Forest Dependence, Livelihoods and Poverty - Class Assigment
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Forest Dependence, Livelihoods and Poverty - Class Assigment

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Importance of Forests is globally recognized not only as important source of subsistence, employment, revenue earnings, raw materials to a number of industries but also for their vital role in ...

Importance of Forests is globally recognized not only as important source of subsistence, employment, revenue earnings, raw materials to a number of industries but also for their vital role in ecological balance, environmental stability, biodiversity conservation, food security and sustainable development of a country Deforestation per se is not a problem and in fact may be a necessary condition for economic development. Unsustainable deforestation activities, however, result in environmental degradation.

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Forest Dependence, Livelihoods and Poverty - Class Assigment Forest Dependence, Livelihoods and Poverty - Class Assigment Presentation Transcript

  • Forest Dependence, Livelihoods and Poverty Ashish Bharadwaj II M.Sc. Economics, 2007 Madras School of Economics
  • Design of the study 1 2 Aim of this assignment Current scenario 3 Establishing links between environment and poverty 4 Forest-Livelihood Nexus 5 Data and Methodology 6 Model 7 References 8 Results, Conclusion and Policy Suggestions
  • Importance of Forests is globally recognized not only as important source of subsistence, employment, revenue earnings, raw materials to a number of industries but also for their vital role in ecological balance, environmental stability, biodiversity conservation, food security and sustainable development of a country Deforestation per se is not a problem and in fact may be a necessary condition for economic development. Unsustainable deforestation activities, however, result in environmental degradation.
  • • Natural Resource degradation, if not checked, will result in large-scale poverty & destitution, and can hamper the very process of socio-economic development (Nandkarni 2000) • Environment Degradation impacts the poor much more than the better off (greater dependence, limited assets, vulnerability to disasters) • Rural women are disproportionately affected by natural resource degradation (B. Agarwal, 1995) • Concentration of the poorest groups in perhaps the ecologically most fragile areas implies greatest risk to their welfare
  • Some Statistics… India’s forest cover is estimated to be about 6,75,538 sq. km. or 20.55 percent of the country’s area However, the per capita availability of forestland in India is 0.0747 ha which is still one of the lowest in the world against an average of 0.5 ha for developing countries and 0.64 ha for the world Dense forest shrinking in almost all the major States >57% of total geographical area degraded NRSA study concluded that forest cover of the country reduced from 16.89% to 14.10% during the seven years from 1975 to 1982 Source: SFR (2003) and Sehgal & Abrol (1994)
  • Forest Cover of Major States in India (1987-2001) Forest Cover (in hectares) 140,000 120,000 100,000 1987 80,000 1995 60,000 40,000 2001 20,000 0 AP MP UP Orissa
  • Some of the forest rich states for e.g. Madhya Pradesh , Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttranchal , Himachal Pradesh and seven north east states for which human development reports are available, shrinking dense forest cover adversely affects the constituents of human development (World Bank 1999, Poffenberger 2000) In India, about 100 million people reside in forests, and are heavily dependent upon a variety of forest products and services for their subsistence and livelihood. Another 275 million people live on the forest fringes and earn bulk of their livelihood from forests (World Bank 1999, Poffenberger 2000) Direct benefits from environment Indirect benefits from environment Poverty reduction Income derived from forest goods & services Enhanced Welfare Food Requirements Primary health care Education
  • Forest Cover of India Dense Forest Open Forest Scrub Non-Forest Official statistics on forest cover suggest that rich diverse forest in the category of dense forest is consistently declining while total forest area is increasing, at least for last two decades
  • Data and Sources • Distribution of Geographical area and Forest Cover (dense, moderately dense and open forests) for States •Production of NTFPs (medicinal herbs, tendu leaves, fruits, honey, spices, bamboo, agarbatti etc.) during 2000-01 and 2001-02 • HDI values and ranking for States 1991, 2001 • Timber production (2000-01) for States • Afforestation on Forest Land During 2000-01 and 2001-02 for States • Fuel wood consumption Sources: • State Forest Reports • Forest Survey of India & Forest Research Institute Statistics • Global Forest Resources Assessment, FAO 2000, 2001b, 2001c • World Bank Data
  • Model HDI i    i FCi   i NTFPi  iTPi  i AFFi  ui i  1, 2,...,10 Where, HDI = Value of Human Development Index FC = Forest Cover (in sq.kms.) NTFP = Non timber forest products (total production value) TP = Timber production (in cu.m.) AFF = Afforestation (in sq.kms.)
  • References 1. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being, Policy Responses, Vol.3, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Island Press 2005 2. The Earthscan Reader in Forestry and Development, ed. Jeffrey Sayer, Earthscan 2005 3. People and Forests: Communities, Institutions & Governance, ed. Clark Gibson, Margaret McKean and Elinor Ostrom, MIT Press, 2000 4. Economics of Environment and evelopment, ed. Pushpam Kumar, Ane Books 2005 5. FAO Corporate Document Repository, Forestry Department 6. Abrol, I.P. and Sehgal, J.L., 1994. Degraded lands and their rehabilitation in India. In: Greenland, D.J. and Szabolcs, I. Editors, 1994. Soil Resilience and Sustainable Land Use CAB International, Wallingford, UK 7. Poffenberger, M. (ed.), 2000. Communities and forest management in South Asia. A regional profile of the Working Group on Community Involvement in Forest Management. Forests, People and Policies, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. . 8. http://envfor.nic.in/fsi/sfr99/misc/summary.html 9. Forest Principles, Earth Summit 1992, Rio de Janeiro
  • Some possible policy suggestions: a) More secure PRs over resources b) Participatory resource management (Joint Forest Management) involving local communities and public agencies. c) Effective regulation and enforcement of controls d) Effective price system for NTFPs AND… Generating awareness of ecological & economic impacts of natural resource depletion
  • But, its good to see certain sections of society working hard on this front !! Thanks