Spiritual climate and its impact
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This presentation gives the summary of my doctoral research on spiritual climate of business organizations and its impact on customers experience of employees' service.

This presentation gives the summary of my doctoral research on spiritual climate of business organizations and its impact on customers experience of employees' service.

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  • 1. Spiritual Climate of Business Organizations and Its Impact On Customers’ Experience of Employees’ Service
    AshishPandey,
    (Fellow of M.D.I., Gugaon)
    Faculty, SJMSOM,
    Indian Institute of Technology
    Mumbai, India
  • 2. Objectives of this Presentation
    To explain the process of developing the construct of ‘spiritual climate at workplace’
    Evaluation of hypothesis about positive relationship between spiritual climate and its impact on customers experience of employees’ service
  • 3. Flow of This Discussion
    Definition of
    key terms
    Brief overview of literature review
    Research gap, Conceptualizing Spiritual Climate, Proposed Hypotheses
    Theoretical evaluation,
    Limitations and Contribution
    of the study
  • 4. Definition of Spirituality (adapted from the literature for the current study)‏
    Spirituality is the harmony with oneself and with natural and social environment and believe or capacity of transcendence.
  • 5. Spiritual Climate at Workplace
    Spiritually Climate at workplace is defined as the collective perception of the employees about the work place which facilitates harmony with ‘self’ through meaningful work, transcendence from the limited ‘self’ and operates in harmony with social and natural environment having a sense of interconnectedness within it.
  • 6. Employees’ Service
    Service behaviour of employees towards clients/customer
    Service Consumption Experience (in banking sector) is a function of :
    • Core Service,
    • 7. Employees’ Service and
    • 8. Servicescape
    (Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏
  • 9. Inspiration for the Study
    • Creating meaning may be the most important managerial task of the future.
    Nichols (1994)‏
    • Performance survey of organizations managed by spiritual values shows more incidences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
    Nur (2003)‏
    • Best places to work are where people find a purpose to work other than their paycheques. These companies gave returns more than three times that of S&P 500 companies give between 1997 to 2003.
    Fortune (2006) analysis of ‘Best Places to Work’
  • 10. Spirituality: Epistemological Divergence
    Spirituality as Intelligence
    Zohar and Marshall(2002), Emmons (1999)‏
    Spirituality as Inner Experience
    Caddy (1986), Dillard (2002),
    Spirituality as Higher Reaches of
    Developmental Lines
    Lovinger (1998), Kohlberg (1990)‏
    Spirituality is attitude of openness, care and love
    Wilber (2004)
  • 11. Spirituality in Management: A Schematic View
    Conceptual
    Underpinning
    Of Spirituality
    Spirituality
    in Management
    Impact
    Of Spirituality
    Contemporary
    Thoughts
    • Positive/
    Humanist
    Psychology
    • Well-being
    Literature
    • Integral
    Psychology
    Job Behavior
    Harmony
    With Self
    Harmony in
    Environment
    Organization
    Performance
    • Financial
    • 14. Quality Orientation
    Transcendence
    Traditional
    Vedantic
    Thoughts
    Swadharma
    Loksangrah
    Pandey, A. and Gupta, R. K. (2008). Spirituality in Management: Review of Traditional and Contemporary
    Literature and Agenda for Future Research, Global Business Review, Sage Pub., Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp. 65-84,
  • 15. Major Insights from Literature
    Literature on human well-being and humanistic and integral psychology acknowledges the spiritual aspect/s of human self and realms of human consciousness beyond psycho-physiological and psychosocial realms.
    Spirituality manifests at different levels and forms in human affair.
    Possibility of synthesis of contemporary knowledge and traditional wisdom in the field of spirituality.
  • 16. Research Gap
    Very few studies predicting relation of spirituality with organizational outcomes (except Nur, 2003, Scott, 2002)‏
    Most of the individual level studies in the field of spirituality in management suffer from ‘same source bias’.
