Health Issues of  People with  Disabilities West Africa Transformation Development Conference       Ghana 2010
Perfect Dream     Empty Wheelchairs Symbolize No More Disabilities
Reality 600 million people live with disabilities Rapid increase due to:    Population growth    Increased aging popul...
Society’s Impact on the            Disabled          53 rd World Health Conference 80% of people with disabilities esp. c...
View of the Disabled   Devalued   Dehumanized   Rejected   Victimized   Excluded   Invisible   Aspiritual
It Could Happen to       You!
Motor Impairment   Cerebral Palsy   Spinal Bifida   Traumatic Brain Injury   Spinal Cord Injuries   Polio
Cerebral Palsy    Cerebral palsy is caused by injury to the brain, which    occurs as the baby grows in the uterus or nea...
Types of Cerebral      Palsy
Health Care Issues Nutrition – poor eaters, may need feeding  tube Communication Seizures – medication, seizure precaut...
Life Impact Life long disorder Long-term care needed for more severe  cases Normal life expectancy Social impact – lon...
Prevention      Early prenatal care       may reduce risk of       premature birth thus,       reducing risk of CP
Spina BifidaSpina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which thebackbone and spinal canal do not close before...
Health Issues Surgery to close back Hydrocephalus – water on the brain –  requires a drain from brain to abdomen Urinar...
Life Impact Normal life expectancy Life long health needs Susceptible to urinary tract infections due  to daily cathete...
Prevention      Can be prevented      when mother gets      Folic acid before      getting pregnant and      during early ...
Traumatic Brain Injury         TBI            Symptoms and long              term effects depends              on the area...
Symptoms of TBI   Lethargy   Confusion   Irritability   Severe headaches   Changes in speech, vision, or movement   ...
Subtle Symptoms ofTBI   Long- and short-term memory problems   Slowed thinking   Distorted perception   Concentration ...
Treatment            Prevention Medical treatment depends on the  severity of the injury Long term school issues may nee...
Spinal Cord Injuries A spinal cord injury usually begins with a  sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that  fractures or d...
Treatment Improved emergency care for people  with spinal cord injuries and aggressive  treatment and rehabilitation can ...
Joni Erickson Tada
Polio Nigeria is one of four endemic countries  worldwide where polio infections  originate before they are transferred  ...
Impact of Polio
Prevention - vaccine            In the past, resistance             among conservative             religious groups in   ...
Sensory Impairments Visual Impairment - Blindness Hearing Impairment - Deafness
Vision Impairment       Blindness Blindness is the lack of vision that can  not be corrected by glasses or contacts Part...
Leading Causes ofBlindness in Developing       Countries             Cataracts             River Blindness             ...
Seek Medical        Treatment Sudden vision loss is always an  emergency Symptoms of a detached retina    Floaters    Gr...
Cataracts      Cloudy, fuzzy, foggy, or       filmy vision      Glare from lamps or the       sun, which may be severe  ...
Cataract Treatment Surgery is a common procedure that  involves removing the clouded lens of the  eye (the cataract). Th...
Onchocerciasis      River Blindness Caused by a parasitic worm and is spread by  the bite of an infected blackfly. Multi...
Treatment Ivermectin is administered as an oral dose of  150 micrograms per kilogram (maximum 12  mg) every 6-12 months....
Vitamin A Deficiency            Night blindness or the             inability to see in dim             light –           ...
Vitamin A Deficiency
Trachoma The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis  that causes trachoma spreads through  direct contact with the eye, nose or ...
Transmission   Hands   Clothing - towels   Insects.   In the worlds developing countries, flies    are a major means o...
Trachoma Symptoms Mild itching and irritation of the eye Discharge from the eye containing  mucus or pus Marked light s...
Trachoma Treatment Trachoma is preventable and, if treated  early, the prognosis for people with  trachoma is excellent....
Untreated Trachoma          If left untreated, the          infection eventually          causes the eyelid to          tu...
Visually Impaired CanLive a Normal Life with        Support
Hearing Impairment
Ear Anatomy
Deaf   CultureNigeria   Delegation
Cognitive Impairment            Down Syndrome            Mental Retardation            Learning Disabilities          ...
Down Syndrome A genetic disorder that causes lifelong mental  retardation, developmental delays and other  problems Tris...
