1. Solar Power Integration With Grid 1 POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED SOLAR POWER INTEGRATION WITH GRID Various Transmission Issues Executive Trainee: Ashish Discipline: Electrical Engineering Employee Number: 02631 Location: National Load Despatch Centre, New DelhiGuide: Sh. S R NarasimhanDGM,System OperationNLDC,New Delhi July,2012
2. Acknowledgement The OJT Project is a golden opportunity for learning and self-development consider myself very lucky and honored to have so many wonderful people lead me through in completion of this project. It is indeed a great pleasure and a moment of immense satisfaction for me to express my sense of profound gratitude and indebtedness towards Sh.S.K.Soonee (CEO- POSOCO) and Sh. V.K.Agrawal (GM-NLDC) for sharing their experiences and Table oftheir valuable 1. Executive Summary4 1.1 Future applications52. giving Contents:- guidance.Background6 2.1 Solar power potential in India6 2.2 Off grid power7 2.3GridMy gratefulpower73. Aim84. Literature Survey and description of project 9 being connected thanks to Sh.S.R.Narasimhan (DGM-NLDC) who inspite of 4.1 Existing Renewable Capacity9 4.2 Solarkeep me on thein brief10 busy with his duties, took time to hear, guide and Technologies correct path. 4.2.1 Photovoltaic (PV)10 4.2.2 Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)11 4.3 Jawaharlal Nehru to use this opportunity to thank 4.3.1 A. Mani (AGM-NLDC), I would also like National Solar Mission11 Sh. Objectives andTargets115. Study results14 5.1 Study for Solar in Gujarat14 Sh.R.K.Bansal (AGM-NLDC), Ms. Minaxi Garg 5.1.1 Scope (DGM-NLDC) of Powergrid156. (DGM-NLDC), and Sh. R.Piplonia (DGM-NLDC) for their ,Sh.S.S.Barpanda Challenges/Suggestions17 6.1 Challenges in Grid valuable guidance at every 6.2Suggestions177. References20 Planning17 point of time. Finally I would like to thank all the executives of SO & NLDC for their support, help and encouragement. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY :- Energy comes at a cost, and the cost which we intentionally or ASHISH ANTIL unintentionally chose to ignore is far greater than the tariffs that we pay for the amount of electricity consumed. Unfortunately our electricityEET does not bill (XVI-Batch) accounts for the irreversible damage that we do the environment, and for that matter no amount of money can make up for the damage that has already been done to the environment. So, the basic need of the hour is to focus on areas which are clean sources of energy and reduce our dependence on conventional sources without compromising with the reliability of the system.
3. Solar Power Integration With Grid 3 Total922945010372StateExisting capacity (MW)Addition in 12th Plan (MW)Total capacity (MW) SolarSolarSolar Tamil Nadu730003007 Karnataka6160166 A.P92285377 Gujarat60014002000 Maharashtra17905922 Rajasthan20037003900 So,knowing the need of future, govt. has planned for 12th plan as above:-
4. So, To transmit this power to long distances and integration with grid is avery big challenge which we are going to face in future. A grid operator hasto face these challenges in future. Gujarat and Rajasthan are going to beleader in solar power production.Solar Radiation Resource Assessment stations have been installed acrossIndia by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) to monitor theavailability of solar energy. Data is collected and reported to the Centre forWind Energy Technology (C-WET), in order to create a Solar Atlas.1.1 Future Applications :- 1. Rural electrification 2. Agriculture support 3. Solar water heating 4. Reduction in green house gases 5. Very less operating charges 6. Off grid applications There is a need to understand how to utilize these renewable resources with their full efficiency. This project analysis various aspects like interconnection with grid, planning of solar power etc.
5. Solar Power Integration With Grid 52. BACKGROUND:- 2.1 Solar power potential of India -
6. As we can see from above solar power map more dark is the region, moresolar power can be produced from that region. The daily average solar energyincident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1500–2000sunshine hours per year (depending upon location), which is far more than
7. Solar Power Integration With Grid 7current total energy consumption.2.2 Potential of off grid power :-The solar PV off grid opportunities in India are huge, given the fact that over400 million people do not have access to grid connected electricity. The off-grid opportunities are significant, given the cost involved in off gridapplications when compared to huge financial investments to be made to setup grids. The Governments solar mission envisages off-grid applicationsreaching 2000 MW by 2022 and deploying 20 million solar lighting systemsfor rural areas. 2.3 Grid connected power:- Grid-interactive renewable power projects based on solar are mainly privateinvestment driven, with favorable tariff policy regimes established by StateElectricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC), and almost all-renewable powercapacity addition during the year has come through this route. It aims togenerate competitively priced Solar Thermal and Solar Photovoltaic Power.The National Solar Mission is a major initiative of the Government of Indiaand State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth whileaddressing India’s energy security challenge. It will also constitute a majorcontribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climatechange.
8. 3. AIM:- Broad objective of the study includes :-1. Future of solar power in India.2. Planning by govt. of India.3. Feasibility of grid integration of solar power.4. Various issues and suggestions to overcome these problems.
