constrain economic growth and reduce the rate of poverty reduction. B. Alternative Project Locations 63. The Government of Haryana selected the Project’s location based on a range of factors. The underlying prerequisite for plant sighting was locating the Project in Haryana state to help meet local demand and minimize the cost of electricity production. The grid system in India is mainly owned and operated by state governments and integrated at the regional and central levels. The transfer of power from one state to another is done at a significant cost. The Project was conceived to avoid these costs and provide stable base load power, and to ensure that the Haryana state grid has additional capacity to meet electricity demand and sustain independent operations. 64. The Jhajjar locality was selected for the project site based on its proximity to load centers, availability of the transmission grid, ease of coal transport, land quality and availability, setback from major urban centers for air quality purposes, and a reliable longterm water supply. 65. The plant needs to be located as close as possible to regional demand centers to reduce power losses during transmission and to stabilize the grid. The availability of the transmission grid system in proximity to the plant allows for the cost-effective export of energy from the plant. Two substations located at Mahenderharh and Sonipat, 50 km and 70 km from the project site, respectively, provide close grid connection points for power evacuation. 66. Coal deposits in India are mainly located in the southeast, in the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh. The northern states are generally removed 8 9 Source: Power Scenarios at Glance, September 2008 by Central Electricity Authority (http://www.cea.nic.in/). Source Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited (http://www.hpgcl.org/html/power_supply_position.htm).
  22. 22. 16 from coal deposits and ports for imported coal, which results in coal having to be transported over long distances. Indian Railways has major trunk routes for the movement of raw materials, including from the coal-bearing regions of the southeast to the northern states, which will provide a cost effective means of transporting coal to the Project. Accordingly, the Project needs to be located in close proximity to an existing rail line to ensure that coal transport is economic. 67. Lower-quality agricultural land is preferred for the plant site so that land use conversion does not substantially reduce local agricultural production. Lower-value land is also more likely to be available for purchase. A reliable, large-scale water supply is essential for the Project’s operation. Water from the state of Haryana‘s quota has been allocated to the Project, and the existing JLN feeder canal will be upgraded to provide additional capacity to handle the additional water supply. 68. Four alternative project sites were considered in the selected locality: (i) near Khanpur Kalan, Khora, and Jhamri villages, 5 km from the Jharli railway station; (ii) near Khanpur Khurd, Khanpur Kalan, Wazidpur, and Jharli villages, 1.5 km from the Jharli railway station; (iii) near Jhanswa, Ladain, Humayaupur, and Jamalpur villages, on the left-hand side of the Jhajjar–Bahu –Jholri–Mohindergarh state highway, within 10 km of the Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary; and (iv) near Slawas Amboli, Bithla, and Bhurawas villages, within 10 km of the Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary. Site (ii) was selected because it is removed from major settlements, consists of lowquality agriculture land with almost no tree cover, is located only 1.5 km from an existing rail line, and is 18 km away from the Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary. Sites (iii) and (iv) comprise higher-quality agriculture land, while site (i) is 5 km from the rail line. 69. At present, there are no operating power plants located near the project site, although the adjacent ATPP is under construction. The project site is removed from major urban areas: approximately 40 km from Rewari, 55 km from Bahadurgarh, 80 km from Gurgaon, and 90 km from Delhi. C. Alternative Fuels 70. Large scale baseload energy production in Haryana state requires a conventional mode of power generation. Large scale hydropower sites for baseload power generation are either under development or being considered. As a result, new sites are not available in the state. Wind energy is location-specific and cannot provide reliable baseload power or large scale supply. Natural gas and oil use entails cost and supply reliability issues. Natural gas transport requires a large capital investment in infrastructure. For example, the recent natural gas discoveries in Andhra Pradesh would require over 1,500 km of pipeline to supply the Project, which would make a dedicated pipeline uneconomic. In addition, significant demand exists for gas from other consumers located close to the source. The option of importing liquid natural gas into India, including re-gasification and transportation to site, would be cost prohibitive as the site is located more than 1,100 km from the nearest sea port. 71. The only other feasible fuel options are coal and nuclear energy. Coal is preferred to nuclear energy due to its shorter gestation period, lower cost, and relative safety. Large scale nuclear power generation is not present in India as this sector faces strategic and fuel availability issues. Coal is the more cost-effective fuel for generating electricity even though it has a higher pollution potential than alternative fuels such as natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear.