Risk Factors Advancing age of mother – over 35 and  teen mothers Having another child with Down  Syndrome Carrier of ge...
Related Health Issues Heart defects. May require heart surgery in  early childhood Leukemia. Infectious diseases especi...
Education for All
Emotional - Behavioral    Impairments Attention Deficit Hyperactivity  Disorder - ADHD Behavior Disorders Psychiatric D...
Sharing InformationEmpowers the Disabled
Health issues of people with disabilities
Health issues of people with disabilities
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Health issues of people with disabilities

  1. 1. Health Issues of People with Disabilities West Africa Transformation Development Conference Ghana 2010
  2. 2. Perfect Dream Empty Wheelchairs Symbolize No More Disabilities
  3. 3. Reality 600 million people live with disabilities Rapid increase due to:  Population growth  Increased aging population  Malnutrition  Chronic conditions  Injuries- war, violence esp. domestic violence, accidents  AIDS
  4. 4. Society’s Impact on the Disabled 53 rd World Health Conference 80% of people with disabilities esp. child population, live is low-income countries Number of people with disabilities is growing faster in Africa than any other continent Poverty limits access to basic health care Socio-economic inequality significantly increases disability Cultural beliefs impact acceptance Increased violence in the home, community and country are major causes of increase
  5. 5. View of the Disabled Devalued Dehumanized Rejected Victimized Excluded Invisible Aspiritual
  6. 6. It Could Happen to You!
  7. 7. Motor Impairment Cerebral Palsy Spinal Bifida Traumatic Brain Injury Spinal Cord Injuries Polio
  8. 8. Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is caused by injury to the brain, which occurs as the baby grows in the uterus or near the time of birth. Premature babies are at higher risk.
  9. 9. Types of Cerebral Palsy
  10. 10. Health Care Issues Nutrition – poor eaters, may need feeding tube Communication Seizures – medication, seizure precautions Spasticity – muscle relaxants, surgery Mobility- leg braces, crutches, wheelchair Scoliosis resulting in lung compression
  11. 11. Life Impact Life long disorder Long-term care needed for more severe cases Normal life expectancy Social impact – long term medical care and social need
  12. 12. Prevention  Early prenatal care may reduce risk of premature birth thus, reducing risk of CP
  13. 13. Spina BifidaSpina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which thebackbone and spinal canal do not close before birth.
  14. 14. Health Issues Surgery to close back Hydrocephalus – water on the brain – requires a drain from brain to abdomen Urinary tract problems – catheterization Seizures – may occur Mobility – braces, crutches, wheelchair Scoliosis
  15. 15. Life Impact Normal life expectancy Life long health needs Susceptible to urinary tract infections due to daily catheterization
  16. 16. Prevention Can be prevented when mother gets Folic acid before getting pregnant and during early days of pregnancy
  17. 17. Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms and long term effects depends on the area of the brain that is damaged.
  18. 18. Symptoms of TBI Lethargy Confusion Irritability Severe headaches Changes in speech, vision, or movement Bleeding Vomiting Seizure Coma Death
  19. 19. Subtle Symptoms ofTBI Long- and short-term memory problems Slowed thinking Distorted perception Concentration problems Attention deficits Communication problems (oral or written) Poor planning and sequencing Poor judgment Changes in mood or personality
  20. 20. Treatment Prevention Medical treatment depends on the severity of the injury Long term school issues may need to be addressed Head gear during contact sports Helmet when riding motorcycle or bike Wear seatbelts in car
  21. 21. Spinal Cord Injuries A spinal cord injury usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae The damage begins at the moment of injury when displaced bone fragments, disc material, or ligaments bruise or tear into spinal cord tissue. Some injuries will allow almost complete recovery. Others will result in complete paralysis.
  22. 22. Treatment Improved emergency care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and even restore limited abilities Respiratory complications indicates a severe injury
  23. 23. Joni Erickson Tada
  24. 24. Polio Nigeria is one of four endemic countries worldwide where polio infections originate before they are transferred across borders; the others are Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. Globally in 2009, 328 polio cases have been reported, 240 of them in polio-endemic countries.
