Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

- Categorical Syllogisms (Logic Slide 8) by Fritz 127075 views
- Figures & Moods (Logic Slide 9) by Fritz 72970 views
- Hypothetical Syllogism (Logic Slide... by Fritz 56768 views
- Categorical syllogism by 3842 15286 views
- The categorical-syllogism by anandhjose 4434 views
- Hypothetical proposition by lp tangcuangco 22807 views

36,399 views

35,899 views

35,899 views

Published on

It Includes:

Introduction to categorical syllogism

General Axioms of the Syllogism

Eight Syllogistic Rules

Figures and Moods of the Categorical Syllogism

Examples in these slides are our own, there were no examples derived from the book.

Published in:
Education

No Downloads

Total views

36,399

On SlideShare

0

From Embeds

0

Number of Embeds

13

Shares

0

Downloads

1,102

Comments

0

Likes

41

No embeds

No notes for slide

- 1. CATEGORICALSYLLOGISM
- 2. INTRODUCTION the mere analysis of the of the S and P or direct observation will not disclose their judgment. The mind compares the two certain ideas with the third idea to which is familiar
- 3. INTRODUCTION IDEA 1 IDEA 2 IDEA 3
- 4. INTRODUCTION IDEA 1 IDEA 2 IDEA 3 OR
- 5. INTRODUCTION • MEDIATE INFERENCE – we derive conclusion from two or more premise • MEDIATION of the THIRD IDEA
- 6. MEDIATE INFERENCE a process of the mind in which from the agreement or disagreement of 2 ideas with a third idea we infer their agreement or disagreement with each other
- 7. EXAMPLE All animal is mortal. But every dog is an animal. Therefore, every dog is mortal.
- 8. THE SYLLOGISM IDEA : TERM JUDGEMENT : PROPOSITION MEDIATE INFERENCE : ARGUMENTATION
- 9. THE SYLLOGISM• ARGUMENTATION – a discourse which logically deduces one proposition from the others
- 10. SYLLOGISM An argumentation in which, from two known propositions that contain a common idea, and one at least of which is universal, a third proposition, different from the two propositions, follow with necessity. (Timbreza, 1992)
- 11. SYLLOGISM is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two or more others (the premises) of a certain form. (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
- 12. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM is a piece of deductive, mediate inference which consists of three categorical propositions, the first two which are premises and the third is the conclusion It contains exactly three terms, each of which occurs in exactly two of the constituent propositions.
- 13. EXAMPLE All fish swim. (Major Premise) Every shark is a fish. (Minor Premise) Therefore every shark swim. (Conclusion)
- 14. STRUCTURES OF A CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM Three Propositions: Three terms: 1. Major Premise 1. Major term (P) 2. Minor Premise 2. Minor term (S) 3. Conclusion 3. Middle term (M)
- 15. THREE PROPOSITIONSMAJOR PREMISE: MINOR PREMISE: is the one wherein the is the one wherein the minor major term (P) is compared term (S) is compared to the to the middle term (M) middle term (M) less universal class universal class not challenged and assumed to be true
- 16. THREE PROPOSITIONSCONCLUSION: is the new truth arrived at , the result of reasoning, wherein the agreement or disagreement between the minor term (S) and the major term (P) is enunciated or expressed.
- 17. THREE TERMSMAJOR TERM (P): MINOR TERM (S):• compared to the • compared to the middle term in a major middle term in a minor premise premise• more universal class • less universal class• predicate of the conclusion • subject of the conclusion
- 18. THREE TERMSMIDDLE TERM: term of comparison appears twice in the premise but NEVER in the conclusion
- 19. EXAMPLE All fish (M) are sea creatues (P) (Major Premise) Every shark (S) s a fish (M) (Minor Premise) Therefore every shark (S) are sea creatures (P) (Conclusion)
- 20. EXERCISE _________ All mammals (_) have lungs (_). _________ All whales (_) have lungs (_). _________ Therefore, all whales (_) are mammals(_).
- 21. EXERCISE A land and water dwellers are called amphibians. All salamanders are land and water dwellers. All salamanders are amphibians.
- 22. TO SUMMARIZE All M is P – Major premise All is S is M – Minor premise Therefore, all S is P - Conclusion
- 23. General Axioms (Principles) of the Syllogism Prepared by: Agnes Baculi, Rn Geinah R. Quiñones, RN
