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Spiritual climate and its impact
 

Spiritual climate and its impact

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This presentation gives the summary of my doctoral research on spiritual climate of business organizations and its impact on customers experience of employees' service.

This presentation gives the summary of my doctoral research on spiritual climate of business organizations and its impact on customers experience of employees' service.

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    Spiritual climate and its impact Spiritual climate and its impact Presentation Transcript

    • Spiritual Climate of Business Organizations and Its Impact On Customers’ Experience of Employees’ Service
      AshishPandey,
      (Fellow of M.D.I., Gugaon)
      Faculty, SJMSOM,
      Indian Institute of Technology
      Mumbai, India
    • Objectives of this Presentation
      To explain the process of developing the construct of ‘spiritual climate at workplace’
      Evaluation of hypothesis about positive relationship between spiritual climate and its impact on customers experience of employees’ service
    • Flow of This Discussion
      Definition of
      key terms
      Brief overview of literature review
      Research gap, Conceptualizing Spiritual Climate, Proposed Hypotheses
      Theoretical evaluation,
      Limitations and Contribution
      of the study
    • Definition of Spirituality (adapted from the literature for the current study)‏
      Spirituality is the harmony with oneself and with natural and social environment and believe or capacity of transcendence.
    • Spiritual Climate at Workplace
      Spiritually Climate at workplace is defined as the collective perception of the employees about the work place which facilitates harmony with ‘self’ through meaningful work, transcendence from the limited ‘self’ and operates in harmony with social and natural environment having a sense of interconnectedness within it.
    • Employees’ Service
      Service behaviour of employees towards clients/customer
      Service Consumption Experience (in banking sector) is a function of :
      • Core Service,
      • Employees’ Service and
      • Servicescape
      (Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏
    • Inspiration for the Study
      • Creating meaning may be the most important managerial task of the future.
      Nichols (1994)‏
      • Performance survey of organizations managed by spiritual values shows more incidences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
      Nur (2003)‏
      • Best places to work are where people find a purpose to work other than their paycheques. These companies gave returns more than three times that of S&P 500 companies give between 1997 to 2003.
      Fortune (2006) analysis of ‘Best Places to Work’
    • Spirituality: Epistemological Divergence
      Spirituality as Intelligence
      Zohar and Marshall(2002), Emmons (1999)‏
      Spirituality as Inner Experience
      Caddy (1986), Dillard (2002),
      Spirituality as Higher Reaches of
      Developmental Lines
      Lovinger (1998), Kohlberg (1990)‏
      Spirituality is attitude of openness, care and love
      Wilber (2004)
    • Spirituality in Management: A Schematic View
      Conceptual
      Underpinning
      Of Spirituality
      Spirituality
      in Management
      Impact
      Of Spirituality
      Contemporary
      Thoughts
      • Positive/
      Humanist
      Psychology
      • Well-being
      Literature
      • Integral
      Psychology
      Job Behavior
      • Motivation
      • Learning
      • Commitment
      Harmony
      With Self
      Harmony in
      Environment
      Organization
      Performance
      • Financial
      • Quality Orientation
      Transcendence
      Traditional
      Vedantic
      Thoughts
      Swadharma
      Loksangrah
      Pandey, A. and Gupta, R. K. (2008). Spirituality in Management: Review of Traditional and Contemporary
      Literature and Agenda for Future Research, Global Business Review, Sage Pub., Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp. 65-84,
    • Major Insights from Literature
      Literature on human well-being and humanistic and integral psychology acknowledges the spiritual aspect/s of human self and realms of human consciousness beyond psycho-physiological and psychosocial realms.
      Spirituality manifests at different levels and forms in human affair.
      Possibility of synthesis of contemporary knowledge and traditional wisdom in the field of spirituality.
    • Research Gap
      Very few studies predicting relation of spirituality with organizational outcomes (except Nur, 2003, Scott, 2002)‏
      Most of the individual level studies in the field of spirituality in management suffer from ‘same source bias’.
      No study reported to examine the impact on customers service experience (Marques, 2005)‏
    • Literature Review
      Contemporary Thoughts
      about Spiritual Aspect of
      human life
      Well Being
      Elementalism
      Humanism
      Psychology
      Freud Jung
      Fromm Maslow
      Frankl Allport
      Aspects of Spiritual Wellness
      Charlene (1996)
      • Meaning and purpose in life
      • Intrinsic values
      • Transcendent beliefs
      /experiences
      • Community/relationship
    • Literature Review
      Indian Traditional
      Wisdom
      (Vedantic Views)‏
      Adhyatmik
      Loksangrah
      Rta
      Adhidaivik
      Adhibhuatik
      and
      Swadharma
      Dharma
    • Spirituality at Workplace :A Conceptual Convergence
      Harmony with self:
      Finding meaning and purpose in work (Mitroff and Denton, 1999; Ashmos and Duchon, 2000),
      Profound feeling of well being and joy (Kinjerski, 2004),
