Biodiesel and How to make it

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Biodiesel

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  • All these make it imperative that the search for alternative fuels is taken in right earnest.
  • An alternative fuel that can be used in existing diesel engines
    Made from vegetable oil instead of petroleum (can also be made from any other type of oil, including animal fat)
    Only alternative fuel to meet health effect testing for the Clean Air Act
    Produces far less hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, particulate, and carbon dioxide emissions
    High flash point (>300F), biodegradable, essentially non-toxic.
  • An alternative fuel that can be used in existing diesel engines
    Made from vegetable oil instead of petroleum (can also be made from any other type of oil, including animal fat)
    Only alternative fuel to meet health effect testing for the Clean Air Act
    Produces far less hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, particulate, and carbon dioxide emissions
    High flash point (>300F), biodegradable, essentially non-toxic.
  • In fossil fuels,sulphur is present when it is released in the atmosphere it could cause acid rain. In many instances, Biodiesel is mixed with petroleum-based diesel to create a Biodiesel blend, which can then be sold into the general diesel market…It refers to mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from palm oil through a process known as ‘transesterification’.
  • Biodiesel and How to make it

    1. 1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS (BIODIESEL)
    2. 2.  CONTENTS  Need of allternate fuel  What is biodiesel?  How it is made?  Advantages of biodiesel over diesel  Disadvantages  Emission tests  Why biodiesel should be used?
    3. 3.    World today is facing the pinch of rising energy consumption. Green house gas emissions and global warming is also in the forefront of critical issues. India is ranked 6th in terms of energy demands but its domestic crude oil production satisfies only ¼th of our current demands.
    4. 4.  Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide  Fossil fuels are a finite resource Biodiesel closed carbon cycle
    5. 5.   Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum,coal), and nuclear materials such as uranium. Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional fuels.
    6. 6. What is Biodiesel?  Alternative fuel for diesel engines  Made from vegetable oil or animal fat  Meets health effect testing (CAA)  Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer  Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.  Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters
    7. 7. FA Biodiesel Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Fatty Acid Alcohol Glycerin
    8. 8.  Sources of biodiesel:  Honge  Jatropha High capital, broad scale production plan initiated  Cost per liter projected at Rs. 27 
    9. 9.  Biodiesel from Jatropha  Seeds of the Jatropha nut is crushed and oil is extracted  The oil is processed and refined to form bio-diesel.
    10. 10. Biodiesel can be used in existing Diesel Engines  Pure Biodiesel (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel (B20, BXX).  Rudolf Diesel: peanut oil.  Little or no engine modifications  Use existing fuel distribution network.
    11. 11.  Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride with a monohydroxy alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol…).  What is a triglyceride? Made from a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids:
    12. 12. CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH |  | CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH  3CH3OORx + CHOH | | CH2OOR3 CH2OH Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin R1, R2, and R3 are fatty acid alkyl groups (could be different, or the same), and depend on the type of oil. The fatty acids involved determine the final properties of the biodiesel (cetane number, cold flow properties, etc.)
    13. 13. After Glycerin removal, biodiesel now just needs to be cleaned/purified before.
    14. 14.      Diesel engines run better and last longer on biodiesel. The original diesel engine was designed to run on biodiesel made on the farm. Biodiesel is a much better lubricant. According to the Guinness World Records, a German truck travelled 780,000 miles on biodiesel.
    15. 15.  Biodiesel has a high cetane rating, making it a premium fuel that improves performance.  Biodiesel burns up to 75 percent cleaner, reducing black smoke and cleaning fuel injectors.
    16. 16. It is less suitable for use in low temperatures.  It cannot be transported in pipelines.  It gives out more nitrogen oxide emissions.  Only a few petrol stations offer biodiesel-fuel.  It can only be used in diesel-powered engines.  It can cause inner fuel tubes of older vehicles to lose their long-lasting qualities. 
    17. 17.  It is more likely than petroleum diesel to attract moisture, which can cause problems in cold weather (fuel freezing, deposit of water in the vehicle fuel delivery system, fuel cold flow, clouding, and an increased corrosion, for example) and increase the risk of microbial growth (which can also clog engine filters).

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