Health Issues of People with Disabilities West Africa Transformation Development Conference Ghana 2010
Perfect Dream Empty Wheelchairs Symbolize No More Disabilities
Reality 600 million people live with disabilities Rapid increase due to: Population growth Increased aging population Malnutrition Chronic conditions Injuries- war, violence esp. domestic violence, accidents AIDS
Society’s Impact on the Disabled 53 rd World Health Conference 80% of people with disabilities esp. child population, live is low-income countries Number of people with disabilities is growing faster in Africa than any other continent Poverty limits access to basic health care Socio-economic inequality significantly increases disability Cultural beliefs impact acceptance Increased violence in the home, community and country are major causes of increase
View of the Disabled Devalued Dehumanized Rejected Victimized Excluded Invisible Aspiritual
Health Care Issues Nutrition – poor eaters, may need feeding tube Communication Seizures – medication, seizure precautions Spasticity – muscle relaxants, surgery Mobility- leg braces, crutches, wheelchair Scoliosis resulting in lung compression
Life Impact Life long disorder Long-term care needed for more severe cases Normal life expectancy Social impact – long term medical care and social need
Prevention Early prenatal care may reduce risk of premature birth thus, reducing risk of CP
Spina BifidaSpina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which thebackbone and spinal canal do not close before birth.
Health Issues Surgery to close back Hydrocephalus – water on the brain – requires a drain from brain to abdomen Urinary tract problems – catheterization Seizures – may occur Mobility – braces, crutches, wheelchair Scoliosis
Life Impact Normal life expectancy Life long health needs Susceptible to urinary tract infections due to daily catheterization
Prevention Can be prevented when mother gets Folic acid before getting pregnant and during early days of pregnancy
Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms and long term effects depends on the area of the brain that is damaged.
Symptoms of TBI Lethargy Confusion Irritability Severe headaches Changes in speech, vision, or movement Bleeding Vomiting Seizure Coma Death
Subtle Symptoms ofTBI Long- and short-term memory problems Slowed thinking Distorted perception Concentration problems Attention deficits Communication problems (oral or written) Poor planning and sequencing Poor judgment Changes in mood or personality
Treatment Prevention Medical treatment depends on the severity of the injury Long term school issues may need to be addressed Head gear during contact sports Helmet when riding motorcycle or bike Wear seatbelts in car
Spinal Cord Injuries A spinal cord injury usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae The damage begins at the moment of injury when displaced bone fragments, disc material, or ligaments bruise or tear into spinal cord tissue. Some injuries will allow almost complete recovery. Others will result in complete paralysis.
Treatment Improved emergency care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and even restore limited abilities Respiratory complications indicates a severe injury
Polio Nigeria is one of four endemic countries worldwide where polio infections originate before they are transferred across borders; the others are Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. Globally in 2009, 328 polio cases have been reported, 240 of them in polio-endemic countries.
Prevention - vaccine In the past, resistance among conservative religious groups in northern Nigeria stymied campaigns Lack of preparedness or familiarity with polio vaccines is now the biggest challenge facing vaccinators.
Vision Impairment Blindness Blindness is the lack of vision that can not be corrected by glasses or contacts Partial vision means very limited sight Legally blind is 20/200
Leading Causes ofBlindness in Developing Countries Cataracts River Blindness Vitamin A Deficiency Trachoma
Seek Medical Treatment Sudden vision loss is always an emergency Symptoms of a detached retina Floaters Gray curtain or veil moving across your field of vision Requires immediate medical to save vision
Cataracts Cloudy, fuzzy, foggy, or filmy vision Glare from lamps or the sun, which may be severe Difficulty driving at night due to glare from headlights Frequent changes in eyeglass prescription Double vision Difficulty performing daily activities because of vision problems
Cataract Treatment Surgery is a common procedure that involves removing the clouded lens of the eye (the cataract). The lens can be replaced with an artificial lens called an intraocular lens implant (IOL) or left out and eyeglasses or contact lenses can compensate for its absence.
Onchocerciasis River Blindness Caused by a parasitic worm and is spread by the bite of an infected blackfly. Multiple infectious bites are necessary for a person to get the disease. Infected persons may not have symptoms, but a skin rash, eye lesions and/or bumps under the skin can occur. Eye lesions can progress to blindness.
Treatment Ivermectin is administered as an oral dose of 150 micrograms per kilogram (maximum 12 mg) every 6-12 months. The drug should probably not be given to pregnant women or children under 5 years. Ivermectin does not kill the adult parasites, but reduce the numbers of microfilariae in skin so the disease does not progress
Vitamin A Deficiency Night blindness or the inability to see in dim light – Treatable with Vitamin A which can be stored in the body More severe, it develops into an irreversible condition termed xerophthalmia, which is a drying of parts of the eye that will eventually result in blindness.
Trachoma The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that causes trachoma spreads through direct contact with the eye, nose or throat secretions of infected people. Its very contagious Almost always affects both eyes Untreated trachoma can lead to blindness.
Transmission Hands Clothing - towels Insects. In the worlds developing countries, flies are a major means of transmission.
Trachoma Symptoms Mild itching and irritation of the eye Discharge from the eye containing mucus or pus Marked light sensitivity (photophobia) Blurred vision Eye pain
Trachoma Treatment Trachoma is preventable and, if treated early, the prognosis for people with trachoma is excellent. Trachoma treatment options depend on the stage of development Medication Surgery
Untreated Trachoma If left untreated, the infection eventually causes the eyelid to turn inwards, which in turn causes the eyelashes to rub on the eyeball,
Visually Impaired CanLive a Normal Life with Support
Down Syndrome A genetic disorder that causes lifelong mental retardation, developmental delays and other problems Trisomy 21 Most common genetic cause of severe learning disabilities in children Most cases of Down syndrome arent inherited. Theyre caused by a mistake in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo.
Risk Factors Advancing age of mother – over 35 and teen mothers Having another child with Down Syndrome Carrier of genetic translocation for Down Syndrome
Related Health Issues Heart defects. May require heart surgery in early childhood Leukemia. Infectious diseases especially pneumonia Sleep apnea Obesity. Other problems including gastrointestinal blockage, thyroid problems, hearing loss, skeletal problems and poor vision.