  23. 23. 17 D. Alternative Boiler Technologies 72. The boiler technology options available for large, pulverized coal-fired power plants are subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical. Subcritical plants, considered “business-asusual” in India, operate at steam pressure of less than 19 megapascals, where the steam is a mix of liquid and gas, and drum-type boilers are used. Supercritical plants operate at steam pressure of more than 22.1 megapascals and use once-through boilers. The steam at 22.56 megapascals and 374.15°C is said to be in a critical state. At a critical point, the density of water and steam are the same. Further latent heat at this point is zero, which means there is no steam–water mixed phase and boilers operating under critical parameters do not have a boiler drum that separates steam from water. Ultra-supercritical plants are about 2% to 3% more efficient than supercritical plants. These plants operate at even higher steam pressures of about 30 megapascals and steam temperatures of about 600°C. 73. Supercritical technology is becoming standard practice in the power industry in developed economies for large coal-fired power plants due to a higher efficiency than subcritical technology. The lifecycle costs of supercritical plants are lower than those of subcritical plants. A supercritical plant costs about 2% more than a subcritical plant to install, while fuel costs are considerably lower due to the increased efficiency and operating costs. Supercritical plants have lower emissions than subcritical plants per unit of electricity generated. A 1% increase in efficiency reduces the specific emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulates, and carbon dioxide by 2.5%–3.0%. More than 400 supercritical plants are operating in the United States, Europe, Russia, and Japan. 74. The use of ultra-supercritical technology is also an option for the Project and would provide the highest coal combustion efficiency and lowest emission rate of the three alternative boiler technologies. Ultra-supercritical plants have been constructed in countries such as Denmark, Germany, Japan, and the United States to utilize high-quality coal. The installation of ultra-supercritical plants has not been widespread in developing countries, and as yet no such plants operate on low-quality coal similar to those found in India. The use of this technology in India is constrained by: (i) higher capital costs; (ii) limited suppliers for the boiler-turbinegenerator package, which restricts multi-company sourcing and the availability of spare parts; (iii) lack of local experience with the required technology; and (iv) reliability issues with respect to using Indian coal with a very high ash content. 75. Based on the above considerations, the Project has adopted supercritical boilers with a rated super heater outlet steam pressure of 25.4 megapascals, rated super heater outlet steam temperature of 571ºC, rated reheat steam pressure of 4.2 megapascals, and rated hot reheat steam temperature of 569ºC. These boilers are at the high end of supercritical technology. This technology, more expensive than subcritical plant, becomes economically viable when compared to subcritical technology if Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol carbon credits are granted for the reduction in CO2 emissions that will result. JPL is currently preparing the necessary documentation for CDM project approval to offset the additional capital cost. The cost saving gained from the reduction in coal consumption delivered by the use supercritical technology instead of subcritical plant will be fully passed on to the customer. E. Alternative Cooling Systems 76. Two cooling system alternatives were considered: (i) a closed or recirculation system and (ii) an open, or once-through, system. The closed system cools the cooling water in cooling towers before recycling it. The system discharges a portion of its water to maintain cooling water quality and requires make-up water to replenish discharged water and evaporation losses. The
  24. 24. 18 closed system will discharge about 16,400 m3/day of cooling tower blowdown when operated at five COCs, requiring about 81,840 m3/day of make-up water out of a total plant water requirement of 120,000 m3/day. The once-through system discharges the entire volume of warm cooling water into a receiving body of water, requiring 2.4 million m3/day of make-up water. 77. The closed system was selected because it has a lower lifecycle cost, is more reliable, and will meet all regulatory requirements. The closed system is also preferred because (i) in accordance with the Central Pollution Control Board’s guidelines, new thermal power plants using water from rivers, lakes, or reservoirs are required to install cooling towers irrespective of location and type of plant, (ii) five COCs will be attained, which will require considerably less water than a once-through system, (iii) cooling tower blowdown effluent will be recycled and/or reused on site after treatment, and (iv) the intake pump is much smaller since it only has to handle about 5,000 m3/hour, which is less than 7% of the volume required for the once-through system (2.4 million m3/day). F. Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems 78. The Project will generate wastewater from cooling water, boiler blowdown, water treatment plant backwash, and regenerated wastewater; and runoff from coal stockpiles and oil catch pits. The wastewater treatment options are: (i) limited treatment to meet state and national quality standards and discharge wastewater from the site into a watercourse or drain; (ii) limited treatment to meet state and national quality standards and use treated wastewater for on-site irrigation; and (iii) selective treatment of wastewater with major treatment processes to recover a large volume of treated wastewater for reuse in plant processes and for on-site irrigation. 79. Off-site discharge is not desirable because there are no established drains or welldefined watercourses. As a result, the large volume of treated wastewater that has to be discharged would cause inundation in the local area. The only option available is to reduce, reuse, and recycle wastewater within the project site. 80. The large volume of blowdown wastewater that will be produced by the Project is far greater than site irrigation requirements. To reduce the volume of wastewater and to ensure that it is of acceptable quality for irrigation, treatment will include clarification, ultra-filtration, and RO. This will recondition a major portion of the wastewater and allow it to be reused in plant processes, which will reduce raw water requirements. It will also reduce the residual volume used for irrigation to 30%, which will allow for all treated wastewater to be used on-site. G. Alternative Water Resources 81. The large scale water supply required for project operation (120,000 m3/day) could come from either of two sources: (i) groundwater, or (ii) a perennial surface water source. However, the volume of water that could be supplied by local groundwater would be inadequate to meet project operational requirements. The JLN feeder canal is the only perennial surface water source in the area, supplied from the Western Yamuna canal network. The Government of Haryana has allocated an adequate volume of water to the Project on a 16-day cycle from this source. JPL is funding improvements to the existing canal to increase capacity. Water supplies to existing users will not be altered by the allocation of water to the Project. The canal will be used alternatively for irrigation and project supply on a 16-day cycle. The Project will construct a large, on-site water storage facility with sufficient capacity to supply the plant for 20 days.
