Electronic-Textiles ASHISH DUA TEXTILE CHEMISTRY.
What are electronic-textiles Materials with electronic functionality and at the same time textile characteristic Incorporating some amount of conductive material- enable electrical conductivity Contains conductive yarns Use textile manufacturing techniques
Development behind of electronic textiles To create innovative design and the intelligent products Electrical conductors are easier to- handle in textile fabrication processes. “Electronic” means that a system is able to exchange and process information If textiles had the ability to record, analyze, store, send and display data miniaturization of electronic components and attachment to textiles
Design issues for wearable e-textiles Environment issue Human body and motion, Manufacturability (weave & piecework), Networking, Power consumption, and Software execution.
Advantages of using E-Textiles overconventional electronics Large flexible area - create new computer designs and architectures Elastic and extendable Produced at low-cost Fibre/air composite nature gives excellent comfortE-textiles- warmth, softness, lightweight and breathability- sympathaticHigh technology products - rigidity and asympathatic nature.
Requirements for embedding electronic functions in theclothing Flexibility Lightweight Comfort Conductivity Good process ability Good wear ability Finally ,low cost
Components of a wearable electronic textile system Network unit: transmission of data within them wearable computer and to external networks Sensor unit: registration of biometric and environmental data and of user commands Processing unit: calculating, analysing and storing data Power unit: supplying energy Action unit: adapting to situations, creating an effect on the user, displaying data
Optical or glass fibre for electronics Optical or glass fibers 120 microns in dia used telecommunications, local area networks (LANs), cable TV, closed circuit TV filament developed by drawing molten glass through bushings optical fiber sensors, and conductive textiles to carry signals in the form of pulses of light optical fibers offer excellent strength and sunlight resistance, relatively stiff ,poor flexibility, drapeability and abrasion resistance.
Types of yarns and fabricsYarns Spun yarns Filament yarns Plied yarnsFabric Woven Knitted Braided tapes and cords Non Woven
Conductive fabricsThe fabric compose of alternate polymer and metal yarn. metal wire possesses a thin polymer coating for electrical insulation Twisted metal wire, metal wire is twisted around the polymer yarn Metal filaments conductive yarn consists of staple yarn with metallic fibers Metal coating polymer yarn,is chemically coated with a thin metal layer
Conductive fabrics Printing on fabric : by ink-jet or screen-printing on non-conductive fabric Conductive inks, pastes base on silver high brittleness on Bending destroy conductive structure so elastic polymer layer use between the fabric and the conductive paste to mitigate this effect
Conductive textile exist ORGANZA® (metallized silk) FLECTRON ® (metallized polyester) BELLTRON ® (polyester or polyamide with carbon) CT® (carbonised glass fibre textile) Statex 117/17 twine (silver-coated polyamide yarn)117 dtex34 no of fibres in twine, resistance is around 500Ω/m
Metallic Silk organza created by wrapping a non-conductive yarn with a metallic copper, silver, or gold foil metallic organza woven silk warp yarn and silk yarn is wrapped with copper in the weft direction silk fiber core has a high tensile strength and can withstand high temperatures it allows the metallic organza to be sewen or embroidered on industrial machinery strip of is fabric can function like a ribbon cable This metallic thread is prepared like cloth-core telephone wire, highly conductive (~0.1 Ω/cm)
How to protect sensor actuators…..By Encapsulation
Fibre batteries electrochemical cell generate voltage by red-ox rxn, battery is series of electrochemical cells Battery electrodes consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon-based materials, conducting polymers Metals are typically employed as anodes, metal oxides as cathodes, carbon materials as cathodes polymers can act as both cathodes or anodes fiber cells fabricated by coating a fiber with thin film layers, consisting of the same materials typically used in flat batteries, such as LiCoO2 as cathode, lithium as anode, and LiPON( lithium phosphorus oxynitride Li3.1 PO3.3 N0.5) as solid electrolyte
Textile Based Capacitive Pressure Sensor decoding the pressure exerted over abroad piece of fabric by a mean of capacitive sensing device described produces an image of the pressure field over the sensing surface, providing both information on the position of the area touched and on the pressure exerted on it capacitor has been made with the coupling capacitance between two conductive strips separated by an elastic and dielectric material The conductive columns and rows can be simply drawn onto opposite sides of a piece of insulating material using conductive ink
Cont…. dielectric layer between a given row and column of electrodes is squeezed, as pressure is exerted over the corresponding fabric area, the coupling capacitance between is changed
Fabric as an acoustic array for location determination computational fabric serving as an acoustic array capable of determining location and direction of motion of a enemy vehicle Use basic technique Global Positioning System (GPS)
Wearable Motherboard Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard provides versatile frame work for the incorporation of sensing, monitoring and information processing devices. It uses optical fibers to detect bullet wounds, and special sensors and interconnections to monitor the body vital signs of individuals lightweight and can be worn easily by anyone
Cont… Having wearable motherboard “programmable” computing device hardware, software and soft wear components as an integral part of the fabric/garment garment including electrically conductive fibres and optical fibres for transfering information from sensors to processing units Electrical fibre (e.g. stainless steel, copper or doped nylon fibre) is insulated with a PVC or PE coating
Cont… Used Flexible chips (silicon)Power supply lithium polymer battery and micro fuel cells Energy come from Sunlight, body temperature and body motion energy transformed into electrical energy Use temp difference between outside and inside of clothing which produce power of few microwatts / cm2
Musical jackets By -MIT Media Lab Sound is projected through mini-speakers in the jackets pockets whole setup weighs less than one pound most of weight from batteries and speaker cases unclip the speakers, batteries, and synthesizer and it can wash easily MIT Media Lab created the Musical Jacket marketed by Levi in Europe
Colour changing fabric Electric Plaid™ fabric contains interwoven stainless steel yarns, painted with thermochromic inks, which are connected to electronics drive The flexible wall hangings can then be programmed to change color in response to heat from the conducting wires
High performance electronic sportsweare ByPhilips Enhance performance for a workout at the gym, extreme sporting activities Integrated fabric sensors to monitor and display pulse, blood pressure, time, distance, speed, and calories Sensors can also record arm action for improving golf or tennis swings, body temperature
Jacket by Levi Strauss & Philips For communication mobile phone and MP3 player, speakers, a microphone and a display Devices and control pad can be disconnected for garment launderingnsSmart Shirt (Georgia Institute ) monitors the wearers heart rate, ECG respiration, Skien temperature, and other vital signs
Mamagoose pajama By Verhaert prevention from sudden infant death syndrome due to endowed with heartbeat
Smart interiors Switching and pressure sensing incorporated invisibly into interior. Textiles in the home or office to control lighting, security, temperature or other electronic appliances● Light switches/dimmers into seating upholstery or carpets● Audio-visual remote controls into soft furnishings● Interior environmental conditions can be changed using wearable switches or by touching wall coverings
Limitations of E-textiles Limited reliability Limitation concerning mass production Limited processing and storage capability-limited power supply Specific range of applications Not as flexible as textile clothing
Electronic Textile Future consumer look for innovative intelligent products geometric and mechanical properties of textiles (large flexible area) differ strongly from conventional electronics and can create new computer designs and architecturesResearch has to be carried out testing under wearing conditions washing/cleaning treatments investigation of reliability
Conclusion ‘Electronic textile is a result of the convergence of microelectronics with textiles surrounding us in our daily life Used in clothing, home textiles, military, navy, medical application. Limited reliability, high cost Specific range of applications Not as flexible as textile clothing