  25. 25. Impact of Polio
  26. 26. Prevention - vaccine  In the past, resistance among conservative religious groups in northern Nigeria stymied campaigns  Lack of preparedness or familiarity with polio vaccines is now the biggest challenge facing vaccinators.
  27. 27. Sensory Impairments Visual Impairment - Blindness Hearing Impairment - Deafness
  28. 28. Vision Impairment Blindness Blindness is the lack of vision that can not be corrected by glasses or contacts Partial vision means very limited sight Legally blind is 20/200
  29. 29. Leading Causes ofBlindness in Developing Countries  Cataracts  River Blindness  Vitamin A Deficiency  Trachoma
  30. 30. Seek Medical Treatment Sudden vision loss is always an emergency Symptoms of a detached retina Floaters Gray curtain or veil moving across your field of vision Requires immediate medical to save vision
  31. 31. Cataracts  Cloudy, fuzzy, foggy, or filmy vision  Glare from lamps or the sun, which may be severe  Difficulty driving at night due to glare from headlights  Frequent changes in eyeglass prescription  Double vision  Difficulty performing daily activities because of vision problems
  32. 32. Cataract Treatment Surgery is a common procedure that involves removing the clouded lens of the eye (the cataract). The lens can be replaced with an artificial lens called an intraocular lens implant (IOL) or left out and eyeglasses or contact lenses can compensate for its absence.
  33. 33. Onchocerciasis River Blindness Caused by a parasitic worm and is spread by the bite of an infected blackfly. Multiple infectious bites are necessary for a person to get the disease. Infected persons may not have symptoms, but a skin rash, eye lesions and/or bumps under the skin can occur. Eye lesions can progress to blindness.
  34. 34. Treatment Ivermectin is administered as an oral dose of 150 micrograms per kilogram (maximum 12 mg) every 6-12 months. The drug should probably not be given to pregnant women or children under 5 years. Ivermectin does not kill the adult parasites, but reduce the numbers of microfilariae in skin so the disease does not progress
  35. 35. Vitamin A Deficiency  Night blindness or the inability to see in dim light –  Treatable with Vitamin A which can be stored in the body  More severe, it develops into an irreversible condition termed xerophthalmia, which is a drying of parts of the eye that will eventually result in blindness.
  36. 36. Vitamin A Deficiency
  37. 37. Trachoma The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that causes trachoma spreads through direct contact with the eye, nose or throat secretions of infected people. Its very contagious Almost always affects both eyes Untreated trachoma can lead to blindness.
  38. 38. Transmission Hands Clothing - towels Insects. In the worlds developing countries, flies are a major means of transmission.
  39. 39. Trachoma Symptoms Mild itching and irritation of the eye Discharge from the eye containing mucus or pus Marked light sensitivity (photophobia) Blurred vision Eye pain
  40. 40. Trachoma Treatment Trachoma is preventable and, if treated early, the prognosis for people with trachoma is excellent. Trachoma treatment options depend on the stage of development Medication Surgery
  41. 41. Untreated Trachoma If left untreated, the infection eventually causes the eyelid to turn inwards, which in turn causes the eyelashes to rub on the eyeball,
  42. 42. Visually Impaired CanLive a Normal Life with Support
  43. 43. Hearing Impairment
  44. 44. Ear Anatomy
  45. 45. Deaf CultureNigeria Delegation
  46. 46. Cognitive Impairment  Down Syndrome  Mental Retardation  Learning Disabilities  Autism
  47. 47. Down Syndrome A genetic disorder that causes lifelong mental retardation, developmental delays and other problems Trisomy 21 Most common genetic cause of severe learning disabilities in children Most cases of Down syndrome arent inherited. Theyre caused by a mistake in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo.
  48. 48. Risk Factors Advancing age of mother – over 35 and teen mothers Having another child with Down Syndrome Carrier of genetic translocation for Down Syndrome
  49. 49. Related Health Issues Heart defects. May require heart surgery in early childhood Leukemia. Infectious diseases especially pneumonia Sleep apnea Obesity. Other problems including gastrointestinal blockage, thyroid problems, hearing loss, skeletal problems and poor vision.
  50. 50. Education for All
  51. 51. Emotional - Behavioral Impairments Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD Behavior Disorders Psychiatric Disorders
  52. 52. Sharing InformationEmpowers the Disabled

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