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Class on ICS
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Class on ICS

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  • Now we will see a video clip. Its duration is 1 minute 35 seconds. It describes the duty of the command staffs.
  • Transcript

    • 1. INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM Md Ashique Hasan Ullah PPDM Graduate 2013 BRAC University 06 July 2013 1
    • 2. WHAT IS INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS)? 2
    • 3. OBJECTIVE • The objective of this presentation is to introduce the Incident Command System along with its background • Various features of ICS and how does it works • Challenges of ICS and its present and future feasibility in Bangladesh 3
    • 4. HISTORY OF ICS- INTRODUCTION In the early 1970’s, a national project known as FIRESCOPE was convened by California Fire Department to try and come up with an organizational system for fighting multi-state forest fires. The FIRESCOPE group realized that the G 1-4 organizational structure (Used by US Army after the 1 nd World war) was a proven tool with a solid track record in the management of the large, quick moving and sometime chaotic events of warfare It was adopted by the FIRESCOPE project and named the Incident Command System (ICS)
    • 5. 5 ICS- INTRODUCTION • Can be used to manage an emergency incident or non- emergency event • Can be used for both small and large events or situations • System has considerable internal flexibility • System can grow or shrink to meet differing needs • Cost effective & efficient management system
    • 6. 6 • ICS Organization • Applications • Incident Facilities • Incident Action Plan (IAP) • Span of Control • Emergency Operation Center (EOC) • Unified Command (UC) • Advantages of UC • Area Command ICS FEATURES TO COVER
    • 7. LOGISTICS 7 INCIDENT COMMANDER OPERATIONS PLANNING & INTELLIGENCE FINANCE & ADMINISTRATION COMMAND STAFF ICS ORGANIZATION
    • 8. 8 ICS ORGANIZATION- 5 MAJOR ACTIVITIES • COMMAND • Sets objectives & priorities, has overall responsibility at incident or event • OPERATIONS • Conducts tactical operations to carry out the plan, develops the tactical objectives, organization, & directs all resources • PLANNING • Develops the action plan to accomplish the objectives, collect & evaluates information, maintains resource status CONT’D … …
    • 9. 9 5 MAJOR MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES • LOGISTICS • provides support to meet needs, provides resources & services • FINANCE/ ADMINISTRATION • Monitors costs, provides accounting, procurement, time records, & cost analyses
    • 10. 10
    • 11. 11
    • 12. 12
    • 13. 13
    • 14. 14 INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM
    • 15. 15 INCIDENT COMMANDER
    • 16. 16 INCIDENT COMMANDER • In overall command of the incident • Must be fully qualified to manage incident • May be assigned by responsible jurisdiction or agency. • May have one or more deputies, who must be equally qualified • May assign personnel for both command staff and general staff
    • 17. 17 PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER who serves as the tool for information to internal and external stakeholders, including the media, stakeholders, and the public. SAFETY OFFICER who monitors safety conditions and develops measures for ensuring the safety of all incident personnel LIASION OFFICER who serves as the primary contact for other agencies assisting at an incident. COMMAND STAFF
    • 18. 18 GENERAL STAFF • General Staff are called Section Chiefs • These are Operations, Planning, Logistics, & Finance/Administration • Each Section Chief may have one or more deputies • Deputies may work in primary position, relief, or specific tasking • Deputies must be as qualified as Section Chief
    • 19. 19 ICS ORGANIZATIONAL COMPONENTS INCIDENT COMMANDER COMMAND STAFF SAFETY OFFICER LIAISON OFFICER INFORMATION OFFICER OPERATIONS CHIEF PLANNING CHIEF LOGISTICS CHIEF FIN/ADMIN CHIEF BRANCH BRANCH DIVISION GROUP SINGLE RESOURCE TASK FORCES SINGLE RESOURCES STRIKE TEAMS THIS LEVEL HAS LEADERS
    • 20. 20 SINGLE RESOURCE In ICS, “resources” refers to personnel, supplies, and equipment.