  25. 25. 19 82. The Project will treat plant effluent and collect rainwater during the monsoon season as a secondary water source. This water will be used to establish and maintain the greenbelt and other vegetation at the project site. V. A. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES Physical Environment 1. During Construction 83. Project construction has the potential to create a range of environmental impacts common to major construction sites. These impacts include air pollution, noise, runoff water quality decline, traffic, and waste generation. The majority of these impacts are short-term and restricted to the construction site. Construction environmental impacts will be minimized by implementing good management practices. 84. Air Pollution. Potential sources of air pollution during project construction are (i) dust emissions from soil disturbance and vehicle movement on unpaved roads, and (ii) exhaust emissions from diesel generators, heavy construction equipment, and vehicles. The construction’s impact on air quality will be minimized through (i) dust suppression by regularly spraying water on roads and work sites, wetting or covering stockpiles, the proper location of material stockpiles away from habitation, and covering loaded trucks during the transportation of material; (ii) use of low-emission vehicles and, wherever feasible, construction equipment powered by electricity; and (iii) maintenance of engines and use of vehicles with Pollution Under Control Certificates 10. Contractors will be required to strictly implement these measures. 85. Noise. Construction activities will generate noise from vehicle movement and the operation of heavy equipment and machinery for site preparation and facility erection. Typical noise levels produced by different sources during construction are earthmoving equipment (70– 100 dB[A]), material handling (75–98 dB[A]), and impact-based equipment 81–105 (dB[A]). Noise levels will be reduced by installing acoustic enclosures and noise barriers, and not permitting high noise activities and the movement of vehicles at night. Construction workers will be required to wear ear muffs in areas exposed to excessive noise levels. Local villages are unlikely to be disturbed by plant construction noise as they are located at least 1 km from the plant site. Some villages are located within 500 m of the water supply pipeline and railway line corridors. These communities will experience raised noise levels during pipeline laying and rail line construction, but this disturbance will be restricted to the short term and to daylight hours. 86. Traffic. The main access route to the project site is a sealed two-lane district road. Most plant equipment and construction materials will be transported to the Project along this road, with the number of loads estimated to peak at 500 per day during the 3.5 year construction period. Traffic volume on this road is currently low (about 300 vehicle movements per day). Projectrelated traffic will substantially increase the volume of road traffic, but the total volume will not be excessive. 87. Oil and Chemical Spills. The contamination of soil and groundwater from accidental spills of oil, fuels, and hazardous chemicals will be prevented by storing these materials in sealed 10 Pollution Under Control Certificates are normally issued to vehicles that satisfy the emission norms set out in the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 and amendments.