- 24. 1. Principle of Reciprocal Identity If two terms agree (or are identical) with a third term, then they are identical with each other. M is P. M agrees with P. S is M. S agrees with M. ∴ S is P. ∴ S agrees with P.
- 25. Example: A dog is an animal. A hound is a dog. ∴ a hound is an animal.
- 26. 2. Principle of Reciprocal Non-Identity If two terms, one of which is identical with a third, but the other of which is not, then they are not identical with each other. P is M. P agrees with M. S is not M. S does not agree with M. ∴ S is not P. ∴ S does not agree with P.
- 27. Example: Nuclear-powered submarines are not commercial vessels. All nuclear-powered submarines are warships. ∴ warships are not commercial vessels.
- 28. 3. Dictum de Omni (The Law of All) What is affirmed of a logical class may also be affirmed of its logical member. P M S
- 29. Formula: 1. P is affirmed of M. But M is affirmed of S. Hence, P may also be affirmed of S. 2. Circle M is inside circle P. But circle S in inside circle M. Therefore, circle S is inside circle P.
- 30. Formula: 3. M is part of P. But S is a part of M. Therefore, S is also a part of P. 4. Circle P contains circle M. But circle M contains circle S. Therefore, circle P also contains circle S.
- 31. Example:All terriers are mammals.Terriers are dogs.Therefore, all dogs are mammals. Mammals Dogs Terrier
- 32. 4. Dictum de Nullo (The Law of None) What is denied of a logical class is also denied of its logical member. What is denied universally of a term is also denied of each of all referents of that term.
- 33. Example:Graduate students are voters.No person under eighteen years of age is a voter.Therefore, graduate students are not under eighteen years of age. Voters Under eighteen Graduate years of students age
- 34. Eight General Syllogistic Rules1. There must be only three terms in the syllogism.2. Neither the major nor the minor term may be distributed in the conclusion, if it is undistributed in the premises.3. The middle term must not appear in the conclusion.4. The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises.
- 35. Eight General Syllogistic Rules5. Only an affirmative conclusion can be drawn from two affirmative premises.6. No conclusion can be drawn from two negative premises.7. If one premise is particular, the conclusion must also be particular; if one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.8. No conclusion can be drawn from two particular premises.
- 36. Rule 1: There must be only three terms in the syllogism. -Minor Term (S) -Major Term (P) -Middle Term (M)
- 37. Fallacy of Four Terms occurs when a syllogism has four (ormore) terms rather than the requisitethree. All M is P. All S is R. ∴ all S is P.
- 38. Example:All academicians are egotists.Susan is someone who works in a university.Therefore, Susan is an egotist.
- 39. Fallacy of Ambiguous MiddleSound travels very fast.His knowledge of law is sound.Therefore, his knowledge of law travels very fast.
- 40. Rule 2: Neither the major nor the minorterm may be distributed in the conclusion, if it is undistributed in the premises.a) Major term must not become universal in the conclusion if it is only particular in the major premise.b) Minor term must not become universal in the conclusion if it is only particular in the minor premise.
- 41. Fallacy of Illicit Processa) Fallacy of Illicit Majorb) Fallacy of Illicit Minor
- 42. Fallacy of Illicit MajorCommitted if and only if the majorterm (P) becomes universal in theconclusion while it is only particular inthe major premise.
- 43. Example:All Texans are Americans.No Californians are Texans.Therefore, no Californians are Americans.
- 44. Mu PpA- All Texans are Americans. Su MuE- No Californians are Texans. Su PuE- Therefore, no Californians are Americans.
- 45. Fallacy of Illicit MinorMinor term becomes universal inthe conclusion while it is onlyparticular (undistributed) in theminor premise.
- 46. Example:All animal rights activists are vegans.All animal rights activists are humans.Therefore, all humans are vegans.
- 47. Mu PpA- All animal rights activists are vegans. Mu SpA- All animal rights activists are humans. Su PuA- Therefore, all humans are vegans.
- 48. Rule 3: The middle term must not appear in the conclusion.All tables have four legsAll dogs have four legsTherefore all dogs and tables have four legs.
- 49. Rule 4: The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises.Middle term must be used as least once asuniversal in any of the premises.It must be shown in the premises that atleast all members or referents of themiddle term are identical or not identicalwith all the members or referents of eitherthe minor or the major term.
