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  • 1. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
    • BALASUBRAMANIAN.M
    • ASHIQ AHAMED.C
    • BADRINATH.K
  • 2.
    • WORKING PRINCIPLE
  • 3. What is it ……. ?
    • Geo = earth
    • +
    • Thermal = Heat
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. CAUSE OF SOURCES
    • Earth's core maintains temperatures in excess of 5000°C
      • Heat gradual radioactive decay of elements
    • Heat energy continuously flows from hot core
      • Conductive heat flow
      • Convective flows of molten mantle beneath the crust .
  • 8. Contd……
    • Mean heat flux at earth's surface
      • 16 kilowatts of heat energy per square kilometer
      • Dissipates to the atmosphere and space.
      • Tends to be strongest along tectonic plate boundaries
  • 9. Contd…
    • Volcanic activity transports hot material to near the surface
      • Only a small fraction of molten rock actually reaches surface.
      • Most is left at depths of 5-20 km beneath the surface,
    • Hydrological convection forms high temperature geothermal systems at shallow depths of 500-3000m.
  • 10.  
  • 11. Geothermal Model
  • 12.  
  • 13. OPERATION
  • 14. OUTLINE
    • DRY STEAM
    • DIRECT USE
    • FLASH –SINGLE & DOUBLE
    • BINARY
    • HOT DRY ROCK
    • EGS
  • 15. Dry Steam Schematic
  • 16. Dry Steam Power Plants
    • “ Dry” steam extracted from natural reservoir
      • 180-225 ºC ( 356-437 ºF)
      • 4-8 MPa (580-1160 psi)
      • 200+ km/hr (100+ mph)
    • Steam is used to drive a turbo-generator
    • Steam is condensed and pumped back into the ground
    • Can achieve 1 kWh per 6.5 kg of steam
      • A 55 MW plant requires 100 kg/s of steam
      • Range 2.5 to 5 MW
  • 17. THE GEYSERS-CA-LARGEST DRY STEAM
  • 18. Direct Use Technologies
    • Geothermal heat is used directly rather than for power generation
    • Extract heat from low temperature geothermal resources < 150 o C
    • Applications sited near source (<10 km)
  • 19. Borehole Heat Exchange This type uses one or two underground vertical loops that extend 150 meters below the surface.
  • 20. DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM
  • 21.  
  • 22. Single Flash Steam
  • 23. Single Flash Steam Power Plants
    • Steam with water extracted from ground
    • Pressure of mixture drops at surface and more water “flashes” to steam
    • Steam separated from water
    • Steam drives a turbine
    • Turbine drives an electric generator
    • Generate between 5 and 100 MW
    • Use 6 to 9 tonnes of steam per hour
  • 24.  
  • 25. Double Flash Schematic
  • 26. Double Flash Power Plants
    • Similar to single flash operation
    • Unflashed liquid flows to low-pressure tank – flashes to steam
    • Steam drives a second-stage turbine
      • Also uses exhaust from first turbine
    • Increases output 20-25% for 5% increase in plant costs
  • 27. Binary Cycle Schematic
  • 28. Binary Cycle Power Plants
    • Low temps – 100 o and 150 o C
    • Use heat to vaporize organic liquid
      • E.g., iso-butane, iso-pentane
    • Use vapor to drive turbine
      • Causes vapor to condense
      • Recycle continuously
    • Typically 7 to 12 % efficient
    • 0.1 – 40 MW units common
  • 29.  
  • 30. Binary Plant Power Output
  • 31. Combined Cycle Plants
    • Combination of conventional steam turbine technology and binary cycle technology
      • Steam drives primary turbine
      • Remaining heat used to create organic vapor
      • Organic vapor drives a second turbine
    • Plant sizes ranging between 10 to 100+ MW
    • Significantly greater efficiencies
      • Higher overall utilization
      • Extract more power (heat) from geothermal resource
  • 32.  
  • 33. Hot Dry Rock Technology
    • Wells drilled 3-6 km into crust
      • Hot crystalline rock formations
    • Water pumped into formations
    • Water flows through natural fissures picking up heat
    • Hot water/steam returns to surface
    • Steam used to generate power
  • 34.  
  • 35. Hot Dry Rock Technology Fenton Hill plant
  • 36. SITE SELECTION
  • 37.  
  • 38. CASE STUDY-------SABALAN , NW IRAN
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. KEY- R & D -WORK
    • Site Selection
    • Site Characterization
    • Reservoir Creation
    • Reservoir Validation
    • Interwell Connectivity
    • Reservoir Scale Up
    • Reservoir Sustainability
  • 44.
    • Prioritization of sites for future EGS development and estimating the size of the economic EGS resource.
    • Low-risk, economical EGS site selection and characterization capabilities.
    • Drilling, casing, and preparing the wells for simulation and production.
  • 45. ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS
  • 46. Tectonic Plate Movements
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49. World Wide Geothermal Uses and Potential
  • 50. RING OF FIRE
  • 51. Availability of Geothermal Energy
    • On average, the Earth emits 16kW/km 2 . However, this number can be much higher in areas such as regions near volcanoes, hot springs and fumaroles.
    • As a rough rule, 1 km 3 of hot rock cooled by 100 0 C will yield 30 MW of electricity over thirty years.
    • There is believed to be enough heat radiating from the center of the Earth to fulfill human energy demands for the remainder of the biosphere’s lifetime.
  • 52. Geothermal Site Schematic
  • 53. Ground Structures
  • 54. Performance vs. Rock Type