  26. 26. 20 areas with a holding capacity of at least 150% of the capacity of all liquids being stored. Measures will also be provided for fire suppression and the neutralization and collection of any spilled material. 88. Runoff. Earthmoving and other ground disturbance activities will raise the risk of erosion at the project site, primarily during the monsoon season when the majority of rainfall is received. Soil at the project site is sandy and silty, and erodes easily. Off-site sedimentation will result from soil disturbance unless appropriate measures are implemented. Erosion control measures will be implemented during construction, including the installation of temporary banks or drains to control overland runoff and the early installation of drains for rainwater. Most excavation, backfilling, and site grading will be undertaken during the dry season. Sediment will be trapped on-site using sediment fences and traps and basins, and by preventing the off-site movement of coarse material. 89. Construction Waste. A range of waste materials will be generated from construction activities, including inert materials such as metal and concrete, and hazardous materials. These waste materials will be collected, stored, and disposed of in an appropriate manner. Recyclable or reusable materials will be utilized wherever possible. Inert materials that cannot be recycled will be disposed of in a suitable landfill. Waste oil will be sold to authorized vendors approved by the Haryana State Pollution Control Board. Hazardous wastes including used or waste oil will be stored on-site in a designated area for disposal through authorized vendors. 90. Excavated Spoil. Approximately 2 million m3 of material will be excavated to create the plant’s water storage. This material will be used to fill and level the main plant area, raising the lower areas by up to 4 m, with no material being taken off site. 91. Sanitation and Hygiene. Project construction activities will engage 2,000–4,000 workers. Unskilled and semiskilled workers will primarily be sourced from the local area, while other workers will come from outside areas depending upon the skills required and those available locally. Outside workers will reside at the project site. Toilets with septic tanks will be provided in the workforce camp for the disposal of sewage. Solid waste generated by the camp will be segregated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials. All biodegradable kitchen waste will be collected and used for secondary purposes such as animal feed or composting for use as manure. Other biodegradable wastes will be collected and disposed of in on-site pits for subsequent use as manure. Cleanliness and hygiene will be maintained in the workforce camp, kitchens, and canteens. 92. Historic and Religious Sites. No major historic or religious sites are located within 20 km of the main plant site, proposed water supply, or rail easements. Local temples exist in most villages in the vicinity of the Project. Jahazgarh Fort, a historically-significant site that is a tourist destination known for an annual cattle fair, is located about 20 km to the north-northeast of the project site. 93. Other sites. Water reticulation, via the subsurface pipeline from the JLN feeder canal, requires a 20 m wide easement from the pumphouse to the plant. This easement crosses agricultural fields, minor watercourses, and the rail line. No houses exist along the proposed route. Pipeline construction will involve the removal of vegetation (mainly grasses and crops), trenching, pipe-laying, and backfilling, which will disturb about 24 ha of flat-to-slightly-undulating land. Construction activities will create a minor erosion hazard that will be controlled by minimizing vegetation clearance and site disturbance, saving and reusing topsoil, and progressive site rehabilitation to return the land to its prior agricultural land use.
  27. 27. 21 94. The two spur rail lines will meet at the plant boundary and then run parallel to the Matanhel–Jhajjar road within the project site. A 20 m wide easement is required for each line outside the main plant site, covering a total of 3.8 ha of land. The rail corridors do not cross any settlement areas. One of the lines will cross the local road where a level crossing will be constructed. Construction of the rail lines on this flat terrain will create ground disturbance, but the net impact of the civil works will be negligible. 2. During Operation 95. The main potential environmental impacts of project operation relate to air quality decline, greenhouse gas production, liquid waste effluent quality, thermal pollution from the discharge of spent cooling water, and ash disposal. The EIA assessed environmental impacts and prescribed appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that the Project’s environmental performance meets or exceeds national standards and international guidelines for coal-fired power plants. 96. Emissions. Coal combustion produces emissions of the following major pollutants: SO2; NOX; particulate matter (PM), including particulates smaller than 10 microns that are referred to as respirable particulate matter (RPM); and CO2, which is a major greenhouse gas. 11 The Project will minimize the emission of these pollutants by using advanced technology and control measures. An FGD plant will be installed to reduce SO2 emissions by approximately 90%, while coal with a low sulfur content (not exceeding 0.35%) will also help minimize these emissions. Dry-low, NOx-type coal burners will be installed to reduce NOX production. SPM emissions will be reduced to acceptable levels by the installation of ESPs with a minimum efficiency of 99.91%. The FGD unit will also help to reduce SPM emissions. 97. The Project’s emission rates will be within the limits prescribed in World Bank guidelines. SO2 will be limited to 200 milligram per normal cubic meter (mg/Nm3) and 24.5 tons per day (tpd), which are well within the World Bank guideline limits of 2,000 mg/Nm3 and 450 tpd. NOx emissions of 650 mg/ Nm3 will also be less than the limit of 750 mg/Nm3. The ESPs will limit PM concentrations in flue gases to less than 50 mg/Nm3. The expected emission rates of the plant are summarized in Table 6 and the prediction calculations are presented in Appendix 6. Table 6: Expected Emissions of the Power Plant Parameter SO2 NOX PM Expected Emission1 200 mg/Nm3 24.5 TPD (141.9 g/s per unit) 650 mg/Nm3 (461.2 g/s per unit) 50 mg/Nm3 (35.5 g/s per unit) Indian Limit2 World Bank Norm3 700 TPD 2,000 mg/Nm3 450 TPD No standard 750 mg/Nm3 100 mg/Nm3 50 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 = milligram per normal cubic meter, NOX = nitrogen oxide, PM = particulate matter, SO2 = sulfur dioxide, TPD = tons per day. Sources: JPL, unpublished; Ministry of Environment and Forests, 1998. Environmental Standards for Power Plants, MoEF New Delhi Notification G.S.R. 7; World Bank, 1998. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. Washington, DC. 11 The amount of CO2 generated by burning 5.9 million metric tons per annum of coal with 41.2% carbon content would be about 28,400 tpd.
