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the world recession in market

the world recession in market

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  • 1. THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1929 Photos by photographer Dorothea Lange
  • 2. THE NATION’S SICK ECONOMY
    • Agriculture
    • Railroads
    • Textiles
    • Steel
    • Mining
    • Lumber
    • Automobiles
    • Housing
    • Consumer goods
    As the 1920s advanced, serious problems threatened the economy while Important industries struggled, including:
  • 3. FARMERS STRUGGLE
    • No industry suffered as much as agriculture
    • During World War I European demand for American crops soared
    • After the war demand plummeted
    • Farmers increased production sending prices further downward
    Photo by Dorothea Lange
  • 4. CONSUMER SPENDING DOWN
    • By the late 1920s, American consumers were buying less
    • Rising prices, stagnant wages and overbuying on credit were to blame
    • Most people did not have the money to buy the flood of goods factories produced
  • 5. GAP BETWEEN RICH & POOR
    • The gap between rich and poor widened
    • The wealthiest 1% saw their income rise 75%
    • The rest of the population saw an increase of only 9%
    • More than 70% of American families earned less than $2500 per year
    Photo by Dorothea Lange
  • 6. HOOVER WINS 1928 ELECTION
    • Republican Herbert Hoover ran against Democrat Alfred E. Smith in the 1928 election
    • Hoover emphasized years of prosperity under Republican administrations
    • Hoover won an overwhelming victory
  • 7. THE STOCK MARKET
    • By 1929, many Americans were invested in the Stock Market
    • The Stock Market had become the most visible symbol of a prosperous American economy
    • The Dow Jones Industrial Average was the barometer of the Stock Market’s worth
    • The Dow is a measure based on the price of 30 large firms
  • 8. STOCK PRICES RISE THROUGH THE 1920s
    • Through most of the 1920s, stock prices rose steadily
    • The Dow reached a high in 1929 of 381 points (300 points higher than 1924)
    • By 1929, 4 million Americans owned stocks
    New York Stock Exchange
  • 9. SEEDS OF TROUBLE
    • By the late 1920s, problems with the economy emerged
    • Speculation: Too many Americans were engaged in speculation – buying stocks & bonds hoping for a quick profit
    • Margin: Americans were buying “on margin” – paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
    The Stock Market’s bubble was about to break
  • 10. THE 1929 CRASH
    • In September the Stock Market had some unusual up & down movements
    • On October 24, the market took a plunge . . .the worst was yet to come
    • On October 29, now known as Black Tuesday , the bottom fell out
    • 16.4 million shares were sold that day – prices plummeted
    • People who had bought on margin (credit) were stuck with huge debts
  • 11. By mid-November, investors had lost about $30 billion
  • 12.  
  • 13. THE GREAT DEPRESSION
    • The Stock Market crash signaled the beginning of the Great Depression
    • The Great Depression is generally defined as the period from 1929 – 1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed
    • The crash alone did not cause the Great Depression, but it hastened its arrival
  • 14. FINANCIAL COLLAPSE
    • After the crash, many Americans panicked and withdrew their money from banks
    • Banks had invested in the Stock Market and lost money
    • In 1929- 600 banks fail
    • By 1933 – 11,000 of the 25,000 banks nationwide had collapsed
    Bank run 1929, Los Angeles
  • 15. GNP DROPS, UNEMPLOYMENT SOARS
    • Between 1928-1932, the U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) – the total output of a nation’s goods & services – fell nearly 50% from $104 billion to $59 billion
    • 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
    • Unemployment leaped from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933
  • 16. HAWLEY-SMOOT TARIFF
    • The U.S. was not the only country gripped by the Great Depression
    • Much of Europe suffered throughout the 1920s
    • In 1930, Congress passed the toughest tariff in U.S. history called the Hawley- Smoot Tariff
    • It was meant to protect U.S. industry yet had the opposite effect
    • Other countries enacted their own tariffs and soon world trade fell 40%
  • 17. CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
    • Tariffs & war debt policies
    • U.S. demand low , despite factories producing more
    • Farm sector crisis
    • Easy credit
    • Unequal distribution of income
  • 18. HARDSHIPS DURING DEPRESSION
    • The Great Depression brought hardship, homelessness, and hunger to millions
    • Across the country, people lost their jobs, and their homes
    • Some built makeshifts shacks out of scrap material
    • Before long whole shantytowns (sometimes called Hoovervilles in mock reference to the president) sprung up
  • 19. SOUP KITCHENS
    • One of the common features of urban areas during the era were soup kitchens and bread lines
    • Soup kitchens and bread lines offered free or low-cost food for people
    Unemployed men wait in line for food – this particular soup kitchen was sponsored by Al Capone
  • 20. CONDITIONS FOR MINORITIES
    • Conditions for African Americans and Latinos were especially difficult
    • Unemployment was the highest among minorities and their pay was the lowest
    • Increased violence
    • Many Mexicans were “encouraged” to return to their homeland
    As conditions deteriorated, violence against blacks increased
  • 21. RURAL LIFE DURING THE DEPRESSION
    • While the Depression was difficult for everyone, farmers did have one advantage; they could grow food for their families
    • Thousands of farmers, however, lost their land
    • Many turned to tenant farming and barely scraped out a living
    Between 1929-1932 almost ½ million farmers lost their land
  • 22. THE DUST BOWL
    • A severe drought gripped the Great Plains in the early 1930s
    • Wind scattered the topsoil, exposing sand and grit
    • The resulting dust traveled hundreds of miles
    • One storm in 1934 picked up millions of tons of dust from the Plains an carried it to the East Coast
    Kansas Farmer, 1933
  • 23. Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas - 1934
  • 24. Storm approaching Elkhart, Kansas in 1937
  • 25. Dust buried cars and wagons in South Dakota in 1936
  • 26. HARDEST HIT REGIONS
    • Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado were the hardest hit regions during the Dust Bowl
    • Many farmers migrated to California and other Pacific Coast states
    Boy covers his mouth to avoid dust, 1935
  • 27.  