    • 21. 21 Task Force: A combination of mixed resources with common communications operating under the direct supervision of a Task Force Leader. TYPE OF TEAM Strike Team: A set number of resources of the same kind and type with common communications operating under the direct supervision of a Strike Team Leader.
    • 22. 22 STRIKE TEAMTASK FORCE
    • 23. 23 TYPE OF TEAM
    • 24. 24 WHEN INCIDENT BECOME LARGER Difficult to manage and accountability Too many TEAMS !!!!!
    • 25. 25 GROUPS  Groups are established basing on functional operations  Kind of group is determined by needs of incident Groups
    • 26. 26 Divisions are usually divided at an incident geographically Divisions are usually labeled Alphabetically DIVISIONS DIVISION
    • 27. 27 GROUPS & DIVISIONS • In small incidents Groups and Divisions report to IC • In large incidents they report to Operations Section Chief or Branch Directors if established • Divisions and groups do not use deputies • Divisions & Groups are at an equal level of responsibility & supervisors must coordinate their activities
    • 28. 28 BRANCHES • The Operations Section Chief may add Branches to supervise Groups and Divisions and further reduce his or her span of control. The person in charge of each Branch is designated as a Director.
    • 29. 29 ORGANIZATION TERMINOLOGY PRIMARY POSITION TITLE SUPPORT POSITION _____________________________________________________ Incident Commander Incident Commander (IC) Deputy • Command Staff Officer Assistant • Section Chief Deputy • Branch Director Deputy • Division/Group Supervisor N/A • Strike Team/Task force Leader N/A (Sub Leader) • Unit Leader N/A (Sub Leader) • Single Resource Use Unit Designation N/A (Sub Leader)
    • 30. 30 INCIDENT FACILITIES • Incident Command Post (ICP) • Emergency Operation Center (EOC) • Incident Base • Camps • Staging Areas • Helibase • Helispots
    • 31. 31 INCIDENT COMMAND POST (ICP) • Location where ICP oversees all operations • There is only one ICP for each incident • Every incident or event needs some form of ICP • Should be located as close and as safe as • possible to the incident
    • 32. 32 INCIDENT COMMAND POST (ICP) Static ICP Mobile ICP
    • 33. 33 SS B RC S Staging Area Relief Camp Incident Base Store of relief material Entrance gate Exit gate Command Post S HP Barrier Fence communication center LAYOUT OF TYPICAL BASE Source: National Disaster Management Guidelines —Incident Response System, A publication of: National Disaster Management Authority Government of India
    • 34. 34 The Emergency Operations Center is the central direction, control, and coordination point for emergency operations. It is the place to decide what specific information should go to persons carrying out an ‘emergency service’ operation. (Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 1981). Emergency Operation Center(EOC)
    • 35. 35 Difference between ICP and EOC Incident Command Post (ICP) Emergency Operation Center (EOC) 1. EOC works at strategic level focusing the big picture of the incident. It doesn’t have the operational focus. 2. EOC is not located at incident place. 3. EOC provides resources and guideline. 1. ICP works at tactical level focusing the specific incident only. 2. ICP is located near the incident place. 3. ICP is responsible for the operational activities.