  28. 28. 22 98. Ambient Air Quality. The Project will discharge gases through a 275 m high stack containing two flues, in compliance with the emissions requirements of MoEF. Ambient air quality was predicted using the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) model 12. The prediction was based on the emissions data in Table 6, an assumption of coal with 0.35% sulfur at 100% load and 100% conversion of sulfur into SO2 and emissions, and local meteorological conditions. The ambient air quality predictions for individual pollutants that will be emitted by the plant are given for the worst case scenario in Table 7 and in more detail in Appendix 7. The predicted incremental increase in ground level concentrations of each major pollutant is within the stipulated maximum amount indicated in the World Bank guidelines. The overall impact of the Project on ambient air quality is expected to be low. Table 7: Overall Worst Case Predicted Ground Level Concentrations In the Study Area from the Project (μg/m3) 24 Hour Concentration Baseline 98 percentile monitored concentration (maximum) SO2 NOX SPM 8.3 33.9 384.5 Predicted maximum incremental GLC 11.0 35.8 2.8 Overall GLC during worst case scenario 19.3 69.7 387.3 NAAQS limit (rural and residential) 80.0 80.0 200.0 GLC = ground level concentration, mg/Nm3 = milligram per normal cubic meter, NAAQS = National Ambient Air 3 Quality Standards, NOX = nitrogen oxide, SO2 = sulfur dioxide, SPM = suspended particulate matter, μg/m = microgram per cubic meter. Source: ERM, 2008. Calculated using USEPA ISCST3 air dispersion model (2000). 99. Ambient air quality in the Project airshed will remain below the prescribed standards for SO2 and NOx. SO2 concentrations will be low due to the installation of an FGD unit. Baseline levels of SPM are high during the summer primarily due to the high content of fine sand in the local topsoil and agriculture activities that create soil disturbance prior to the onset of the monsoon. As a result of these existing conditions, the ambient air SPM levels will be above the prescribed limit during Project operation for at least part of the year. 100. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The supercritical boilers will generate CO2 emissions of 8.05 million tons per annum (at a rate of 0.86 kg/KWh net at 87% PLF), while the estimated baseline CO2 emissions from business-as-usual technology is estimated to be 8.90 million tons per annum (at a rate 0.95 kg/KWh net). Accordingly, a saving of 0.85 million tons per annum CO2 emissions is estimated. 101. Carbon Capture Readiness. Carbon capture from the plant, based on carbon dioxide separation and underground storage, has the potential to substantially reduce the carbon emissions of the Project. The technology for post-combustion carbon capture is under active development and may be available soon. An analysis has been carried out to identify the issues that need to be considered by the Project for carbon capture readiness (CCR) in the event that 12 Ambient air ground level concentrations (GLCs) were predicted using the United State Environment Protection Agency Industrial Source Complex Short Term Release 3 (ISCST3) model (version 2000). The model is capable of accepting multi-point emission sources and hourly meteorological data including mixing height, stabilities and terrain features to define the conditions for plume rise for each source and receptor combination for each hour of input of meteorological data sequentially, and calculates short term averages up to 24 hours.
  29. 29. 23 reliable technology and suitable storage options become commercially viable. These considerations include allocating space in the plant layout to install post-combustion carbon capture equipment, producing clean and desulfurized flue gas, and providing a sufficient electrical and steam supply to operate the capture system. 102. The Project has sufficient space for the installation of carbon capture equipment. The Project has a major advantage over other Indian coal-fired projects because it will have an FGD unit from the outset, which may be a precondition for carbon capture. The necessary electricity and steam supplies for the carbon capture system can be made available. It is envisaged that ongoing research will identify CO2 storage areas within reach of the Jhajjar site. Accordingly, it is concluded that the Project has the necessary features of CCR. 103. Noise. Significant noise levels can result from the operation of turbines, compressors, transformers, the coal handling plant, coal conveyor movement, blowdown of excess steam, and steam venting from safety valves. The transformers in the switchyard can also generate noise. The noise levels emitted by operating machinery will be 90–100 dB(A). The steam turbine generators will be housed in closed buildings to reduce noise transmission to the outside environment. Acoustic enclosures, hoods, laggings, and screens will be provided at all highnoise generating areas. All measures will be taken to keep noise levels at the plant boundary within stipulated limits. Maintenance and operating personnel working in the plant will be provided with adequate personal protection against noise. The inlet air and exhaust gas streams will be provided with silencers for noise reduction. All equipment in the plant is designed and will be operated for noise levels not exceeding 75 dB(A) measured at a distance of 1.5 m from the equipment. In addition, other measures will be implemented as necessary to ensure that noise at the plant boundary does not exceed stipulated limits. The maximum background and predicted noise levels are summarized in Table 8. Table 8: Maximum Background and Predicted Noise Levels Site 1 2 3 4 5 Sampling Station Near plant site Khanpur Khurd (1.5 km south) Jharli (2 km east) Sasrauli (5.5 km northeast) Railway crossing (2 km northeast) Day (Leq dB[A]) Baseline Predicted 52.9 52.9 54.4 54.4 49.8 49.8 46.9 46.9 60.0 60.1 Night (Leq dB[A]) Baseline Predicted 40.1 40.8 43.6 43.6 42.2 42.3 40.3 40.3 46.1 47.5 dB(A) = decibels (acoustic), Leq = equivalent continuous noise level, day = 0600 to 2200 hours; night = 2200 to 0600 hours. Source: baseline - EIA/EMP Report for 1,320 MW Thermal Power Plant, Jhajjar, Haryana. January 2008; predicted – JPL. 104. The monitored average noise levels at rural and residential areas around the project site varied from 46.9 to 54.4 dB(A) during the day and 40.1 to 46.1 dB(A) at night. The minimum distance between the Project’s major noise sources (power block and cooling towers) and the outer periphery of the Project will be approximately 400 m. Based on computer modeling, the maximum cumulative impact of all noise sources at the Project boundary in the direction of each nearby village is predicted to be less than 10 dB(A). After adding the predicted values to the background values through logarithmic addition, the increase in noise levels are predicted to remain within the prescribed norms at nearby villages, with the nearest village predicted to receive a net increase of 1.4–1.7 dB(A) above background noise, which is within the World Bank’s guidelines of a maximum increase of 3 dB(A) over background noise.