    No study reported to examine the impact on customers service experience (Marques, 2005)‏
  • 17. Literature Review
    Contemporary Thoughts
    about Spiritual Aspect of
    human life
    Well Being
    Elementalism
    Humanism
    Psychology
    Freud Jung
    Fromm Maslow
    Frankl Allport
    Aspects of Spiritual Wellness
    Charlene (1996)
    • Meaning and purpose in life
    • 18. Intrinsic values
    • 19. Transcendent beliefs
    /experiences
    • Community/relationship
  • Literature Review
    Indian Traditional
    Wisdom
    (Vedantic Views)‏
    Adhyatmik
    Loksangrah
    Rta
    Adhidaivik
    Adhibhuatik
    and
    Swadharma
    Dharma
  • 20. Spirituality at Workplace :A Conceptual Convergence
    Harmony with self:
    Finding meaning and purpose in work (Mitroff and Denton, 1999; Ashmos and Duchon, 2000),
    Profound feeling of well being and joy (Kinjerski, 2004),
    Self actualization (Ashforth and Pratt, 2003; Pfeffer, 2003)‏
    Development of one’s full potential (Krishnkumar and Neck, 2002)‏
    Harmony with environment:
    Community (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2004, Ashmos and Duchon, 2000),
    Being comfortable with the world (Morgan, 1993)‏
    Connectedness (Ingersoll, 1998), compassion (McCormick, 1994)‏
    Respect, Humility, Common purpose etc.(Heaton, Scmidt-Wilk and Travis, 2004, Kinjerski, 2004)
    Transcendence:
    Connection to something greater than oneself (Dehler and Welsh, 2003, Ashforth and Pratt, 2003)‏
    Meditative work (McCormick, 1994)‏
  • 21. Research Objectives
    Conceptualizing the Spiritual Climate of the business organization and development of the scale of spiritual climate
    Test the relation of spiritual climate at workplace and customers experience of employees’ service
  • 22. Theoretical Foundation of Research
    Gestalt psychology (Lewin, 1955):
    • Perceiving the ‘whole’ to draw psychologically meaningful references
    • 23. The basis of most of organizational climate research
    Linkage research (Schneider, 1989):
    • Climate of a business organization is perceived by its clients and impact their experience.
  • Consequent Variable in the Study: Employees’ Service
    Service Consumption Experience is a function of
    Core Service, Employees’ Service and Servicescape, (Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏
    Employees Behavior is a function of Personality and Environment (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1978;Chatman and Barsade, 1995)
  • 24. Components of Employees’ service:(Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏
    Prompt service
    Willingness to help
    Understanding the customers need
    Trust
    Safety
    Politeness
    Personal attention
    Possessing and providing service related information
    Keeping promise
  • 25. Hypotheses
    H1: Workplace showing higher Spiritual climate will be experienced by the customers as providing better employees’ service.
    H1a: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees’ find their work meaningful.
    H1b: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience sense of community.
    H1c: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees are concern towards each other family.
    Contd…
  • 26. H1d: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience authenticity in people’s behavior at work place.
    H1e: Customers find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees work with the feeling of Loksangrah, i.e. as if they are working for world-maintenance.
    H1f: Customers find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience meditative work.
  • 27. Operationally defined
    Measurement issues
    Face and Content validity
    Non continuousness of antecedent and consequent
    Reliability : (Cronback Alpha)
    Variables
    Construct validity
    Convergent validity : Supportive environment Questionnaire
    Discriminant validity: Items of opposite Construct
    Construct
    Logical adequacy
    covariance
    direction
    Control of other variables
    Empirical Adequacy
    variance in data sources: One Bank many branches
    Relationship
    Falsification of Variables, Constructs and Proposed Relationships
  • 28. Overview of Empirical Research
    Phases of Empirical Research
    Technique/Test Applied
    Development of Spiritual Climate Scale
    Exploratory Factor
    Analysis
    Validation of
    Spiritual Climate Scale
    Confirmatory Factor
    Analysis
    • Regression Analysis
    • 29. Comparison of means
    • 30. Analysis of Variance
    Hypotheses Testing
  • 31. Scale Development Phases(with Theory Driven Approach)
    1. Item Conception and writing
    2. Item Analysis, i.e. internal consistency
    evaluation and item selection based on face and content validity
    3 Dimensionality check
  • 32. Spiritual Climate of Workplace:
    Dimensions and variables from the literature
    Variables of the construct
    Correlating dimensions in contemporary
    literature
    Dimensions in Indian traditional literature
    Harmony with self
    Harmony in environment
    Transcendence
    Swadharma
    Rta
  • 39. Operational Definitions of Sub-Constructs
    Meaningful work: Work for life not only for livelihood (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000)‏
    Hopefulness: Individual determination that goals can be achieved and belief that successful plans can be formulated and pathways can be identified to attain the goal (Snyder, 2000)‏
    Authenticity : Alignment of people’s actions and behaviors with their core, internalized values and beliefs (Pareek, 2002; Harvey, Martinko and Gardner, 2006)‏
    Continued …
  • 40. Sense of community: Experience of interconnectedness and interdependence of employees (Jurkiewicz and Giacalone, 2004)‏
    Loksangrah: Working for world maintenance (Radhakrishnan, 1954); Concern for social and Natural environment
    Respect for diversity: Adapting a plural way of accommodating the multiplicities and diversities of societies, markets and individuals and operates on shared opportunity and shared responsibility (Zohar, 2002)‏
    Meditative work: Experience of being absorbed in work, losing any sense of self, and becoming one with the activity (McCormick, 1994)‏
  • 41. Battery of 112 items
    Likert type 1-5 scale
    (Measuring diff.
    sub constructs)‏
    Pilot Test 1
    Qualitative Analysis based on Cognitive interviewing
    with six potential respondents
    78 items for
    pilot testing
    Scale Construction Phases
    Subjected to
    Face and Content
    Validity check with
    experts
    Contd…..
