INDIA...an overview• 7th largest nation by geographical area. India has an area of 3.1 million square kilometers (1.2 million square miles).• 2nd most populous nation. India has a population of 1.1 billion (UN, 2005).• Constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.• Gained independence from British rule in 1947 when India and Pakistan were created.• Has a history extending 5000 years dating back to Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization.• Pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society.• Indian constitution recognizes 23 official languages. English and Hindi are the official languages for government.• India has GDP of US $ 4.042 trillion which is 4th largest and had a GDP growth rate of 9.2% in 2006.• Per capita income is $3700 per year and the wealth distribution is very uneven with top 10% income groups earning 33% of the income. 46% of the Indian children suffered from malnutrition.• India has a literacy rate of 64.8% (53.7% for females and 75.3% for males). The literacy rate was 12.2% in 1947.
EDUCATION IN INDIA• Long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education is among the oldest educational systems. Gurukuls were traditional residential schools of learning.• Nalanda which at its peak housed 10000 students is considered the oldest established university.• The current system of education with its western style and content was introduced and founded by the British in the 20th century.• India is faced with challenges in primary education in order to achieve 100% literacy rate.• Universal Compulsory Primary Education has been a challenge with its goal of keeping poor children in schools and also maintaining quality of education.• Children from poor and economically disadvantaged backgrounds are forced to drop-out of the school system due to economic reasons.• All levels of education from primary to higher education are overseen by the Department of School Education and Literacy and the Department of Higher Education.• India has a large formal education system with a target group (6-24 years of age) of 411 million in 2003 (40% of Indian population) that is ever growing. The total number of enrolment in educational institutions was 224 million, with about 6.2 million teachers. The formal system is augmented by the private educational institutes and non-formal education system that includes adult and distance education.• The Department of Higher Education has established various Colleges and Universities. Some of the institutes of higher learning have worldwide reputation like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) etc.• In India over 130000 students graduate in Engineering and another 65000 with MBAs every year. The global software industry depends heavily on software outsourcing to India with huge percentage of large and medium sized corporations having operations in India.
FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM• Constitution of India has various provisions for education – Fundamental Rights • Right to education for all • Prohibition of discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth. • Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. – Directive Principles of state policy • Provisions for free and compulsory education for children for all children up to age 14 year. • Provision for early childhood care and education for children below the age of six years. • Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.• Federal funded institutions have reservations – Scheduled Castes (15%) – Scheduled Tribes (7.5%) – Disabled (3%)• Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas established in over 500 districts to provide education for rural children and especially girls.• Decision regarding the organization and structure of education are largely the concern of the states and the union territories.• Stages of education in India – Schooling - Primary, Middle/Secondary and Higher Secondary (6-18 years of age) – College and University - Professional/Non-Professional degree and diploma (18-24+ years of age)• National Policy on Education (NPE), 1968 and 1986 formulated uniform pattern of school education with the 10+2 system.• Member of the World EFA (Education for All) Forum, South Asian Regional EFA Forum and the E-9 initiatives of the UNESCO.
INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL POLICIES• Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) – Holistic and integrated approach that focuses on health, psychological and nutritional development in addition to the three R’s (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic). – Implementation of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) program.• Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) – Universal Access • Universal enrolment of all children including girls • Provision for school drop-outs, working children and girls who cannot attend formal schools. – Universal Retention • Reduction of drop-out rates between classes I-V and I-VIII from existing 36.3% and 56.5% in 1994 to 20% and 40% respectively (goal of the ninth 5-year plan) – Improvement in quality • Additional schooling facilities for primary children • Minimum Levels of Learning standards set for the primary school children. • Teacher capacity building• National Literacy Mission (NLM) – Targets literacy of non-literates in the 15-35 age group. – Facilities for skill development to improve economic status and well-being. – Establishment of Continuing Education Centers• Language Policy in Indian Education – Medium of instruction is English, Hindi or a regional language. The examinations can be taken in the medium of instruction followed. – Study of one or two additional languages in addition to the medium of instruction. – Science and Social Sciences instructions and books are usually in English so many students prefer to select English as medium of instruction in urban and semi-urban areas.
Reform: The National Policy on Education• To ensure UEE, the National Policy of Education was written in 1986.• In need of fresh ideas and initiatives, the policy was revised in 1992 to supplement the states efforts with additional government programs.• Global influence and support for universalization was strengthened by the 1990 International Conference on Education for All EFA in Jomtien, Thailand.• The 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution in 1992 mandated decentralized management in elementary education through local self- government.• The Supreme Court in 1993 came forth with a landmark judgement that education was a fundamental right of every child up to 14 years of age.