- 50. Example:Contradictories are opposites.Black and white are opposites.∴ black and white are contradictories.
- 51. Pu MpContradictories are opposites. Su MpBlack and white are opposites. Su Pp∴ black and white are contradictories.
- 52. Fallacy of Undistributed Middle Arises when the middle term is not used at least once as universal in the premises.
- 53. RULES ON PREMISES5. Only an affirmative conclusion can be drawn from affirmative premises• The major term (P) and minor term (S) of both affirmative premises agree with the middle term.• Hence, the conclusion must express agreement between the major term (P) and minor term (S).
- 54. EXAMPLEEvery carnivore is a meat-eater. (affirmative) A lion is a carnivore. (affirmative)Therefore, a Lion is a meat-eater. (affirmative)
- 55. RULES ON PREMISES6. No conclusion can be drawn from two negative premises• If both the premises are negative, major term (P) and the minor term (S) disagree with the middle term, then the middle term cannot establish any relation between the major term (P) and the minor term (S)
- 56. FALLACY OF TWO NEGATIVES No vegetables are fruits. (negative) All tomatoes are not vegetables. (negative) Therefore, all tomatoes are not fruits. (negative)
- 57. RULES ON PREMISES7. If one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular; if the one premise is negative the conclusion must be negative.• Only a portion of either the minor term (S) or major term (P) referents share something in common with the middle term.
- 58. FALLACY OF ILLICIT MINOR All Spartans are Greek. Some warriors are Spartans. (particular) Therefore, all warriors are Greek.
- 59. EXAMPLE All Spartans are Greek. Some warriors are Spartans. Therefore, some warriors are Greek.
- 60. RULES ON PREMISES if one of the premises is negative, then neither agrees with the middle term therefore they don’t agree with each other negative propostion: S is not P
- 61. EXAMPLE No cube is round. (negative) A box is a cube. Therefore a box is not round. (negative)
- 62. RULES ON PREMISES8. No conclusion can be drawn from two particular premises.• THREE POSSIBILITIES: a) either both are affirmative b) both are negative c) one is affirmative and the other is negative
- 63. THREE POSSIBILITIESa) either both are affirmative • if both premises are particular affirmative then all four terms will be particular.b) if both premises are particular negative no conclusion can be made.
- 64. THREE POSSIBILITIES c) if either of the particular premises is negative then the syllogism will contain either a fallacy of illicit major or undistributed middle
- 65. FALLACY OF ILLICIT MAJOR Some priests are Dominicans. Some teachers are not priests. Therefore, some teachers are not Dominicans.
- 66. FALLACY OF UNDISTRIBUTEDMIDDLE Some elephants are big. Some boys are big. Therefore some boys are elephants.
- 67. Figures and Moods of the Categorical Syllogism
- 68. FigureProper arrangement (position) of themiddle term (M) with respect to themajor term (P) and the minor term (S)in the premises.
- 69. 4 Syllogistic Figures 1st M-p p-M M-p p-MPremise 2nd s-M s-M M-s M-sPremise Figure 1 2 3 4
- 70. Figure 1: The middle term is the subject of the major premise and the predicate of the minor premise Some people are difficult to get along with.M-p All Americans are people.s-M Therefore, some Americans are difficult to getS-P along with.
- 71. Figure 2: The middle term is the predicate of both premises.p-M Registered students are members of this class.s-M John is a member of this class.S-P Therefore, John is a registered student.
- 72. MoodProper arrangement of the premisesaccording to quantity and quality. AAAA EEEE IIII OOOO AEIO AEIO AEIO AEIO
- 73. Valid Moods of the Four Figures Figure 1 AAA , EAE, AII, EIO Figure 2 EAE, AEE, EIO, AOO Figure 3 AAI, EAO, IAI, AII, OAO, EIO Figure 4 AAI, AEE, IAI, EAO, EIO
- 74. Example:A- All textbooks are books intended for careful study.I- Some reference books are intended for careful study.I- Therefore, some reference books are textbooks.
- 75. Example:A- All criminal actions are wicked deeds.A- All prosecutions for murder are criminal actions.A- Therefore, all prosecutions for murder are wicked deeds.

No public clipboards found for this slide

Be the first to comment