Reinforcement in classroom


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Reinforcement in classroom

  1. 1. Submitted To- Submitted By- DR. Namrata sandhu Arnav kharhyal Arvind Arora Kritika Bhardwaj Ashima Garg
  2. 2. <ul><li>Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and Behavior analysis for process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior in the form of response by delivery either immediately or shortly after performing the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement theory is based on behaviorlistic approach which says behavior is a function of its consequences. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement-which means to adding of appetitive stimulus to increase a certain behavior or response . </li></ul><ul><li>example-A Teacher gave a reward to student for better performing of task ,if the frequency of better performing of task increase ,than the reward is a positive reinforcer. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Negative Reinforcement-It means to taking away of an appetitive stimulus to decrease a certain behavior or response . </li></ul><ul><li>example-if a student came late in class and teacher does not allow him/her in class ,than it is negative reinforcement for student. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>These two concept are often confused ,however they differ from each other in two important ways. </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST DIFFERENCE- </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment reduces the probability of an undesired behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement increase the probability of a desired behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Second difference- </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment involve administering a negative consequences when an undesired behavior occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement entails removing a negative consequence when a desired behavior occurs. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The proper application of reinforcement in the class is done by providing safe ,orderly environment to students that are conducive to learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom rules and procedure should be appropriate so that it meets expectation of student and teacher behavior in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish rules early ,at the beginning of the session of class. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Institution is Required to involve students in establishing rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is to become facilitator rather than leader of group. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement- </li></ul><ul><li>positive reinforcement is practice aim at increasing the likelihood that a behavior will reoccur. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ATTENTION-like smile ,pat on back standing or sitting near the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible-positive checks ,points etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities-spending time with students . </li></ul><ul><li>positive </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>clip </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The application of negative reinforcement is done with a view to improve the behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>Example-turning off distracting music when trying to work. If the work increase when the music is turned off ,turning off the music is a negative reinforcer. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Such as student may become aggressive in response to it or sometimes it give the effects of punishment . </li></ul><ul><li>clip </li></ul><ul><li> clip 2 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>PRIMARY REINFORCERS –They are unconditional reinforcer which are related to basic necessities . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : water,air,good environment and sitting arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY REINFORCERS-These are conditional reinforcer which function as a reinforcer after pairing with the function which first act as a reinforcer. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>EXAMPLE- </li></ul><ul><li>interactive learning </li></ul><ul><li>Give targets to explore their potential </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing the work </li></ul><ul><li>Punch cards </li></ul><ul><li>Coupon </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and artificial reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible behavior </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Like </li></ul><ul><li>Give student choices, usually two . </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure all the choices you offer the student are ones you can live with. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not Load students with too many commands. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on their good behavior and positive attributes rather than negative behavior and attributes. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>DO’S </li></ul><ul><li>No student is penalized for the behavior of any one else. </li></ul><ul><li>Each student has access to rewards under exactly the same terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate peer pressure which occurs naturally in the classroom is used to encourage positive behavioral choices. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Dont’s </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure is unlikely to be harnessed. </li></ul><ul><li>The target may get negative attention </li></ul><ul><li>if they fails to earn the reward. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>