India: Implications of Globalization • Multiethnicity and Language • Education • The “Other” India • India as a Model for the World
Initiatives addressing the objectives and strategies of the NPE 1986 • Operation Blackboard • Decentralization • National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education • District Primary Education Programme • Bihar Education Project • Uttan Pradesh Basic Education Programme • Community Mobilization and Participation • Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project • Shiksha Karmi Project • Lok Jumbish Project Core Principles of the District Primary Education Programme DPEP • Holistic planning • Equity focus • Decentralized design and management with community participation • Quality focus • Flexibility • Capacity building
District Primary Education ProgrammeLaunched in 1994, the DPEP is an ambitious programme for overhauling the primary education system in India.Basic objectives to run in three phases of implementation: 1. Reduce differences in enrollment, dropouts and learning achievement between genders and across different social classes to less than 5 percent; 2. Reduce overall primary dropout rates for all students to less than 10 percent; 3. Raise average learning achievement levels by at least 2 percent over measured baseline levels; and 4. Provide access to all children for primary schooling or its equivalent non-formal education.Making it happen…• Academics, teachers, NGOs, managers and state reps were consulted; they wanted to ensure that they took full advantage of previous efforts in basic education• 85% of the program cost was covered by the government of India, along with financial support from the EU, the Government of the Netherlands, DFID, UNICEF and the World Bank• Responsibility was given and held by all levels of government
Challenges and Successes of DPEPOpposition to DPEP and points of criticism of the programme were parallel structure, reliance on foreign aid, elitist program, too much “play” in schools, all planning—no action, project mode “inappropriate for education sector”, incomplete focus and a teacher resistance to a decentralized approach.The upswing:• While there was much criticism, the positive and enthusiastic support from various sectors was very strong• Teachers involvement generated a fresh wave of energy and enthusiasm• Parents and community members were involved from the beginning and this created a sense of ownership and prideDPEP is meeting its goals and is bringing success to those students who need it most.• The target of universal primary enrollment is close to being met in the phase I districts• Enrollment of phase II districts is above the national average and schools are continuously being added to the program• Enrollment of girls has been achieved by most of the districts• Social equity has improved and DPEP continues to reach out to tribal areas
India: Implications of Globalization• World Stage• Economics and Outsourcing• “Third Revolution”• Internal Struggles• Employment
Future educational reformCountries that are seeking to reform their ownpolicies can learn from India and DPEP• Strong focus on student learning• Decentralization and local empowerment• Emphasis on continuous learning and innovation• Use of outside change agents and consultants• Flexible design and implementation across states and districts• Sufficient preparation time before launch• Constant concern with building capacity
"In finding the solution to our problem, we shall have helped to solve the world problem as well....If India can offer tothe world her solution, it will be a contribution to humanity." Rabindrinath Tagore Novel Laureate on Nationalism, 1917
HUMAN RIGHTS 18 december "the basic rights and freedoms to which allhumans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thoughtand expression, and equality before the law."
Human Rights Day is observed by the international community every year on 10 December. It commemorates the day in 1948the United Nations General Assembly adoptedthe Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its formal inception dates from 1950, after theAssembly passed resolution 423 (V) inviting all States and interested organizations to adopt 10 December of each year as Human Rights Day.
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." The idea of human rights descended from the philosophical idea of natural rights which areconsidered to exist even when trampled by governments or society; some recognize virtually no differencebetween the two and regard both as labels for the samething, while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights. Natural rights, in particular, are rights of the individual, and areconsidered beyond the authority of a future government or international body to dismiss. John Locke is perhaps the most prominent philosopher that developed this theory.
The Magna Carta or "GreatCharter" was the worlds first document containingcommitments by a sovereign to his people to respect certain legal rights
The United Nations is the only international entity withjurisdiction for universal human rights legislation. All UN organs have advisory roles to the Security Council. Article 1-3 of the United Nations Charter states "Toachieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion."
The European Convention on Human Rights defines and guarantees since 1950 humanrights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. All 47 member states of the Council of Europe have signed this Convention and are therefore under the jurisdiction of the European Court ofHuman Rights in Strasbourg. In order to prevent torture and inhuman or degrading treatment(see Article 3 of the Convention), the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture has been set up.
Human rights commonly include:• security rights that prohibit crimes such as murder/"enforced" involuntary suicide, massacre, torture and rape• liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief and religion, association, assembling and movement• political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics by expressing themselves, protesting, participating in a republic• due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as arrest and imprisonment without trial, secret trials and excessive punishments• equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law and nondiscrimination• welfare rights (also known as economic rights) that require the provision of, e.g., education, paid holidays, and protections against severe poverty and starvation• group rights
In over 110 countries National human rights institutions (NHRIs) have been set up toprotect, promote or monitor human rights in a given country. There are now over 110 suchbodies. Not all of them are compliant with the United Nations advisory standards as set out in the 1993 Paris Principles, but the number and effect of these institutions is increasing.
Human rights violations Human rights violations are abuses of people in ways that abuse any fundamental human rights. It is a term used when a government violates national or international law related to the protection of human rights. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights fundamental human rights are violated when, among other things:• A certain race, creed, or group is denied recognition as a "person". (Articles 2 & 6)• Men and women are not treated as equal. (Article 2)• Different racial or religious groups are not treated as equal. (Article 2)• Life, liberty or security of person is threatened. (Article 3)• A person is sold as or used as a slave. (Article 4)• Cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment is used on a person (such as torture or execution). (Article 5) (See also Prisoners rights)• Victims of abuse are denied an effective judicial remedy. (Article 8)• Punishments are dealt arbitrarily or unilaterally, without a proper and fair trial. (Article 11)• Arbitrary interference into personal, or private lives by agents of the state. (Article 12)• Citizens are forbidden to leave or return to their country. (Article 13)• Freedom of speech or religion is denied. (Articles 18 & 19)• The right to join a trade union is denied. (Article 23)• Education is denied. (Article 26)