easy PEasy ASMemory; Icannotrememberanything!Other articles in this issueHeart Rate—magic!Skill—Easy to spot?Traditional British Games—why?
"Thinklittle goals and expect little achieve- ments. Think big Quotes goals and win big success." Schwartz. DDefeat is not the worst of failures. Not to rhave tried is the true failure. y ou do g. SWoodberry. G u la: win rm it. E l e fo like i mp ay s a s le m s ha eop ces nd p "By working Suc st, a be ―Never give hard, you get to play hard guilt- in!, Never free" Rohn, J. give in, never, never, never— in anything ―The difference between the impos- great or small, sible and the possible lies in a per- large or son‘s determination‖ Lasorda, T petty‖ Churchill. W Quotes ―The dictionary is the only place where success comes before work‖ Lombardi. V
P4—5 Heart Rate—Magic?C P5 Exam TechniqueO P6-7 MemoryN P7 Outdoor EducationT P8 Joint AnalysisEN P8 NumbersT P9-10 Skill—how can we spot it?S P10 Questions P11 Traditional Sports in UKP P12-13 Reaction TimeA P13 Newtons LawsGE
How is Heart Rate increased—magic? How does our heart beat faster to satisfy the de- mands of exercise? What systems allow for this in-What we need to consider is; How does the Cardiac Control Centre receive information and then tell the heart to beat faster? How does the heart‘s conduction system allow for beating? How does the mechanisms of venous return help?Cardiac Control Centre.This area of the brain receives vital information from receptors from the body in orderto decide whether to speed up or slow down the heart rate.Baroreceptors = detect increases in blood pressureChemorecpetors = detect increase in chemical balances (ph, CO2)Proprioceptors = detect changes in movementNerves that carry messages to; Increase HR are called SYMPATHETIC nerves. Decrease HR are called PARASYMPATHETIC nerves.Both sets of nerves send impulses to the Sino Atrial (SA) node in the heart. This is re-sponsible for initiating the heart beat.OverviewConduction System Cardiac Cycyle Blood MovementSA Node To Atrial Systole RA to RV LA to LVAV NodePurknjie Fibres Ventricular RV to LungsBundle of His Systole LV to BodyRelax Diastole Lungs to LA Body to RA
Venous Return The mechanisms of the body to get deoxygenated blood back to the heart in order for it to be pumped out again. The more blood returned to the heart allows more blood to be pumped out - STARLINGS LAWMethods of Venous Return Skeletal Pump = Muscles contract which squeezes nearby veins. This forces the blood back towards the heart. (eg like squeezing a washing up liquid bottle) Respiratory Pump = During breathing the volume of the thoracic cavity changes. This change of volume causes the abdominal veins to be squeezed (like skeletal pump) and forced the blood back to the heart. Valves = They prevent backflow in the veins. As the blood passes past the valves they close to ensure that the blood cannot run backwards Gravity = Blood above the heart is helped back by the process of gravity. Quick Exam Technique Exam technique is crucial in order to get the higher grades - it is a key difference in whether you do well or not!!!! Quick Tips on reading the question. 1. Read the question 2. Read the question again 3. Read the question again!!!! Before constructing an answer you need to be clear on what the question is asking you — its no good waffling on or writing a great answer to the wrong question. A possible way of avoid this is to bring a highlighter into the exam room with you. Ei- ther highlight the key words or try the following Highlight the COMMAND word. Eg describe, explain, How, Why, What Highlight the SUBJECT word(s) Highlight the JACKPOT word(s) For example : What can be done by local recreation or leisure centres to encourage more elderly people to take part in regular physical activity?