  30. 30. 24 105. Coal Dust. Coal will be received in open-type railway wagons and unloaded at site using tippers. The coal will then transported by conveyor to the crusher house. Crushed coal will be sent to either the bunker for storage and onward feeding to mill, or sent to the coal stockyard for temporary storage. Coal will be stockpiled in the yard and reclaimed on a regular basis. Coal dust emissions will either come from point sources such as crushing equipment and transfer points, or from fugitive sources such as stockpiles. 106. During coal unloading and onward transfer to the crusher, dust will be suppressed by spraying water. A dust extraction system will be installed at the crusher house on the feeder floors. Dust emissions from the coal stockpiles and from coal reclamation to the bunkers will also be controlled by spraying water. The coal dust extraction system is designed to suck dust-laden air from confined areas such as screening and belt feeders and at transfer points. The trapped air will be subjected to washing with the help of water sprays, and the clean air will be vented back into the atmosphere. Water containing coal dust will be taken to a settling pond for the removal of dust particles. 107. Coal dust suppression in open areas will consist of a fine spray of water to wet the dust particles, causing the particles to agglomerate and settle. The dust suppression system consists of swiveling-type, wide-angle, full cone-type nozzles. Drainage from coal yards will flow into a settling pond for the removal of coal particles. 108. Water Use. The water allocated to the Project for plant operation is in addition to the water currently allocated and used for other purposes such as irrigation, industry, and domestic use. Accordingly, the water supply for existing uses will not be reduced by the Project’s allocation of water. Canal upgrading will increase the existing capacity of the JLN feeder canal from 84.7 m3/s (2,990 cusecs) to greater than 93.2 m3/s (3,290 cusecs), which will ensure that the 8.5 m3/s (300 cusecs) of water required to operate the two thermal power plants is provided without reducing the capacity of the canal to supply existing water users. 109. Effluent Water Quality. The plant will generate wastewater from the pre-treatment plant, demineralization plant, cooling tower blowdown, boiler blowdown, wastewater from ultra filtration and RO unit, decanted water from ash dykes, and service and wash wastewater from different sections of the plant. On-site wastewater will be treated to achieve maximum reuse and recycling. Leftover wastewater will be used to irrigate on-site vegetation throughout the year except during the monsoon. In accordance with World Bank guidelines, wastewater will be treated to the levels prescribed in Table 9 or better. Treated effluent will also meet irrigation water quality standards (Table 10). Table 9: Thermal Power Plant Standard for Liquid Effluent Source Parameter Free available chlorine Suspended solids 1 Boiler Blowdown Oil & grease Concentration not Exceeding (mg/l, except pH) 0.5 100.0 20.0 Copper (Total) Iron (Total) 2 Cooling Tower Blowdown 1.0 1.0 Free available chlorine 0.5 Zinc 1.0
  31. 31. 25 Source Concentration not Exceeding (mg/l, except pH) Parameter Chromium (Total) 0.2 Phosphate 5.0 Limit to be established on case– by-case basis by the Central Board in union territories and State Boards in states 6.5–8.5 Other corrosion inhibiting material pH 3 Ash pond effluent Suspended solids 100.0 Oil and grease 20.0 Note: mg/l = milligram per litre, pH = potential hydrogen. Source: Environmental (Protection) Act Notification (SO no. 844 E) dated 19 November 1996. Table 10: Applicable Standards for Use of Water or Liquid Effluent for Irrigation Parameter S.N. 1 pH 2 Conductivity at 25ºC, 3 Unit -– Bureau of Indian Standard* General Standard for Discharge of Environmental Pollutants for Irrigation** 6.0–8.0 5.5–9.0 µs/cm 2.25 Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 1,000 – – 4 Boron mg/l 2 – 5 Chlorides mg/l 500 – 6 Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 7 mg/l 2,100 – – Suspended solids 200 8 Oil and Grease mg/l – 10 mg/l – 10 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (3 days at 27ºC) Arsenic mg/l – 11 Cyanide mg/l – 12 Bioassay test 9 – – 100 0.2 0.2 90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent Note: mg/l = milligram per litre, µS/cm = microseimens per centimeter, pH = potential hydrogen. Source: *Bureau of Indian Standards code IS: 11624:1986; **Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 and amendment 1993. 110. Ash Disposal. The Project will generate ash at a rate of about 291 tph from coal combustion, based on coal with an average ash content of 34%. Ash will be utilized off-site for secondary uses as per the ash utilization plan as detailed in Appendix 12. Ash will be handled in dry form, using a closed circuit pneumatic mechanism, and directly loaded into enclosed trucks through ash silos. 111. Fly ash will be collected in dry form. Fly ash generated from the plant will be commercially utilized to the maximum extent possible in industries such as cement and ash brick manufacture,