    • 36. 36 INCIDENT ACTION PLAN • There must be a written or oral action plan • Provides all supervisors with direction for future action • Includes measurable tactical operations to achieve in an operation period • Depending on incident, operational period could be 2 to 24 hours • Incident operational period will be based on needs of incident • On larger and multi-agency incidents, PLANS MUSTPLANS MUST BE WRITTENBE WRITTEN
    • 37. 37 SPAN OF CONTROL • Span of Control means how many organizational elements may be directly managed by another person. • Maintaining span of control throughout the ICS organization is very important • Effective span of control may vary from 3 to 7 • Ratio of 1 to 5 reporting elements is ideal • If number of elements falls outside the span of control, expansion or consolidation may be necessary
    • 38. 38 SPAN OF CONTROL SUPERVISOR 4 7 109865321 INEFFECTIVE AND POSSIBLY DANGEROUS
    • 39. 39 IDEAL SPAN OF CONTROL SUPERVISOR 1 2 3 4 5 RATIO: 1 TO 5
    • 40. 40 APPLICATIONS FOR ICS • Fires, HAZMAT,multi- casualty incidents • Multi-jurisdiction and multi-agency disasters • Wide-area search & rescue missions • Oil spill response and recovery • Single & multi-agency law enforcement incidents • Air, rail, water,or ground transportation incidents • Planned events: celebrations, parades, concerts, etc • Private sector emergency management programs • Federal-provincial-local major natural hazards management
    • 41. 41 The Unified Command organization consists of the Incident Commanders from the various jurisdictions or agencies operating together to form a single command structure in the field. UNIFIED COMMAND
    • 42. 42 UNIFIED COMMAND
    • 43. 43  Under a Unified Command, the Incident Commanders manage the incident together and no one has seniority over another  The Incident Commanders within the Unified Command make joint decisions and speak as one voice. Any differences are worked out within the Unified Command UNIFIED COMMAND
    • 44. 44 In a Unified Command, all the institutions and responding agencies blend into an integrated, unified team. The advantages include: • A shared understanding of priorities and restrictions. • A single set of incident objectives. • Collaborative strategies. • Improved internal and external information flow. • Less duplication of efforts. • Better resource utilization. ADVANTAGES OF UNIFIED COMMAND
    • 45. 45 In a Unified Command there is only one Operations Section Chief. The Operations Section Chief should be the most qualified and experienced person available. UNIFIED COMMAND
    • 46. 46 AREA COMMAND Area Command is an organization to oversee the management of multiple incidents handled individually by separate ICS organizations or to oversee the management of a very large or evolving incident multiple Incident Management Teams (IMT)
    • 47. 47 Management of multiple incidents handled individually by separate ICS organizations ICS ICSICSICS Incidents Incidents Incidents Incidents AREA COMMAND AREA COMMAND
    • 48. 48 Management of a very large or evolving incident multiple Incident Management Teams (IMT) ICS ICSICSICS AREA COMMAND AREA COMMAND Large Incident
    • 49. 49 AREA COMMAND This application of ICS used when there is necessary to provide command authority and coordination for two or more incidents in close proximity. In this situation the Area command works directly with incident commanders. Area command becomes Unified Area Command when incidents are multijurisdictional. It may be established at an EOC facility or at some other location other than an Incident Command Post.
    • 50. 50 CHALLENGES FACED BY ICS Common Terminology and Clear Text • Communications should use common terms or clear text. • Do not use radio codes, agency-specific codes, acronyms, or jargon. EMT = Emergency Medical Treatment EMT = Emergency Medical Technician EMT = Emergency Management Team
    • 51. 51 CHALLENGES FACED BY ICS Integrated Communications System Different agencies used different type of communication system or equipment When Civil and Military are worked together they use different wireless procedure
    • 52. 52 Complexity in Command CHALLENGES FACED BY ICS In the traditional ICS model, the senior on-scene operational officer from the agency with primary responsibility becomes the Incident Commander upon arrive at the scene. It is impossible in the real world for the senior relevant official to avoid responsibility, even if he/she has not yet formally assumed the role of “Incident Commander”
    • 53. 53 Complexity in Command CHALLENGES FACED BY ICS If you are on scene, and are the ranking officer, you are expected to be in command, and will be held responsible by the body politic Even if the senior officer has not yet officially assumed command, if he observes an inherently unsafe situation, he must immediately assume command and take action
