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Kota super thermal power station

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  • 1. Kota Super Thermal Power Station (K.S.T.P.S), Kota CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION For the power generation with 2x110 MW and 3x210 MW of K.S.T.P.S.authorities are required to be operative to active to active full operation. The auxiliariesare basically operation either on L.T. System i.e. 415 V 3-Q power supply is madeavailable to the system after providing the station transformer of 3x50 MV A capacity 1.0MV A, 1.5 MV A, 2.0 MV A, which are located near the load center as the transformerhaving the voltage of 6.6 KV/415 V. The 6.6 KV power is distributed through 6.6 KVinterconnected Bus System for all the five units with a control through DC of 220 V. The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (Switchgear) which arelocated nearby the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all incomers,which are breaker controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGR are having thecontrol system on 110/220 V AC. The 6.6 KV power supplies which are either MOCB(Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker) of JYOTI MAKE or Air Circuit Breakers. The 6.6 KV power supply to various draining equipment’s i.e. more is madethrough breakers which are either MOCB of Jyoti make and air circuit breaker which areeither of voltage makers as well as SF 6 of NGEF make. The LT supply is also controlledthrough air break circuit breaker which are either L&T make or English ElectricCompany of India. The various H.T. motors are switched on started through on direct ONline (DOL) in order to inverse the availability of equipment at full efficiency without timegap. Further, the 6.6 KV system which is normally in delta configuration and terms asan unearthed system so also to keep the running motor complete in operating condition incase of any one , phase of motor winding is earthed due to any one reason. Earthling isdetected by a protection system with alarm facility to take remedial measuresimmediately and at the same time to maintain the generation level in the same condition,prior to occurring the earth fault the single phase earth fault is detected in due course tillthe motor is not earthed to other or another phase. “PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM” isavailable through in area of each unit which helps in fast communication for promptremedial measure. Soot Blowers are there in the boiler area on the furnace side or Zone which helpsin blowing the soot / ash deposition regularly of the furnace wall / economizer tubes tokeep heat transfer at the required parameter. In April 1973, Central Electricity Authority prepared a Project Report for powerstation comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSEB subsequentlyin September,1975 this was revised by the Consultant Thermal Design Organization,Central Electricity Authority for invention of 2x110 MW units being manufactured byBHEL, Hyderabad in 1st Stage. The planning commission cleared the project report inSept.,1976 for installation of two units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs. 143Crores. The KSTPS has four stage & six unit power station. In first stage there is 2 unit110MW, in second stage 2 unit of 210 MW. In third &fourth stage, there each having 210MW & 195 MW units respectively. The construction of fifth stage of 195 MW is under 1
  • 2. construction and may be possibly completed up to sept.,2008. the total power generatedin KSTPS is 1045 MW.K.S.T.P.S IS DESISIGNED IN FOLLOWING STAGES:-  STAGE I - 2x110MW  STAGE II - 2x210MW  STAGE III - 1x210MW  STAGE IV - 1x195MW  STAGE V - 1x195MW ** Stage V is to be commissioned shortly in Sept.,2008.LOCATION:- The Kota Thermal Power Station is ideally on the left bank of ChambalRiver at Up Stream of Kota Barrage. The large expanse of water reached by the barrageprovides an efficient direct circulation of cooling system for the power station. The 220KV GSS is within ½ Kms. from the power station.LAND:- Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976,for disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash in slurryform is disposed off through ash and slurry disposal plants.COAL:- Coal India Limited owns and operates all the major coal fields in Indiathrough its coal producing subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coal Fields Limited,Western Coal Fields Limited/Coal India Limited is supply coal from its coal mines ofcoal producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to Kota Thermal Power StationThrough railway wagons. The average distances of SECL, ECL & BCCL are 800, 950and 1350 Kms. respectively.WATER:- The source of water for power station is reservoir formed by Kota Barrageon the Chambal River. In case of large capacity plants huge quantities of coal and wateris particularly high. Therefore, as far as possible, the plant must be located near the pitrather than at load centre for load above 200 MW and 375 MW. The transportation ofelectrical energy is more economical as compared to the transportation of coal.DESING FEATURES:-The satisfactory design consists of the flowing steps. • Estimation of cost. • Selection of site. • Capacity of Power Station. 2
  • 3. • Selection of Boiler & Turbine. • Selection of Condensing Unit. • Selection of Electrical Generator. • Selection of cooling system. • Design of control and instrumentation system. The design of steam power station requires wide experience as the subsequent operation and maintenance are greatly affected by its design. The most efficient design consist of properly sized component designed to operate safely and conveniently a long with its auxiliaries and installation. CHAPTER – 2General Layout & Basic Idea A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle. Steam is producedin Boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into theboiler again. In practice of good number of modifications are affected so as to have heateconomy and to increase the thermal efficiency of plant. 3
  • 4. The Kota Thermal Power Station is divided into four main circuits:-  Fuel and Ash Circuit.  Air and Gas Circuit.  Feed water and Steam Circuit.  Cooling Water Circuit.FUEL AND ASH CIRCUIT:- Fuel from the storage is fed to the boiler through fuel handling device. Thefuel used in KSTPS is coal, which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash. Thequantity of ash produced is approximately 35-40% of coal used. This ash is collected at theback of the boiler and removed to ash storage tank through ash disposal equipment.AIR AND GAS CIRCUIT:- Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of Boilerthough the action of forced draft fans and induced draft fan. The flue gas gases are firstpass around the boiler tubes and super heated tubes in the furnace, next through dustcollector (ESP) & then economizer. Finally, they are exhausted to the atmosphere throughfans.FEED WATER AND STEAM CIRCUIT:- The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (LP)heaters through extracted steam from the lower pressure extraction of the turbine. Then itsgoes to dearator where extra air and non-condensable gases are removed from the hot waterto avoid pitting / oxidation. From dearator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases thepressure of the water. From the BFP it passes through the high pressure heaters. A smallpart of water and steam is lost while passing though different components therefore wateris added in hot well. This water is called the make up water. Thereafter, feed water entersinto the boiler drum though economizer. In boiler tubes water circulates because of densitydifference in lower and higher temperature section of the boiler. The wet steam passesthrough superheated. From superheated it goes into the HP turbine after expanding in theHP turbine. The low pressure steam called the cold reheat steam (CRH) goes to the reheater(boiler). From reheater it goes to IP turbine and then to the LP turbine and then exhaustedthrough the condenser into hot well.COOLING WATER CIRCUIT:- A large quantity of cooling water is required to condense the steam incondenser and marinating low pressure in it. The water is drawn from reservoir and afteruse it is drained into the river. COAL HANDLING PLANTINTRODUCTION:- It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it provided the fuelfor combustion in boiler. The 4