      Self actualization (Ashforth and Pratt, 2003; Pfeffer, 2003)‏
      Development of one’s full potential (Krishnkumar and Neck, 2002)‏
      Harmony with environment:
      Community (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2004, Ashmos and Duchon, 2000),
      Being comfortable with the world (Morgan, 1993)‏
      Connectedness (Ingersoll, 1998), compassion (McCormick, 1994)‏
      Respect, Humility, Common purpose etc.(Heaton, Scmidt-Wilk and Travis, 2004, Kinjerski, 2004)
      Transcendence:
      Connection to something greater than oneself (Dehler and Welsh, 2003, Ashforth and Pratt, 2003)‏
      Meditative work (McCormick, 1994)‏
    • Research Objectives
      Conceptualizing the Spiritual Climate of the business organization and development of the scale of spiritual climate
      Test the relation of spiritual climate at workplace and customers experience of employees’ service
    • Theoretical Foundation of Research
      Gestalt psychology (Lewin, 1955):
      • Perceiving the ‘whole’ to draw psychologically meaningful references
      • The basis of most of organizational climate research
      Linkage research (Schneider, 1989):
      • Climate of a business organization is perceived by its clients and impact their experience.
    • Consequent Variable in the Study: Employees’ Service
      Service Consumption Experience is a function of
      Core Service, Employees’ Service and Servicescape, (Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏
      Employees Behavior is a function of Personality and Environment (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1978;Chatman and Barsade, 1995)
    • Components of Employees’ service:(Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏
      Prompt service
      Willingness to help
      Understanding the customers need
      Trust
      Safety
      Politeness
      Personal attention
      Possessing and providing service related information
      Keeping promise
    • Hypotheses
      H1: Workplace showing higher Spiritual climate will be experienced by the customers as providing better employees’ service.
      H1a: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees’ find their work meaningful.
      H1b: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience sense of community.
      H1c: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees are concern towards each other family.
      Contd…
    • H1d: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience authenticity in people’s behavior at work place.
      H1e: Customers find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees work with the feeling of Loksangrah, i.e. as if they are working for world-maintenance.
      H1f: Customers find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience meditative work.
    • Operationally defined
      Measurement issues
      Face and Content validity
      Non continuousness of antecedent and consequent
      Reliability : (Cronback Alpha)
      Variables
      Construct validity
      Convergent validity : Supportive environment Questionnaire
      Discriminant validity: Items of opposite Construct
      Construct
      Logical adequacy
      covariance
      direction
      Control of other variables
      Empirical Adequacy
      variance in data sources: One Bank many branches
      Relationship
      Falsification of Variables, Constructs and Proposed Relationships
    • Overview of Empirical Research
      Phases of Empirical Research
      Technique/Test Applied
      Development of Spiritual Climate Scale
      Exploratory Factor
      Analysis
      Validation of
      Spiritual Climate Scale
      Confirmatory Factor
      Analysis
      • Regression Analysis
      • Comparison of means
      • Analysis of Variance
      Hypotheses Testing
    • Scale Development Phases(with Theory Driven Approach)
      1. Item Conception and writing
      2. Item Analysis, i.e. internal consistency
      evaluation and item selection based on face and content validity
      3 Dimensionality check
    • Spiritual Climate of Workplace:
      Dimensions and variables from the literature
      Variables of the construct
      Correlating dimensions in contemporary
      literature
      Dimensions in Indian traditional literature
      • Meaningful work
      • Hopefulness
      • Authenticity
      • Sense of community
      • Loksangrah
      • Respect for diversity
      • Meditative work
      Harmony with self
      Harmony in environment
      Transcendence
      Swadharma
      Rta
    • Operational Definitions of Sub-Constructs
      Meaningful work: Work for life not only for livelihood (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000)‏
      Hopefulness: Individual determination that goals can be achieved and belief that successful plans can be formulated and pathways can be identified to attain the goal (Snyder, 2000)‏
      Authenticity : Alignment of people’s actions and behaviors with their core, internalized values and beliefs (Pareek, 2002; Harvey, Martinko and Gardner, 2006)‏
      Continued …
    • Sense of community: Experience of interconnectedness and interdependence of employees (Jurkiewicz and Giacalone, 2004)‏
      Loksangrah: Working for world maintenance (Radhakrishnan, 1954); Concern for social and Natural environment
      Respect for diversity: Adapting a plural way of accommodating the multiplicities and diversities of societies, markets and individuals and operates on shared opportunity and shared responsibility (Zohar, 2002)‏
      Meditative work: Experience of being absorbed in work, losing any sense of self, and becoming one with the activity (McCormick, 1994)‏
    • Battery of 112 items
      Likert type 1-5 scale
      (Measuring diff.
      sub constructs)‏
      Pilot Test 1
