Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and Behavior analysis for process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior in the form of response by delivery either immediately or shortly after performing the behavior.
Reinforcement theory is based on behaviorlistic approach which says behavior is a function of its consequences.
Positive Reinforcement-which means to adding of appetitive stimulus to increase a certain behavior or response .
example-A Teacher gave a reward to student for better performing of task ,if the frequency of better performing of task increase ,than the reward is a positive reinforcer.
Negative Reinforcement-It means to taking away of an appetitive stimulus to decrease a certain behavior or response .
example-if a student came late in class and teacher does not allow him/her in class ,than it is negative reinforcement for student.
These two concept are often confused ,however they differ from each other in two important ways.
Punishment reduces the probability of an undesired behavior .
Negative reinforcement increase the probability of a desired behavior.
Punishment involve administering a negative consequences when an undesired behavior occurs.
Negative reinforcement entails removing a negative consequence when a desired behavior occurs.
The proper application of reinforcement in the class is done by providing safe ,orderly environment to students that are conducive to learning.
Classroom rules and procedure should be appropriate so that it meets expectation of student and teacher behavior in the classroom.
Establish rules early ,at the beginning of the session of class.
Institution is Required to involve students in establishing rules.
Teacher is to become facilitator rather than leader of group.
positive reinforcement is practice aim at increasing the likelihood that a behavior will reoccur.
ATTENTION-like smile ,pat on back standing or sitting near the individual.
Tangible-positive checks ,points etc.
Activities-spending time with students .
The application of negative reinforcement is done with a view to improve the behavior .
Example-turning off distracting music when trying to work. If the work increase when the music is turned off ,turning off the music is a negative reinforcer.
Such as student may become aggressive in response to it or sometimes it give the effects of punishment .
PRIMARY REINFORCERS –They are unconditional reinforcer which are related to basic necessities .
Example : water,air,good environment and sitting arrangements.
SECONDARY REINFORCERS-These are conditional reinforcer which function as a reinforcer after pairing with the function which first act as a reinforcer.
Give targets to explore their potential
Recognizing the work
Natural and artificial reinforcer
Give student choices, usually two .
Make sure all the choices you offer the student are ones you can live with.
Do not Load students with too many commands.
Focus on their good behavior and positive attributes rather than negative behavior and attributes.
No student is penalized for the behavior of any one else.
Each student has access to rewards under exactly the same terms.
Appropriate peer pressure which occurs naturally in the classroom is used to encourage positive behavioral choices.