  32. 32. 26 road construction, pavement laying, and fly ash aggregates production. Fly ash will also be used for the construction of the ash pond dyke and the reclamation of low-lying areas. Additional options for ash use will also be considered. Full fly ash usage will be achieved at a rate faster than prescribed in the provisions for the notification on fly ash utilization issued by MoEF in September 1999 (and the subsequent amendment to the notification), which requires usage prior to the ninth year of project operation. Unutilized fly ash will be transferred from the silo in wet form and stored in the ash pond until suitable users are identified. Bottom ash will also be collected in wet form and stored in the ash dyke until suitable users are identified. 112. The ash dyke will have a capacity of at least 4 million m3. The sub-strata soil has permeability in the order of 10-5 m/sec. The Project will line the pond in order to prevent leakage. A detailed ash leaching study will be undertaken to determine a suitable lining. B. Biological Environment 1. During Construction 113. The project site has limited agricultural capability and is low yielding. The area is dry to semi-arid, with ground cover consisting of a few scattered trees, sparse shrubby vegetation, and grasses. Clearing the site will result in the loss of habitat for some small animals. This loss of habitat cannot be avoided but it will have a limited impact on the fauna and flora of the area. Small mammals and avifauna will experience the most impact. The influx of labor may increase the demand for fuel wood, which in turn will put pressure on local natural resources. Construction contractors will be instructed to avoid tree cutting wherever possible. Contractors will also be required to supply fuel to the work camp to avoid any impact on local resources. 2. During Operation 114. The potential impacts on the ecology of the nearby area from thermal power plant operation include the deposit of fly ash on vegetation, disturbance to wildlife by noise, and loss of aquatic fauna at the water intake point and in the treated effluent receiving body. The impacts of the Project on the biological environment will be limited by the implementation of mitigation measures. The installation of ESPs will substantially reduce the SPM levels of flue gases, which will prevent ash from settling and damaging vegetation in the vicinity of the plant. The implementation of noise control measures will minimize disturbances to fauna and avifauna in the area. The Project will establish a greenbelt around the plant and at several locations within the plant’s premises and the water reservoir, covering a total combined area of 137 ha (approximately 30% of the entire project site). The greenbelt will provide a habitat for some species. 115. The water supply pipeline intake point from the JLN feeder canal will be provided with sufficient screening to filter out larger aquatic organisms (e.g., fish, frogs, and toads) and foreign matter, preventing this material from being drawn into the pumps. The Project will not discharge any treated effluent off site and there will be no thermal impact on nearby bodies of water. C. Socio-cultural Environment 1. During Construction 116. Loss of Land and Livelihood. Private land is being acquired for the Project under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. Land compensation rates have been agreed to by the Government of Haryana and affected households. The agreed rates were higher than the prevailing market prices at the time of negotiation in 2007. Land compensation consists of a cash payment plus a
  33. 33. 27 deposit that will yield an annuity for 33 years. The deposit is designed to provide long-term livelihood support for each affected household. 117. The project site is uninhabited and there will be no displacement of households. However, the Project will have an impact on livelihoods since agricultural activities will be affected by land acquisition and restricted access to public grazing land. The 33-year annuity will help to offset this impact. In addition, JPL will work closely with communities to develop alternative livelihoods for those requiring new economic activities. Agriculture and ancillary activities form the mainstay of livelihoods in the immediate vicinity of the Project area. Single crops of bajra and gowar are reported to be the main crops grown on the affected land, while those landowners with a private irrigation water supply cultivate a second crop of wheat and mustard. Villages like Khanpur Khurd, Khanpur Kalan, and Jharli have agricultural land at scattered locations on both sides of the main road. Although agriculture is practiced on the plant site, the productivity and incomegenerating capacity of this land is low. Associated impacts from this loss of land and production include: (i) loss of opportunities for agricultural laborers; and (ii) decrease in economic participation and loss of opportunities for women who work this land, primarily for sourcing fodder. 