Memory Apparently they never forget..........but how do we remember things and retrieve them for use in the future?Well there it is, hope you remember it. Article finished......lots of white space though. We bet-ter explore this in detail to fill up the page!Short Term Sensory Store.Receives all the information from the display [environment]Information lasts for less than a secondUnimportant information is lostSelective AttentionFilters the relevant information for passing onto the short term memoryDisregards irrelevant informationPrevents overload of the information processing system.Short Term MemorySTM holds 7(+-2) = 5-9 pieces of informationLasts up to 30 seconds.Chunks information togetherEncodes information to LTM (on diagram at the top of this page)
Long Term MemoryIts almost limitless!Stores Motor ProgrammesAssociates performances with previous attemptsDecodes information back to STM (on diagram,)Strategies for retention..... Practice/Repetition/Over learning Relate information to past experiences Make information relevant/meaningful The learning experience is enjoyable/interesting Use imagery Positive reinforcement – well done!!! Chunking – grouping information together Make the information unique/unusual Media positives on Sport
Joint Analysis Its the first thing to hit you in Anatomy and Physiology!!!! I‘ll be honest, we didnt quite tell you all of the truth at GCSE—Quadriceps and Hamstrings are no longer viable answers (sorry!!!). There are a load of long words to learn containing loads of letters (sorry again!). The good thing though is there are only right and wrong answers—none of that social cultural opinions and discussions! What you need to know.... 1.Joint type - Knee Hinge; Shoulder Ball and Socket 2.Movement produced - Flexion; Extension (and more....) 3.Agonist - The muscle making the movement happen (prime mover) 4.Antagonist - The muscle relaxing 5.Muscular contraction - The type of contraction taking place 1. Knee/Hinge 2. Extension Can you do the 3. Rectus Femoris elbow??? 4.Bicep Femoris 5. Concentric Numbers, Numbers, Numbers1984 Los Angeles Olympics—Commercialism of Olympics72 average resting Heart Rate34 litres of Cardiac Output of a trained athlete (average)30 seconds—the capacity of the short term memory5-9 pieces of information stored in Short term memory
Is it easy to spot skilful performances?How can we compare Pele to Phil Taylor?, Shane Warne to Maria Sharapova? MichaelSchumacher to Frankie Dettori? Paula Radcliffe to Tiger Woods?―The behaviour which tends to eliminate the discrepancy between intention and perform-ance‖ (Oldfield)―The learned ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty often withthe limited outlay of time, energy or both‖ (Knapp)―An act or task that has a goal to achieve and that requires voluntary body or limb movementsto be properly performed‖ (Magill)I think we‘d all agree that in their given fields, they are at the top of their game and thereforeextremely skilful. Many others could be thought of and compared against. Do these perform-ers fit the quotes above about skilful performance? From these quotes we can see how theyall in some way shape or form fit the given characteristics of skill. All of these performancescan be related to certain characteristics that represent skilful performances. These characteris-tics can be applied to all skilful performances in one way or another.Characteristics of Skill…………Learned - Player is taught a tennis serve and practices itAesthetic - The gymnasts floor routine is pleasing to the eyeCo-ordinated - The basketball lay up is not jerkyEfficient - The swimmer moves effortlessly through the waterFluent - The movement flow into each other—eg Triple jumpTechnical Model - Follows a technical model, a batsman playing a text book Cover driveGoal Directed - The performer understands the requirements of the task Golfer knows how and when to fade the ballDo the above mentioned sports people fit into these characteristics? In their field of specialitythen the answer surely as to be yes?There are also the added complication of different types of skill!!!! Motor (voluntary with end result) Fundamental (young skills that are learnt) Perceptual (interpreting information) Cognitive (problem solving) Individual (no interaction with others) Coactive (interaction with others) Interactive (with the environment)In order for these skilful characteristics to be developed and demonstrated then other parts ofthe skill acquisition syllabus need to be addressed.In order for skill to be achieved, ability must come into question? Many commentators suggestthat performers have great natural ability. Is that true? Abilities actually underpin skill!!!Abilities are; genetic [from parents], stable [we dont lose our abilities].
Also the fact that skills can be classified in different ways will determine the practice methods usedto learn the skill.Skill ClassificationEnvironmentalOpen ClosedEnvironment is constantly changing Environment is stableMuscles UsedGross FineLarge muscle movements Small muscle movementsPacingExternally paced Self pacedAction is determined by external sources Performer controls rate of movementContinuityDiscrete Serial ContinuousDefined beginning & end Number of discrete skills No clear end or beginningOrganisationHigh LowCant be split into subroutines Easily split into subroutines Questions, questions, questions!Anatomy1. Give a structural and functional characteristic of slow twitch muscle fibres (2 marks)2. Describe the conduction system of the heart (4 marks)3. What is vital capacity? (1 mark)4. How is oxygen transported in the blood? (2 marks)Skill1. Give the characteristics of the short term memory (3 marks)2. Describe the progressive part practice method through an example (3 marks)3. How is a skill operated using the open loop method? (3 marks)4. What is perception? (1 mark)Socio-Cultural1. Describe the characteristics of play (3 marks)2. What is opportunity, provision and esteem? (3 marks)3. What are the characteristics of ethnic sports in the UK? (5 marks)4. How does the womens sport foundation encourage participation? (3 marks)
Traditional Sports in BritainLets get this straight from the beginning..........we are talkingabout historical sports and pastimes that have carried onthroughout history in the British Isles.Rory and Paddy went around the British Isles taking part in these pastimes for aseries on Channel 5 including; shin kicking and toe wrestling!!!We are going to look at Shrovetide Football at Ashbourne, Highland Games, Cheese Rolling inGloustershire and Tar Barrel Running in Ottery St Mary..Reasons for continued existence and popularity fo Ethnic SportsFestival Because of Pagan beliefs which require participationAnnual Every year on public/bank holidays SO people have free time to go.Isolated Relatively isolated SO ethnic identity is maintainedLocal Unique to an area – increases local prideTraditional A celebration of the past and passed down from generation to generationEthnic Identity Retention of ethnic identitySocial Social gatherings, entertaining, focus on pub, carnival atmosphere, enjoyableTourism Attracts tourists and bring money to the area Do they follow the characteristics above??? The activities were and still are focus- sed on physical attributes (physical En- deavour) rather than skill (physical Prowess). Are the played the same way? Yes Do they take place annually Yes Are they unique to the area? Yes Are they a celebration of the past? Yes Do tourists go and watch? Yes!