      Qualitative Analysis based on Cognitive interviewing
      with six potential respondents
      78 items for
      pilot testing
      Scale Construction Phases
      Subjected to
      Face and Content
      Validity check with
      experts
      Contd…..
    • Reformulation and editing of
      the Questions after Pilot 1
      Items related to
      Hopefulness, Respect for
      diversity showed
      high correlation with
      some other items
      Pilot 2
      Quantitative Analysis
      Sample Size: 76
      Dimensionality check to assess the
      validity and reliability of the
      instrument covering Five Sub-constructs
      Pilot 3
      Factor Analysis
      Sam. Size:162
      Scale Construction: Contd….
    • Summary of findings of Exploratory Factor Analysis
      Non orthogonal
      Rotation
      7 Factor Solution
      • Meaningful work
      • Sense of community
      (sub divided in 2 factors)‏
      • Concern for Family
      • Authenticity
      • Loksangrah
      • Meditative work
      Factor Structure
      0.775
      KMO Bartlett Test
      (for Sampling Adequacy)‏
      371.988 (231 degree of freedom)‏
      Chi Square test
      0.873
      Reliability Coefficient
      Approx. 72%
      Variance Explained
    • Service
      Climate
      (Schneider 2000)‏
      • Managerial behavioral scale
      • Branch
      administration
      Ethical
      Climate
      (Victor and Cullen,
      1989)‏
      • Caring
      • Law and code
      • Rules
      • Independence
      • Instrumental (reverse)‏
      Employees’
      Engagement
      (Gallup’s Q-12)‏
      (Individual and dyadic level construct)‏
      • Appreciation
      • Role clarity
      • Learning opportunity
      • Enabling
      environment
      Spiritual Climate
      • Meaningfulness
      • Sense of community
      • Authenticity
      • Concern for family
      • Loksangrah
      • Meditative work
      A Note on Discriminant Validity of the Spiritual Climate Construct
    • Empirical Research Phase II
      • Unit of analysis
      (for antecedent) : Branch of Public Sector Bank
      • Sampling method:
      Stratified Random
      • Sample size: 31, Equal number of small
      and large branches randomly
      selected from two regions of
      Delhi Zone
      Contd…..
      • Unit of analysis
      (for consequent) : Branch of public sector
      bank
      • Sampling method:
      Stratified Random for branches
      Simple random sampling for
      customers in respective branches
      • Sample size: about 15-20 customers each from the 31 branches sampled for the study
      • Two Factor Solution
      • KMO and Bartlett test: 0.923
      • Reliability Coefficient: 0.91
      Employees Service
      Confirmatory Factor Analysis
      Five Factor Solution
      (Variable Meditative Work showed cross loading thus dropped from the further analysis)‏
      Spiritual Climate Scale
      • KMO and Bartlett value: 0.821
      • Reliability Coefficient: 0. 88
      Factor Structure
    • Std. Error of the Estimate
      Adjusted R
      Square
      R Square
      R
      Model
      0.19588
      0.137
      0.169
      0.411
      1.
      Durbin-Watson
      Change Statistics
      Model
      Sig. F Change
      df2
      df1
      F Change
      R Square
      Change
      1.691
      0.030
      26
      1
      5.276
      0.169
      1
      Impact of Spiritual climate on Customers experience:Summary of Regression Model
    • Hypothesis Testing: H1
      t-Test
      H-14
      L-14
      Spiritual
      Climate
      Scores
      Employees
      Service
      Scores
      3.78
      3.21
      3.91
      3.74
      t- Statistics: 2.126
      P value: 0.044
      (Leven’s test sig.: 0.738)‏
    • Conclusion
      p-Value
      H5 L5
      Acceptable
      0.005
      3.66
      3.99
      H1a (Meaningfulness)‏
      Acceptable
      0.03
      3.74
      3.95
      H1b (Sense of Community)‏
      Not Accepted
      0.4
      3.91
      3.97
      H1c (Concern for family)‏
      Acceptable
      0.06
      3.73
      3.94
      H1d (Authenticity)‏
      Acceptable
      0.003
      3.68
      3.98
      H1e (Loksangrah)‏
      Variable dropped before
      hypothesis testing
      H1f (Meditative Work)‏
      ANOVA: Average Employees’ Service Scores of 5 branches each from highest and lowest Spiritual Climate Score
    • Contributions to ‘Spirituality at Workplace’ and larger OB literature
      Integrating the traditional and contemporary thoughts for conceptualizing spirituality at workplace
      Answers the call of Giacalone and Jurkiewicz (2004) for an instrument that captures workplace spirituality
      The study intend to contribute to Positive OB literature
    • Contributions to Service Quality literature
      Gupta (1995) suggested that quality orientation and customers service are the two modern management notions parallel to Vedantic wisdom. This study examines the conjecture and tests it empirically.
      This study answers the call of Bowen and Waldman (1999) for research that pulls different sources of data together for better understanding of requirements and consequences of employee performance in relation with customers satisfaction.
    • Managerial Implication
      Meaningfulness of work and sense of contribution is linked to employees performance
      Importance of generic climate for specific climate to be achieve intended outcome
      Useful finding for Energized Learning (Thriving) organization and other OD intervention
      Stepping stone towards concretizing the scheme of organizational consciousness
    • Limitations
      Person-organization fit variation is not studied
      Usual limitations of Positivist paradigm
      Specificity due to cultural difference has not been examined
    • Thank you