118. Community access to grazing land will be lost with the establishment of the Project. A range of private assets are located on this land, including tube wells, pucca/kutcha sheds, water supply pipelines, open wells, trees, and submersible pumps. A total of 98 assets were recorded on the plant site by the District Revenue Office, of which Khanpur Khurd had 53, Khanpur Kalan had 35, Jharli had 5, and Wazidpur had 5. Each asset has been valued and the owners are being provided compensation at above market prices. 119. Social and Cultural Conflicts. The influx of workers from outside the area has the potential to create conflict with local people and increase the risk of communicable diseases such as HIV 13 , tuberculosis, and cholera. The Project’s construction workforce will comprise 2,000-4,000 persons over 40 months (Table 11). To minimize conflicts between construction workers and local villagers, workers will be recruited from adjacent villages to the greatest extent possible, and the necessary social infrastructure will be provided for the workforce. Workers and professional personnel from outside the area will stay in temporary accommodations on the project site. Increased traffic in the project area during construction will be controlled on and off the site to minimize safety hazards. Table 11: Number of People to be Employed Period Company Employees Contractor Employees Total Construction 50 2,000–4,000 2,050–4,050 Operation 275 50 325 Source: JPL and EIA/EMP Report for 1,320 (2 X 660) MW Thermal Power Plant Project. Jhajjar, Haryana. MECON, 2007. 2. During Operation 120. The completion of construction activities will see a reduction in job opportunities in the project area that could create local resentment. During project operation, about 275 people will be employed. Employees and their families will reside in the plant residential site, where they will 13 human immunodeficiency virus.
  34. 34. 28 contribute to demand for local food and services. Project operation will spur the local economy by providing indirect business opportunities in the area. D. Induced Development 121. The demand for food and services that will be created by the Project during construction and operation is likely to induce development in the local area around the project site. With an increase in employment opportunities, people will be encouraged to take up skills development and technical training. The level of literacy is expected to rise over time as a result. These changes will vary in intensity at different locations. The greatest impact is likely to occur in the immediate project area at Khanpur Khurd and Jharli, with less impact in the surrounding areas of Bahu-Jolhri and regional centers such as Jhajjar and Dadri. E. Cumulative Impact 122. Apart from the Project, the only major existing or proposed industrial activity in the Project airshed is the 1,500 MW coal-fired ATPP that is currently under construction on the eastern side of the Project. This plant is being developed by Aravali Power Company Private Limited (APCPL), a joint venture company between the Government of Haryana, Government of Delhi, and NTPC Limited, which is the central Government utility company. The plant will consist of three 500 MW units. The primary environmental impact of the Project and the coal-fired ATPP will be a decline in air quality. The flue gas emissions of both projects are summarized in Table 12, with projected ATPP emissions based on the environmental clearance issued by MoEF. Table 12: Predicted Emissions from the Project and ATPP Parameter SO2 NOX PM Project Emissions per Unit* (660 MW x 2 units) 200 mg/Nm3 24.5 TPD (141.6 g/s) 650 mg/Nm3 (460.2 g/s) 50 mg/Nm3 (35.5 g/s) ATPP Emissions per Unit** (500 MW x 3 units) 1,315 mg/Nm3 188.85 TPD (728.6 g/s) 650 mg/Nm3 (360.1 g/s) 50 mg/Nm3 (55.4 g/s) Indian Limit* World Bank Norm 700 TPD 2,000 mg/Nm3 450 TPD Low NOx burner prescribed 750 mg/Nm3 100 mg/Nm3 50 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 = milligram per normal cubic meter, NOX = nitrogen oxide, SO2 = sulfur dioxide, PM = particulate matter, TPD = tons per day. Source: Jhajjar Power Limited. *Ministry of Environment and Forests. 1998. Environmental Standards for Power Plants, MOEF New Delhi Notification G.S.R. 7. ** The expected emissions for Aravali Thermal Power Plant are based on assumption of 0.5% of Sulfur in Coal, SO2 emissions are without FGD in place, PM emissions with a limit of 100 mg/Nm3 and NOx limit of 650 mg/Nm3. 123. The combined effect of emissions from the Project and ATPP on air quality was assessed using the ISCST3 air dispersion model. Table 13 summarizes the predicted worst case ambient air quality resulting from the combined projects, while the cumulative predicted air quality at each monitoring location is presented in Appendix 8.