G   E   O   G      R     A    P     H     Y         R     E      P   O   R   T
                C a b o o l t u re River Ca...
Table of Contents



Table of Contents.......................................................................................
List of Tables and Figures



Appendix A. Centenary Lakes....................................................................
1. Introduction

The Moreton Bay Regional Council is strongly committed to helping the health and quality of the
Cabooltur...
2. Aim of Report


The aim of this report is to assist in the study and analysis of river water quality and health; and to...
4. Analysis of Assessment of Caboolture River Health

During the field study of the Caboolture River, many preliminary obse...
Site 3: Litherland Crossing
                                                                                              ...
Site 5: Beachmere Boat Ramp
                                                                                             T...
reasonable level. A sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality for
the reason of oxygen whic...
4.2 Assessment of water quality indicator samples from
Caboolture River

The table below displays all the results observed...
Salinity Levels of Selected Sites of the Caboolture Area
5,000




3,750




2,500




1,250




     0
                  ...
Dissolved Oxygen Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area
5.00




3.75




2.50




1.25




   0
                    ...
4.2.3 Phosphorous Levels in the Caboolture River Area
Phosphorous is a necessity in plant life, but an excessive or very l...
4.2.4 pH Levels in the Caboolture River Area
The pH levels of all areas visited portrayed very similar results with a slig...
4.2.5 Turbidity Levels in the Caboolture River Area
Each site varied in turbidity levels of how cloudy, dirty or muddy the...
4.2.6 Riparian Disturbance Rating in the Caboolture River Area
Riparian zones usually consist of vegetated areas on each b...
4.3 Health of the Caboolture River


As a result of the field study trip, the water quality of the Caboolture Area is curre...
5 Analysis of Proposed Land Use Options

The Moreton Bay Regional Council is heavily committed to helping preserve the hea...
5.1 Analysis of a Residential Zone
Applying a Residential Zone to the proposed area would greatly affect a number of facto...
A nature reserve is one of the most natural and effective ways to help maintain the sustainability of
the Caboolture River...
References


Happs, J. C. (1977). Water Pollution And Its Measurement: A Practical Guide For Use In
Schools.
Brisbane: The...
Appendices



Appendix A - Centenary Lakes

Centenary Lakes is a high residential area as shown in the photograph below. T...
Appendix B - Title Page Image


The image shown on the title page is Caboolture River Road; Site 2.