  • 28. HOBOES TRAVEL AMERICA
    • The 1930s created the term “hoboes” to describe poor drifters
    • 300,000 transients – or hoboes – hitched rides around the country on trains and slept under bridges (thousands were teenagers)
    • Injuries and death was common on railroad property; over 50,000 people were hurt or killed
  • 29. EFFECTS OF DEPRESSION
    • Suicide rate rose more than 30% between 1928-1932
    • Alcoholism rose sharply in urban areas
    • Three times as many people were admitted to state mental hospitals as in normal times
    • Many people showed great kindness to strangers
    • Additionally, many people developed habits of savings & thriftiness
  • 30. HOOVER STRUGGLES WITH THE DEPRESSION
    • After the stock market crash, President Hoover tried to reassure Americans
    • He said, “Any lack of confidence in the economic future . . . Is foolish”
    • He recommended business as usual
    Herbert Hoover
  • 31. HOOVER’S PHILOSOPHY
    • Hoover was not quick to react to the depression
    • He believed in “rugged individualism” – the idea that people succeed through their own efforts
    • People should take care of themselves, not depend on governmental hand-outs
    • He said people should “pull themselves up by their bootstraps”
    Hoover believed it was the individuals job to take care of themselves, not the governments
  • 32. HOOVER TAKES ACTION: TOO LITTLE TOO LATE
    • Hoover gradually softened his position on government intervention in the economy
    • He created the Federal Farm Board to help farmers
    • He also created the National Credit Organization that helped smaller banks
    • His Federal Home Loan Bank Act and Reconstruction Finance Corp were two measures enacted to protect people’s homes and businesses
    Hoover’s flurry of activity came too late to save the economy or his job
  • 33. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT- 1932 Roosevelt remained vague on the campaign trail, promising only that under his presidency government would act decisively to end the Depression.
  • 34. NEW DEAL
    • New Deal-1(1933-35)
      • The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), passed in 1933
      • government sought to stimulate increased farm prices by paying farmers to produce less.
      • It did little for smaller farmers and led to the eviction and homelessness of tenants and sharecroppers whose landlords hardly needed their services under a system that paid them to grow less
  • 35.
        • Aimed at restoring the economy from the bottom up
        • The Works Progress Administration was a huge federal jobs program that sought to hire unemployed breadwinners for the purpose strengthening their family's well-being as well as boosting consumer demand.
        • National Labour Relations Act of 1935
      • New Deal (1935-40s)
  • 36. WORLDWIDE EFFECTS
    • Australia
      • Australia's extreme dependence on agricultural and industrial exports meant it was one of the hardest-hit countries in the Western world
      • Falling export demand and commodity prices placed massive downward pressures on wages
      • Further, unemployment reached a record high of almost 32% in 1932
      • After 1932, an increase in wool and meat prices led to a gradual recovery
  • 37. WORLDWIDE EFFECTS(CONT…)
    • Canada
      • Harshly impacted by both the global economic downturn and the Dust Bowl,
      • Canadian industrial production had fallen to only 58% of the 1929 level by 1932, the second lowest level in the world after the United States
      • Total national income fell to 55% of the 1929 level, again worse than any nation apart from the United States.
  • 38. East Asia
      • The Great Depression in East Asia was of minor impact
    • The Japanese economy shrank by 8% 1929–31
      • The invasion and subjugation of Manchuria into a Japanese puppet-state in September 1931, thus providing Japan with raw materials and energy, the Japanese economy was able to recover by 1932 and continued to grow.
  • 39. France
    • The Depression began to affect France from about 1931
    • France's relatively high degree of self-sufficiency meant the damage was considerably less than in nations like Germany
    • Hardship and unemployment were high enough to lead to rioting and the rise of the socialist Popular Front.
  • 40. Germany
    • Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the depression, as American loans to help rebuild the German economy stopped.
    • Unemployment soared, especially in larger cities, and the political system veered toward extremism.
    • Hitler's Nazi Party came to power in January 1933. In 1934 the economy was still not balanced enough for Germany to work on its own.
  • 41. Latin America
    • Because of high levels of United States investment in Latin American economies, they were severely damaged by the Depression
    • Chile, Bolivia and Peru were particularly badly affected
    • One result of the Depression in this area was the rise of fascist movements.
  • 42. Netherlands
    • From roughly 1931 until 1937, the Netherlands suffered a deep and exceptionally long depression.
    • This depression was partly caused by the after-effects of the Stock Market Crash of 1929 in the United States, and partly by internal factors in the Netherlands.
    • Government policy, especially the very late dropping of the Gold Standard, played a role in prolonging the depression.
    • The Great Depression in the Netherlands led to some political instability and riots, and can be linked to the rise of the Dutch national-socialist party NSB.
  • 43.
    • Outbreak of World War II causes
      • US factories flooded with orders form armaments and munitions
      • Unemployment decreases and production increase
      • Depression ends completely by the time the US enters the war in 1941
    End to Depression
  • 44. What did we learn from the 1929 Crash?
    • Market can be very unpredictable
    • Investors must not get caught up in market bubble illusions
    • Market forces alone may be unable to achieve recovery from economic slump
    • Changes were needed in US economic structure
  • 45. RECESSION 2008
    • The Lehman Bankruptcy
    • Effect on Indian economy
    • US debt rescue plan
  • 46.  
  • 47. Does History repeat …. ? ASHISH KUMAR 1 ST SEMESTER