  • 42. Reformulation and editing of
    the Questions after Pilot 1
    Items related to
    Hopefulness, Respect for
    diversity showed
    high correlation with
    some other items
    Pilot 2
    Quantitative Analysis
    Sample Size: 76
    Dimensionality check to assess the
    validity and reliability of the
    instrument covering Five Sub-constructs
    Pilot 3
    Factor Analysis
    Sam. Size:162
    Scale Construction: Contd….
  • 43. Summary of findings of Exploratory Factor Analysis
    Non orthogonal
    Rotation
    7 Factor Solution
    • Meaningful work
    • 44. Sense of community
    (sub divided in 2 factors)‏
    Factor Structure
    0.775
    KMO Bartlett Test
    (for Sampling Adequacy)‏
    371.988 (231 degree of freedom)‏
    Chi Square test
    0.873
    Reliability Coefficient
    Approx. 72%
    Variance Explained
  • 48. Service
    Climate
    (Schneider 2000)‏
    • Managerial behavioral scale
    • 49. Branch
    administration
    Ethical
    Climate
    (Victor and Cullen,
    1989)‏
    Employees’
    Engagement
    (Gallup’s Q-12)‏
    (Individual and dyadic level construct)‏
    environment
    Spiritual Climate
    A Note on Discriminant Validity of the Spiritual Climate Construct
  • 62. Empirical Research Phase II
    • Unit of analysis
    (for antecedent) : Branch of Public Sector Bank
    • Sampling method:
    Stratified Random
    • Sample size: 31, Equal number of small
    and large branches randomly
    selected from two regions of
    Delhi Zone
    Contd…..
  • 63.
    • Unit of analysis
    (for consequent) : Branch of public sector
    bank
    • Sampling method:
    Stratified Random for branches
    Simple random sampling for
    customers in respective branches
    • Sample size: about 15-20 customers each from the 31 branches sampled for the study
    • Two Factor Solution
    • 64. KMO and Bartlett test: 0.923
    • 65. Reliability Coefficient: 0.91
    Employees Service
    Confirmatory Factor Analysis
    Five Factor Solution
    (Variable Meditative Work showed cross loading thus dropped from the further analysis)‏
    Spiritual Climate Scale
    • KMO and Bartlett value: 0.821
    • 66. Reliability Coefficient: 0. 88
    Factor Structure
  • 67. Std. Error of the Estimate
    Adjusted R
    Square
    R Square
    R
    Model
    0.19588
    0.137
    0.169
    0.411
    1.
    Durbin-Watson
    Change Statistics
    Model
    Sig. F Change
    df2
    df1
    F Change
    R Square
    Change
    1.691
    0.030
    26
    1
    5.276
    0.169
    1
    Impact of Spiritual climate on Customers experience:Summary of Regression Model
  • 68. Hypothesis Testing: H1
    t-Test
    H-14
    L-14
    Spiritual
    Climate
    Scores
    Employees
    Service
    Scores
    3.78
    3.21
    3.91
    3.74
    t- Statistics: 2.126
    P value: 0.044
    (Leven’s test sig.: 0.738)‏
  • 69. Conclusion
    p-Value
    H5 L5
    Acceptable
    0.005
    3.66
    3.99
    H1a (Meaningfulness)‏
    Acceptable
    0.03
    3.74
    3.95
    H1b (Sense of Community)‏
    Not Accepted
    0.4
    3.91
    3.97
    H1c (Concern for family)‏
    Acceptable
    0.06
    3.73
    3.94
    H1d (Authenticity)‏
    Acceptable
    0.003
    3.68
    3.98
    H1e (Loksangrah)‏
    Variable dropped before
    hypothesis testing
    H1f (Meditative Work)‏
    ANOVA: Average Employees’ Service Scores of 5 branches each from highest and lowest Spiritual Climate Score
  • 70. Contributions to ‘Spirituality at Workplace’ and larger OB literature
    Integrating the traditional and contemporary thoughts for conceptualizing spirituality at workplace
    Answers the call of Giacalone and Jurkiewicz (2004) for an instrument that captures workplace spirituality
    The study intend to contribute to Positive OB literature
  • 71. Contributions to Service Quality literature
    Gupta (1995) suggested that quality orientation and customers service are the two modern management notions parallel to Vedantic wisdom. This study examines the conjecture and tests it empirically.
    This study answers the call of Bowen and Waldman (1999) for research that pulls different sources of data together for better understanding of requirements and consequences of employee performance in relation with customers satisfaction.
  • 72. Managerial Implication
    Meaningfulness of work and sense of contribution is linked to employees performance
    Importance of generic climate for specific climate to be achieve intended outcome
    Useful finding for Energized Learning (Thriving) organization and other OD intervention
    Stepping stone towards concretizing the scheme of organizational consciousness
  • 73. Limitations
    Person-organization fit variation is not studied
    Usual limitations of Positivist paradigm
    Specificity due to cultural difference has not been examined
  • 74. Thank you