    • 54. 54 ICS IN DEVELOPED & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ICS Incident Commander Incident Commander Developed CountriesDeveloping Countries USA CANADA Incident Controller AUSTRALIA Responsible Officer (RO) Incident Commander INDIA & SRI LANKA Delegate Authority
    • 55. 55 ICS IN BANGLADESH Disaster Management: A combined approach Since independence the Armed Forces are working with various ministries of GOB and achieved confidence from the general mass Ad hoc basis plan GOB doesn’t follow any specific action framework or any management system for coordinating the efforts of difference agencies during emergency response phase
    • 56. 56 ICS IN BANGLADESH Integration of NGO Before “SOD 2011”GOB didn’t have any policies or plan to officially incorporate the NGO’s effort in emergency response activities Ad hoc basis integration NGO’s in large scale during Operation “SEA ANGLES” in 1991 GOB integrated the ICS in the revised SOD in year 2010 for overcoming all this above mentioned
    • 57. 57 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BACKGROUND 1 1.2 DEFINITIONS 4 PART 2: NATIONAL POLICY AND COORDINATION 7 2.1 REGULATIVE FRAMEWORK 7 2.2 NATIONAL MECHANISM FOR POLICY GUIDANCE AND COORDINATION 8 2.2.1 National Disaster Management Council 8 2.2.2 Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee (IMDMCC) 10 2.2.3 National Disaster Management Advisory Committee 13 2.2.4 Cabinet Committee for Disaster Response (CCDR) 13 2.2.5 National Disaster Response Coordination Group (NDRCG) 14 2.2.6 Committee for Speedy Dissemination and Determination of Strategy of Special Weather Bulletin 16 2.2.7 Focal Points Operational Coordination Group 17 2.2.8 Coordination Committee of NGOs relating to Disaster Management 18 2.2.9 Disaster Management Training and Public Awareness Task Force 19 2.3 SUPPORTING ROLE OF MINISTRY OF FOOD AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT 20 2.4 MULTI-AGENCY DISASTER INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 20 MULTI-AGENCY DISASTER INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ICS IN BANGLADESH Integration of ICS in Standing Order on Disaster management
    • 58. 58 MULTI-AGENCY DISASTER INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Management of any disaster incident will include the three clearly delineated functions of command, control and coordination. The overall control of events is the responsibility of one person known as the Disaster Incident Manager The Disaster Incident Manager is responsible for the control of the disaster incident and will assign tasks to agencies in accordance with the needs of the situation. The Disaster Incident Manager will specify: (a) what needs to be done; (b) by which agency; and (c) by what time IMDMCC (Inter ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Council) will allocate responsibility to a lead agency for particular types of incidents. ICS IN BANGLADESH
    • 59. 59 CHALLENGES FACED BY ICS IN BANGLADESH - Lack of Co-operation because the inter-ministries are less effective and mistrust between GO & NGO exist - Civil and Military relation (CMR) need to develop more (i) Less exposure of Armed Forces Role in DM to the nation (ii) Absence of Define Action Framework within these two organizations - The GO doesn’t trust the NGO due to their questionable role in BD ( DMB need to control the NGO’s at district level)
    • 60. 60 CHALLENGES FACED BY ICS IN BANGLADESH The NGO aren’t interested to work with GO due to controlling attitude of the GOB The Armed Force has no experience to work with NGO’s (recently it’s developing) Command Control becomes difficult due to ignorance on Warrant of Precedence and others role
    • 61. 61 HOW TO OVERCOME THIS CHALLENGES ICS Components Limitations Need Co-Operation Less effective/Mistrust /Ego problem Positive Motivation /Development of Civil – Military Relation Command & Control - Warrant of Precedence, - Synchronization of the rank and appointment in all level Well defined Action Frame work and guideline in details Co-ordination - Ignorance on others Role • Policy based coordination approach • Joint Training and other activities
    • 62. 62 The disaster is measured by its intensity and intensity of a disaster measured in terms of loss of lives and damage of property In Bangladesh the area of Jurisdiction of a district is smaller but the density of population is larger compare to the area itself At district level maximum time the disaster turn into a large incident which needs to involve more number of agencies for humanitarian assistances Controlling the number of agencies the Unified command is the suitable management tool ICS or UCS?