9. Solar Power Integration With Grid 94. Literature Survey and description of project :- 4.1 Existing Renewable Capacity Presently the total installed capacity in India is about 200 GW (As on 31.03.2012). Thecapacity from conventional sources namely coal, gas, diesel, nuclear and large hydro amounts toabout 88% share and non-conventional / renewable contribution is about 12%. The mix of installedcapacity of various types of generations (GW) on all India basis is shown at below:-
10. Share of different types of generation capacity (Source- CEA monthly review of power sector, Mar’12) India has been continuously progressing in conventional as well as renewable capacity addition. Since 9th Plan period, share of renewable capacity has increased from 2% to 12% as on today (about 6 fold increase). Electricity generation due to renewables has also increased to about 4% in overall electricity generation mix as on today. With such multifold growth, penetration of renewable power in Indian scenario has increased. Presently, in our country 25,000MW grid interactive as well as 672 MW off grid generation capacity from RE is available. Out of this about 71% grid interactive capacity is contributed by the wind alone. Similarly, share of renewable energy is as shown in graph :- now impetus has been given on harnessing of renewable energy sources like Wind, Solar, Small Hydro, Biomass / waste to energy etc. This shall also pave a new way to India’s need for secure, affordable and sustainable energy for meeting its growing demand. Conducive policies, regulatory framework, financial Incentives etc. have also given a boost towards development of renewable capacity addition in past few years. 4.2.1 Solar Technologies in brief:-
11. Solar Power Integration With Grid 11 Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Solar power is convertedinto electricity using mainly following two techniques:- 4.2.2 Photovoltaic (PV):- It is a direct method to convert solar radiations into electricity . Photovoltaic (PV) is amethod of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct currentelectricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic powergeneration employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing aphotovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaic include silicon. Solar photovoltaic is growing rapidly, albeit from a small base, to a total global capacityof 67,400 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2011, representing 0.5% of worldwideelectricity demand. The total power output of the world’s PV capacity run over acalendar year is equal to some 80 billion kWh of electricity. This is sufficient to cover theannual power supply needs of over 20 million households in the world. 4.2.3 Concentrated Solar Power (CSP):- It is a indirect method to convert solar radiations into electricity. Concentrated solarpower (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP)systems use mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermalenergy, onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light isconverted to heat, which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to anelectrical power generator.
12. CSP is being widely commercialized and the CSP market has seen about 740 MW ofgenerating capacity added between 2007 and the end of 2010. More than half of this(about 478 MW) was installed during 2010, bringing the global total to 1095 MW. Spainadded 400 MW in 2010, 4.2.4 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission:- The National Solar Mission is a major initiative of the Government of India and StateGovernments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’senergy security challenge. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to theglobal effort to meet the challenges of climate change. 184.108.40.206 Objectives and Targets:-The objective of the National Solar Mission is to establish India as a global leader insolar energyMission targets:-· To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MWof solar power by 2022.· To ramp up capacity of grid-connected solar power generation to 1000 MWwithin three years – by 2013; an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through themandatory use of the renewable purchase obligation by utilities backed with apreferential tariff. This capacity can be more than doubled – reaching10,000MW installed power by 2017 or more, based on the enhanced andenabled international finance and technology transfer. The ambitious targetfor 2022 of 20,000 MW or more, will be dependent on the ‘learning’ of the firsttwo phases, which if successful, could lead to conditions of grid-competitivesolar power. The transition could be appropriately up scaled, based onavailability of international finance and technology.
13. Solar Power Integration With Grid 13· To create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability, particularlysolar thermal for indigenous production and market leadership.· To promote programmes for off grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017and 2000 MW by 2022 .· To achieve 15 million sq. meters solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20million by 2022.· To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022. 4.2.5 Cost Estimation :- Economy is the main criteria for any project.But here we are working for our earth andourselves. Besides having high cost approx. 15 crore/mw what we are getting is muchhigher in return than what we are putting in.Approx. capex requirement for this project isRs. 7000crore.
14. National Solar Mission In India5. Study Results: According to CERC regulation,” No transmission charges for the use of ISTS
15. Solar Power Integration With Grid 15 network shall be charged to solar based generation. This shall be applicable forthe useful life of the projects commissioned in next three years.” We have to optimally utilize our resourses. So, a thorough study is required with reference to Indian context.So,here study of Gujarat having potential of solar power is given :- 5.1 Study for Solar in Gujarat - As per the information submitted by the GETCO/GEDA, following renewable generation capacity addition in Solar is envisaged by 12th plan period. ResourceExisting (as on Mar’12)Future (by 16-17)TotalSolar60014002000 Out of above 9700 MW renewable capacity, 2000 MW Solar Plants are envisaged to be primarily concentrated to districts of Kutch (500 MW), Banaskantha (500 MW) and Patan (550 MW). Further, 7700 MW Wind Farms are envisaged to be located mainly in districts of Kutch (2800 MW), Jamnagar (1000 MW), Rajkot (1700 MW), Surendranagr (950 MW), Banaskantha/Patan (1800 MW) as well as Amreli (300 MW).
16. 5.1.1 Scope For Powergrid :- As per estimates, by 2016-17, capacity requirement to meet its projected RPO by Gujarat (12%), shall be about 3600 MW whereas RE maximum generation (9700 MW x @70% or 80%) can be about 7000 MW in off peak hours. With this, Gujarat is projected to be 3400 MW RE Surplus which may be utilized in meeting RPO requirement of other RE deficit States in demand other than peak period. GETCO has also submitted proposal for transmission network for Renewable energy projects in Gujarat to MNRE. Details of such transmission system is as under are enclosed at: Transmission System : 400kV transmission line : 440 ckt 220kV transmission line : 1574 ckt km 132kV transmission line : 40 ckt km Broad Estimated Cost : Rs. 1680.41 Cr Additionally, GETCO vide letter dated 24.2.12 also informed tentative transmission scheme for integration of 500 MW Solar Power from Solar Park Phase-II in Distt. Banaskantha with GETCO network. Details of such transmission system are as under:- 400kV transmission line : 200 ckt km New 400/220/66kV S/s : 1 no. 400/220kV Transformation Cap : 630 MVA 220/66kV Transformation Cap : 500 MVA Both the above transmission system(s) has been considered while carrying out for base case system studies. However adequacy or requirements of above proposal have also been assessed while performing studies.