Switching seminar ppt


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Switching seminar ppt

  1. 1. 1<br />Presentation On<br />Switching<br />Presented by :-<br />Ashish Kushwah<br />7th semester<br />Roll No.0928ec081007<br />
  2. 2. Layer 2 Switching<br /><ul><li>Switching breaks up large collision domains into smaller ones
  3. 3. Collision domain is a network segment with two or more devices sharing the same bandwidth.
  4. 4. A hub network is a typical example of this type of technology
  5. 5. Each port on a switch is actually its own collision domain, you can make a much better Ethernet LAN network just by replacing your hubs with switches</li></ul>2<br />
  6. 6. How Switches and BridgesLearn Addresses<br />3<br />Bridges and switches learn in the following ways: <br /><ul><li> Reading the source MAC address of each received frame or datagram
  7. 7. Recording the port on which the MAC address was received. </li></ul>In this way, the bridge or switch learns which addresses belong to the devices connected to each port. <br />
  8. 8. Ethernet Access with Hubs<br />4<br />
  9. 9. Ethernet Access with Switches<br />5<br />
  10. 10. Switch Features<br /><ul><li>There are three conditions in which a switch will flood a frame out on all ports except to the port on which the frame came in, as follows:
  11. 11. Unknown unicast address
  12. 12. Broadcast frame
  13. 13. Multicast frame</li></ul>6<br />
  14. 14. MAC Address Table<br />7<br /><ul><li>Initial MAC address table is empty.</li></li></ul><li>Learning Addresses<br />8<br /><ul><li>Station A sends a frame to station C.
  15. 15. Switch caches the MAC address of station A to port E0 by learning the source address of data frames.
  16. 16. The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E0 (unknown unicasts are flooded).</li></li></ul><li>Learning Addresses (Cont.)<br />9<br /><ul><li>Station D sends a frame to station C.
  17. 17. Switch caches the MAC address of station D to port E3 by learning the source address of data frames.
  18. 18. The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded).</li></li></ul><li>Filtering Frames<br />10<br /><ul><li>Station A sends a frame to station C.
  19. 19. Destination is known; frame is not flooded.</li></li></ul><li>11<br />Spanning Tree Protocol<br />
  20. 20. Spanning-Tree Protocol<br />12<br /><ul><li>Provides a loop-free redundant network topology by placing certain ports in the blocking state.</li></li></ul><li>Spanning Tree Protocol<br />13<br /><ul><li>Spanning Tree Protocol resides in Data link Layer
  21. 21. Ethernet bridges and switches can implement the IEEE 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol and use the spanning-tree algorithm to construct a loop free network. </li></li></ul><li>Spanning-Tree Port States<br />14<br /><ul><li>Spanning-tree transits each port through several different states:</li></ul>Disabled<br />
  22. 22. Selecting the Root Bridge<br />15<br /><ul><li>The first decision that all switches in the network make, is to identify the root bridge.
  23. 23. When a switch is turned on, the spanning-tree algorithm is used to identify the root bridge. BPDUs are sent out with the Bridge ID (BID).
  24. 24. The BID consists of a bridge priority that defaults to 32768 and the switch base MAC address.
  25. 25. When a switch first starts up, it assumes it is the root switch and sends BPDUs. These BPDUs contain BID.
  26. 26. All bridges see these and decide that the bridge with the smallest BID value will be the root bridge.
  27. 27. A network administrator may want to influence the decision by setting the switch priority to a smaller value than the default.</li></li></ul><li>16<br />Switch Configuration<br />
  28. 28. Switch Command Modes<br />17<br /><ul><li>Switches have several command modes.
  29. 29. The default mode is User EXEC mode, which ends in a greater-than character (>).
  30. 30. The commands available in User EXEC mode are limited to those that change terminal settings, perform basic tests, and display system information.
  31. 31. The enable command is used to change from User EXEC mode to Privileged EXEC mode, which ends in a pound-sign character (#).
  32. 32. The configure command allows other command modes to be accessed.    </li></li></ul><li>Switch Configuration<br /><ul><li>There are two reasons to set the IP address information on the switch:
  33. 33. To manage the switch via Telnet or other management software
  34. 34. To configure the switch with different VLANs and other network functions
  35. 35. See the default IP configuration = show IP command</li></ul>Configure IP Address<br />sw1(config-if)#interface vlan 1<br />sw1(config-if)#ip address<br />sw1(config-if)#no shut<br />sw1(config-if)#exit<br />sw1(config)ip default-gateway<br />18<br />
  36. 36. Configuring Interface Descriptions<br /><ul><li>You can administratively set a name for each interface on the switches</li></ul>SW1#config t<br />Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z<br />SW1(config)#int e0/1<br />SW1(config-if)#description Finance_VLAN<br />SW1(config-if)#int f0/26<br />SW1(config-if)#description trunk_to_Building_4<br />SW1(config-if)#<br /><ul><li>Setting Port Security</li></ul>Sw1(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address mac-address<br /><ul><li>Now only this one MAC address is allowed on this switch port</li></ul>19<br />
  37. 37. 20<br />VLANs<br />
  38. 38. VLAN Overview<br />21<br /><ul><li>Segmentation
  39. 39. Flexibility
  40. 40. Security</li></ul>A VLAN = A Broadcast Domain = Logical Network (Subnet) <br />
  41. 41. VLAN Membership Modes<br />22<br />
  42. 42. VTP Protocol Features<br /><ul><li>A messaging system that advertises VLAN configuration information
  43. 43. Maintains VLAN configuration consistency throughout a common administrative domain
  44. 44. Sends advertisements on trunk ports only</li></li></ul><li>VTP Modes<br />24<br /><ul><li>Creates VLANs
  45. 45. Modifies VLANs
  46. 46. Deletes VLANs
  47. 47. Sends/forwards advertisements
  48. 48. Synchronizes
  49. 49. Saved in NVRAM
  50. 50. Creates VLANs
  51. 51. Modifies VLANs
  52. 52. Deletes VLANs
  53. 53. Forwards advertisements
  54. 54. Does not synchronize
  55. 55. Saved in NVRAM
  56. 56. Forwards advertisements
  57. 57. Synchronizes
  58. 58. Not saved in NVRAM</li></li></ul><li>THANKS……. <br />