Science & technology

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Science & technology

  1. 1. Science Introduction Today in this world Just about every single major scientific or technological breakthrough has two sides: A good side, and a bad side. For instance, Nuclear Fission/Fusion. The good: We can use it for power. The Bad: One atomic bomb is devastating to the planet. Also, the Internet. The good: We can use it to make purchases, do research, and share our views and opinions. The bad: It be used for identity theft, scams, and porn. The bad edge of science hasn't killed us yet, but when a crazy enough dictator gets his hands on said technology, the world as we know it will have changed.
  2. 2. Science as destroyer by war ‘Regional’ Nuclear War Would Cause Worldwide Destruction Beyond the local human tragedy of such a situation, a new study looking at the atmospheric chemistry of regional nuclear war finds that the hot smoke from burning cities would tear holes in the ozone layer of the Earth. The increased UV radiation resulting from the ozone loss could more than double DNA damage, and increase cancer rates across North America and Eurasia. "Our research supports that there would be worldwide destruction," said Michael Mills, co-author of the study and a research scientist at the University of Colorado at Boulder. "It demonstrates that a small-scale regional conflict is capable of triggering larger ozone losses globally than the ones that were previously predicted for a full-scale nuclear war."
  3. 3. Combined with the climatic impact of a regional nuclear war — which could reduce crop yields andstarve hundreds of millions — Mills’ modeling shows that the entire globe would feel the repercussions of a hundred nuclear detonations, a small fraction of just the U.S. stockpile. After decades of Cold War research into the impacts that a full-blown war between the Soviet Union and the United States would have had on the globe, recent work has focused on regional nuclear wars, which are seen as more likely than all-out nuclear Armageddon. Incorporating the latest atmospheric modeling, the scientists are finding that even a small nuclear conflict would wreak havoc on the global environment (.pdf) — cooling it twice as much as it’s heated over the last century — and on the structure of the atmosphere itself. Mills’ work, which appears online today in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, useda model from National Center for Atmospheric Research to look at the impact of throwing 5 million metric tons of black carbon, or soot, into the atmosphere. He found that when a cluster of cities are burning together, they end up creating their own weather, pumping soot 20,000 feet into the atmosphere. Once there, sunlight would heat the smoke, and drive it up 260,000 feet above the earth’s surface. Along the way, the hot soot would cause a variety of atmospheric changes with a net result of huge reductions in ozone, which in the stratosphere serves as sunblock for the earth. In the middle latitudes, the researchers found the ozone layer would be reduced by 25 to 45 percent, with the polar regions losing 50 to 70 percent of their ozone coverage. This thinning is known as a "hole" in the ozone layer, and would be many times the size of the famed hole over Antarctica.
  4. 4. Science as destruction for environment Today we all are watching what Science has done to our nature. The hole in ozone layer etc. Preventing illness is the best way to get health-care costs down. So why aren't governments doing more to protect the environment? We've long known that environmental factors contribute to disease, especially contamination of air, water, and soil. Scientists are now learning the connection is stronger than we realized. New research shows that 60 per cent of emerging infectious diseases affecting humans — those that rapidly increase in incidence or geographic range — start with animals, two thirds from wild animals. Lyme disease, West Nile virus, Ebola, SARS, AIDS... these are just a few of the hundreds of epidemics that have spread from animals to people. A study by the International Livestock Research Institute concludes that more than two-million people a year are killed by diseases that originated with wild and domestic animals. Many more become ill.
  5. 5. Subscribe to Science Matters According to an article in the New York Times, "emerging diseases have quadrupled in the last half-century." The increase is mainly due to human encroachment into and destruction of wildlife habitat. For example, one study concluded that a four per cent increase in Amazon deforestation led to a 50 per cent increase in malaria because mosquitoes, which transmit the disease, thrive in the cleared areas. sickness, according to a study in the Archives of Medical Research, " Global Warming and Infectious Disease "
  6. 6. Anotherexample from the article shows how how Another example from the article shows interconnected life is. interconnectedNorth America has destroyed or fragmented Development in life is. Development in North America has destroyed or fragmented forests away. This has led to a huge forests and chased many predators and chased many predators white-footed mice, which carry increase in whiteincrease in away. This has led to a huge Lyme bacteria. The footed mice, which removing ticks and their larvae and sonot mice are not good at carry Lyme bacteria. The mice are the good at removing ticks and mice and spread it to the ticks ticks pick up bacteria from the their larvae and so other pick up bacteria from the mice and the number other mammals, including humans. Because spread it toof Lymemammals, including humans. Because the number of Lymeinfected ticks has multiplied, more are transferring the disease to humans. ticks has multiplied, more are transferring the infected disease to humans. "When we do things in an ecosystem that erode biodiversity — we chop forests into bits or replace habitat with agricultural fields — "When we do things in an ecosystem that erode biodiversity wewe chop forestsspecies that serve a protectivewith Lyme — tend to get rid of into bits or replace habitat role," disease researcher Richard Ostfeldget rid of species Times, agricultural fields — we tend to told the New York that serve adding that our actions tend to favour species that act as disease a protective role," Lyme disease researcher Richard Ostfeld carriers. New York Times, adding that our actions tend to told the favour species that act as disease carriers.
  7. 7. Global warming is adding to the problem. A study in the journal Nature, "Impact of regional climate change on human health", notes that heart attacks and respiratory illness due to heat waves, altered transmission of infectious diseases, and malnutrition from crop failures can all be linked to a warming planet. And economic and political upheaval brought on by climate change can damage public health infrastructure, making it difficult for people to cope with the inevitable rise in
  8. 8. At last Science as a Mankind Scientific discoveries and inventions has made the life of men easier and smoother. In the earlier days men had to undertake very hard jobs as scientific devices and technical know-how was not available. Besides hard work, the process of productions was very slow. Thus, most of the wants of men remain unfulfilled. With the passage of time, education and knowledge developed. Men concentrated more and more on the study and application of the know-how of science. Emphasis was laid on the study of science. Rigorous study and research of science resulted in numerous scientific inventions that resulted in the application of scientific methods in different aspects of life. Now there is hardly any aspect of life in which science and scientific techniques are not used. All the items of comfort and luxury is produced through the use of scientific knowledge,machines and better production methods.

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