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Vijayanagara Empire

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  • 1. AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL :VIJAYANAGARA
  • 2. AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL : VIJAYANAGARA
  • 3.  Vijayanagara the capital and its environs • Like most capital, vijayanagara, was characterised by a distinctive physical layout and building style.
  • 4. (i) Water resources : • The most striking feature about the location of vijayanagara is the natural basin formed by the river tunghbhadra which flows in a north-easterly direction. • In almost all cases embankments were built along there streams to create reservoirs of varying sizes. As this is one of the most arid zones of the peninsula.
  • 5. • One of the most prominent water work to be seen among the ruins is the hiriya canal. This canal drew water form a dam across the Tungabhadra and irrigated the cultivated valley that separated the “sacred centre” form the “urban core”. This was apparently built by kings of the sangama dynasty.
  • 6. (ii) Fortification and roads : • Abdur razzaq, an ambassador sent by the ruler of Persia to Calicut (presentday Kozhikode ) in the fifteenth century, was greatly impressed by the fortifications, and mentioned seven lines of forts. These encircled not only the city but also its agricultural hinterland and forests.
  • 7. • A second line of fortification went round the inner core of the urban complex, and a third line surrounded the royal centre, within which each set of major buildings was surrounded by its own high walls. • Archaeologists have studied roads within the city and those leading out from it. These have been identified by tracing paths through gateways, as well as by finds of pavements.
  • 8. (iii) The Urban Core : • Moving along the roads leading into the urban core, there is relatively little archaeological evidence of the houses of ordinary people. • Field surveys indicate that the entire area was dotted with numerous shrines and small temples, pointing to the prevalence of cults, perhaps supported by different communities.