    • 63. 63 ICS or UCS? Density of population in USA 33.82 Per Sq Km Density of population in Canada 3.75 Per Sq Km Density of population in BD 1142.29 Per Sq KM For Canada and USA a disaster having same magnitude which may be a small impact but the same magnitude disaster may be a large disaster for Bangladesh in terms of loss of lives and property damage Source : Published in World Bank report 2012
    • 64. 64 PROPOSED MODEL FOR ARMED FORCES IN DISTRICT LEVEL ICS model -1 (Delegation of Authority) ICS model -2 (Parallel command and control authority) ICS model -3 (Unified Command Group)
    • 65. 65 Deputy Commissioner (DC) Or Responsible Officer (RO) Armed Force Representative (Incident Commander) Information and Media Officer Safety Officer Liaison Officer Deputy IC Logistics SectionPlanning SectionOperation Section COMMAND STAFF GENERAL STAFF Nodal Officer (Air Operational) Local elected Political Leader or Parliament Member and NGO can participate ICS model -1 (Delegation of Authority)
    • 66. 66 Doesn’t disturb the present exist governmental structure Armed Forces representative act as an Incident Commander on behalf of the DC, so the Armed Force remains as a supporting role The elected political leader and concern NGOs are well incorporate in planning , operation section and logistic The proposed ICS incorporate the finance and admin section as a part of finance branch under logistic section which will minimize the extra manpower and makes the ICS structure simpler Inclusion of the NODAL officer for coordination and conducting air operation will help the rescue and relief operation easier. ADVANTAGES OF MODEL-1
    • 67. 67 The Armed Force act as a supporting role during emergency response operation and it remain under direct command and control of the defense minister through Armed Forces Division (AFD). So it can’t work under DC at district level. The Armed Force commander can’t act as an Incident commander until he get the training on ICS, still in Bangladesh we don’t have the training on ICS for the AFD personal. The Armed Force commander may not have well knowledge and relation with NGOs/Political leader so it will be difficult for them to get full support from the NGOs. DISADVANTAGES OF MODEL-1
    • 68. 68 If the DC is not trained on ICS then the responsible officer (RO) nominated from the Government may not be well oriented with rest of the Government and Non Governmental agencies who all are working in that district. The incorporation of elected political leader and NGOs at section level (Operation and Planning) may downgrade their status and importance in ICS DISADVANTAGES OF MODEL-1
    • 69. 69 Deputy IC Information and Media Officer Safety Officer Liaison Officer Deputy Commissioner (DC) Or Responsible Officer (RO) Armed Force Representative (Incident Commander) Logistics Section Planning SectionOperation Section COMMAND STAFF GENERAL STAFF Nodal Officer (Air Operational) Political Elected Leader District Disaster Management Bureau (DDMB) Local NGOs ICS model -2 (Parallel command and control authority)
    • 70. 70 ADVANTAGES OF MODEL-2 • At district level both the military and civil administration enjoy the parallel authority for mobilizing its own men and resources • The command and control authority remains with AFD • The DC will act as District Coordinator and provide all necessary support to IC nominated from Armed Forces division
    • 71. 71 • The Operation section and logistics section will be manned by AFD and the other related agencies will provide their support through the coordination process by DC • The DC will make a bridge with the IC (AFD Personal) and Political elected leader • The NGOs will be controled and coordinated by the district Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) for smooth functioning. ADVANTAGES OF MODEL-2
    • 72. 72 • The DC will not enjoy the superior authority like ICS model-1 • The Armed Force Representative may not have the training on ICS which will Hinder the progress of ICS • The command and control authority will remain with AFD representative which is not commensurate with the present Government structure • The NGO’s may face bureaucratic problem with DMB which may delay the process • Direct contact with Political leader may influence the DC for providing undue privilege to political leader like more share of relief in his own men or area. And disturb the relief plan of the district. DISADVANTAGES OF MODEL-2
    • 73. ICS model -3 (Unified Command Group) 73
    • 74. 74 • The Unified Command group is ensured the equal participation of the DC, IC (AFD) and elected local political leader role in ICS. • The Unified command group ensures the proof planning and operation of the emergency response activities. • The Unified Command group ensures the accountability and balanced of command, control authority between three components like Civil and Military administration (AFD) and Political party as well. • The presence of Armed Forces personal in Unified Command group helps to make a balanced between political leader and DC. ADVANTAGES OF MODEL-3
    • 75. 75 • The political figure in unified command group will ensure that the demands of local people are fulfilled by the service provider. • The political leader can play a vital role to motivate the affected people in crisis time and can help the Armed Forces to control the law and order situation in the affected area. • The DMB can help the Armed Force Commander providing the NGOs support in time and correctly. • The DMB can nominate the right man to represent the NGOs community at district level. ADVANTAGES OF MODEL-3
    • 76. 76 • The active participation of local elected political figure in Unified Command Group will ensure the forming up the civil defense force at district level, which will be a trained force in the process of time. In future it will enhance the capability of District’s capability to manage any disaster ADVANTAGES OF MODEL-3
    • 77. 77 DISADVANTAGES OF MODEL-3 • The political leader may influence the local people for his own political interest and which may create negative impact towards the ICS personal. • The NGOs may show nonparticipation attitude towards DMB due to bureaucratic interference or problem. • The separate branch in logistics section for the finance which will be manage by the respective civil authority may create some problem as the logistic section will be controlled by the Armed Forces.