Reaction TimeDefinitions: Reaction Time: The time elapsed between a stimulus and a response to it. This can either be simple meaning there is only one stimulus and one response or can i involve choice meaning there are one or more stimulus and therefore more responses Movement Time: The time from the start of the movement to the completion of the movement Response Time: Reaction Time + Movement Time Example: eHick‘s Law: Describes the time it takes for aperson or athlete to make a decision as a As the number ofresult of the possible choices or stimuli alternative stimulihe or she has. increase so does the reaction time.Psychological Refractory Period:This refers to the period of time in which the response to a previous stimulus delays the response to asecond stimulus due to the first stimulus still being processed. The time delay this causes is the Psycho-logical refractory period and basically is the time it takes the athlete to change their mind to follow thesecond stimulus. Ultimately this will increase reaction time, due to the fact that the first stimulus needsto be processed and cleared before the second stimulus can be processed.Example:Netball: GS pretends to take a shot causing GK to jump to defend the shot, GS then passes to the GAwho takes a shot. GK must therefore realise that the shot has been faked and this information must beprocessed and cleared before GK can respond to the second shot by getting ready for a rebound.Anticipation:This is the ability to predict future events from early signals or past experience. Anticipation relies on ex-perience to recognise stimuli that allow the performer to process information before an event occurs.For example an experienced batsman may be able to predict the bowler‘s delivery by watching theirhand and arm action, whereas a novice would have to watch the ball bounce before deciding whichshot to play. Correct anticipation should reduce reaction time. Incorrect anticipation will lead to the Psy-chological refractory period as the first response must be processed and cleared before the second re-sponse can begin, thus increasing reaction time.Performers can prevent opponents anticipating their action by being unpredictable (using a dodge ordummy to confuse opponent), randomising actions (using different shots or passes to remain unpre-dictable) and by disguising actions (pretending to take a shot before passing).
Factors:A number of factors affect reaction time: Age: Generally the older you get the slower reaction time becomes Sex: Males generally have a faster reaction time than females Psychological Refractory Period: A second stimulus can make reaction time slower Experience: Experience may mean a performer is more likely to correctly anticipate an opponents actionsImproving response time:Warm up: Preparing the body for activityPractice: ‗Practice makes permanent‘ (eg practicing sprint starts).Fitness: Improving fitness levels may affect response timeExperience: Gaining experience may increase knowledge of possible and most likely stimuli to oc-curArousal Levels: Optimum level of arousalSelective Attention: Focussing on the relevant information availableMental Rehearsal: Mentally practicing a skill beforehand Newtons Laws (no apples!) 1st - A body continues in a state of rest unless acted upon by an external force (golf ball will stay on the tee) 2nd - A force acts on an object, the change in momentum is proportional to the size of force acted upon it bigger club = more distance 3rd - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (long jumper pushing off the ground)
Information and ContactsAS Grade Boundaries in UMS.A B C D E200-160 159-140 139-120 119-100 99-80OCR website.http://www.ocr.org.uk/Specificationhttp://pdf.ocr.org.uk/download/kd/ocr_9652_kd_gce_spec.pdf?Activity List (p12-14—2 sports from 2 areas)http://pdf.ocr.org.uk/download/sm/ocr_12989_sm_gce_unit_g452_cg.pdf?Mr Watson email@example.comMr Lockhart firstname.lastname@example.orgMr Hall email@example.comUseful websitesAnatomywww.brianmac.co.uk/UK Sporthttp://www.uksport.gov.uk/A Level PEwww.teachpe.com/a_level.phpwww.thestudentroom.co.ukhttp://www.u2learn.com/a-level-pe-revision.html