    • 78. 78 DISADVANTAGES OF MODEL-3 • The Unified Command group is very new concept in our country. So it will take time to understand by all. • The presence of Political leader in Unified Command Group may create some problem at the beginning but it will be minimized in the long run • The political figure may try to incorporate his party supporter as volunteers in ICS structure and disturb the distribution of relief material. • The political leader may influence the local people for his own political interest and which may create negative impact towards the ICS personal
    • 79. 79 The proposed ICS model-3 has got some disadvantages to avoid those problems the following suggestion can be followed: • The political leader can be trained at district level to make aware about their responsibility in Unified Command Group. • The finance branch can be set up as a section and it can be managed by the government official nominated by DC. • The DMB should develop a healthy relation with NGOs at district level. • DMB should control and have the accountability of the local NGOs with matured management. SUGGESTIVE MEASURES
    • 80. 80 SUGGESTIVE MEASURES • The AFD should nominate the Armed Forces representative at district level with the qualification on ICS training and experienced on disaster management. • The DC should have training on ICS for smooth coordination with other agencies. • Prior to any disaster there should be a good number of training, workshop and table top exercise on ICS at district level which will help the responder agencies to know each other capability and developing a good relation among them. • All the responder should introduce the ICS in their agency which will help them to accumulate their ICS structure with the ICS of the District during emergency response period.
    • 81. 81 - Prior to any disaster there should be a good number of training, workshop and model discussion on ICS at district level which will help the responder agencies to know each other capability and developing a good relation among them. - All the responder should introduce the ICS in their agency which will help them to accumulate their ICS structure with the ICS of the District during emergency response period. - The local volunteer can be organized and trained with the guidance and support of the local elected political leader and thereby this volunteer can form strong civil defense force at District level and minimize the dependency from the Armed Forces. RECOMMENDATION
    • 82. 82 -The Government should introduce policy regarding the communication and usable common word for disaster. - Government should finalized the Disaster Management Act and policy basing on that the structure of ICS can be developed - The Government should give the authority to DMB to monitor and have accountability of the NGOs who all are specially working on disaster related issue - The political leader can be trained at district level to make aware about their responsibility in Unified Command Group RECOMMENDATION
    • 83. 83 - The finance branch can be set up as a section and it can be managed by the government official nominated by DC because the Armed Forces do not get any separate budget allocation from GOB for managing disaster - The DMB should develop a healthy relation with NGOs at district level - DMB should control and have the accountability of the local NGOs with matured management - The AFD should nominate the Armed Forces representative at district level with the qualification on ICS training and experienced on disaster management - The DC should have training on ICS for smooth coordination with other agencies RECOMMENDATION
    • 84. AnyAny Question?Question? 84
    • 85. 85 - A single coordinated Incident Action Plan - One Operation section Chief - One Incident Command Post Unified Command in ICS CONCLUSION
    • 86. 86 ICS Local Elected Political leader Advisor DC / District Coordinating officer Incident Commander From Armed Force CONCLUSION Under a Unified Command, the Incident Commanders manage the incident together and no one has seniority over another. The Incident Commanders within the Unified Command make joint decisions and speak as one voice. Any differences are worked out within the Unified Command group Unified Command Group
    • 87. THANKS FOR YOUR PATIENCE 87

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