Photograph of Cabo...
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  1. 1. G E O G R A P H Y R E P O R T C a b o o l t u re River Catchment Field Study CABOOLTURE RIVER RIVER WATER QUALITY STUDY Ashleigh DeCourcy Due Date: Tuesday 9 June
  2. 2. Table of Contents Table of Contents..................................................................................................................2 List of Figures.......................................................................................................................3 List of Tables.........................................................................................................................3 1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................4 1.1 Overview of Caboolture and Caboolture River.....................................................4 2. Aims of report....................................................................................................................5 3. Methodology......................................................................................................................5 4. Analysis of Assessment of Caboolture River Health.........................................................6 4.1 Reasons for Selection of key water Quality Indicator...........................................8 4.2 Assessment of water quality indicator samples from Caboolture River..............10 4.3 Health of the Caboolture River...........................................................................16 5. Analysis of Proposed Land Use Options........................................................................17 5.1 Analysis of Residential Option............................................................................19 5.2 Analysis of Industrial Option...............................................................................19 5.3 Analysis of Natural Reserve Option....................................................................20 6. Recommendations for Best Land Use Option.................................................................20 7. Conclusion......................................................................................................................20 Reference List.....................................................................................................................21 Appendices.........................................................................................................................22 C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 2
  3. 3. List of Tables and Figures Appendix A. Centenary Lakes.............................................................................................22 Appendix B. Title Page Image.............................................................................................23 Figure 1. Caboolture, Brisbane Queensland........................................................................4 Figure 2. Keillors Crossing: Best Road, Rocksberg Queensland.........................................7 Figure 3. Caboolture River Road: Caboolture Road, North Brisbane Queensland..............7 Figure 4. Litherland Crossing: Litherland Road, Caboolture Queensland............................8 Figure 5. Centenary Lakes: Morayfield Road, Caboolture Queensland...............................8 Figure 6. Beachmere Boat Ramp: Smith Road, Beachmere................................................9 Figure 7. Salinity Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area...........................................11 Figure 8. Dissolved Oxygen Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area.........................12 Figure 9. Phosphorous Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area.................................13 Figure 10. pH Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area................................................14 Figure 11. Turbidity Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area.......................................15 Figure 12. Riparian Disturbance Rating of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area...................16 Figure 13. Proposed Land Area..........................................................................................18 Table 1. Caboolture River Water Quality Indicator Results.................................................10 Table 2. Salinity Levels........................................................................................................11 Table 3. Dissolved Oxygen Levels......................................................................................11 Table 4. Phosphorous Levels..............................................................................................13 Table 5. pH Levels..............................................................................................................14 Table 6. Turbidity Levels.....................................................................................................15 Table 7. Riparian Disturbance Ratings................................................................................16 Table 8. Recommended Grade for each site......................................................................17 C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 3
  4. 4. 1. Introduction The Moreton Bay Regional Council is strongly committed to helping the health and quality of the Caboolture River. To be able to improve the quality of the water, an examination of different aspects needed to be analysed so that they can comprehend what exactly needs to be contemplated. This includes factors such as preliminary observations of each site, an analysis of water quality indicators, recordings of each indicators at each site and laboratory testing. 1.1 Caboolture, Brisbane Queensland Caboolture is located approximately 50 km north of Brisbane. It is considered to be the northern- most urban area of the Brisbane metropolitan area within South East Queensland. Caboolture takes its name from the Aboriginal word Kabul-Tur meaning place of the carpet snakes. Every year it holds the Urban Country Music Festival and a Ute Muster. Figure 1: Caboolture, Brisbane Queensland Caboolture River The Caboolture River is a small coastal river that runs into Deception Bay, at the northern end of Moreton Bay, just south of the Pummicestone Passage and Bribie Island. The total catchment area is 728km². The Caboolture River is a habitat area for various aquatic life such as Bass, Tarpon, Bream, Flathead and Mullet and Mangrove Jack which is occasionally found in the summer months. An issue in which the Caboolture River has is the amount of rubbish found in the river around the Bruce Highway and the Caboolture town. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 4
  5. 5. 2. Aim of Report The aim of this report is to assist in the study and analysis of river water quality and health; and to understand the importance of water quality indicators which help in preserving the river system. Additionally it is also to help the Moreton Bay Regional Council facilitate an area of land with one of the following proposals: Residential Zone Industrial Precinct Nature Reserve One of these proposals needs to be recommended to the Moreton Bay Regional Council to exhibit which one is the best possible option for helping sustain the Caboolture River. Of this, it must be able to satisfy most aspects of assisting the riverʼs health economically, socially and environmentally. This report analyses, examines and summarises all elements needed to assist in the required maintenance needed to improve the quality and health of the Caboolture River. 3. Methodology On Thursday 7th May, a field study excursion was conducted to help assist in the study of water quality and water health of the Caboolture River. In order to do so, the Year 11 and 12 Geography classes of St Columbans College, Caboolture travelled by bus to five different sites around the Caboolture Area. In only a period of six hours, many observations, recordings, discussions and tests were produced and performed for the study on the water quality and health and all other surroundings which contribute to these main factors. The classes were split into groups and were given a certain indicator to measure at each site and were recorded for assessment. These indicators were recorded into the field study report booklets handed out at the beginning of the day and were then used in class to graph into graphs and tables. All information in this report was obtained from the field trip and from other secondary sources such as internet, books, reports and class handouts. Indicators including dissolved oxygen and phosphorous were tested in the Science Laboratories at St Columbans to help with the results of the water quality of each site. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 5
  6. 6. 4. Analysis of Assessment of Caboolture River Health During the field study of the Caboolture River, many preliminary observations were made in order to understand the quality of the Caboolture River and its water quality. In the duration of 6 hours, five different sites around the Caboolture Area were visited and many observations were recorded. These sites consisted of Keillors Crossing, Caboolture River Road, Litherland Crossing, Centenary Lakes and Beachmere Boat Ramp. Each destination had different characteristics and uses. Site 1: Keillors Crossing Keillors Crossing is located North of Brisbane in the Caboolture Area. The water appeared clear and no unusual odours were observed. Various shrubs, trees, grass and leaves were found more present on the left bank. Grazing animals an native animals such as birds were observed although there was no major agriculture. Erosion was found more on the right bank due to less vegetation. This area is used for residential usage. Figure 2: Best Road, Rocksberg, Queensland Site 2: Caboolture River Road The second site to visit was a short distance away from the first. Caboolture River Road site displayed various kinds of different vegetation on the left bank as the right bank had varied residential uses such as picnic tables, roads and a rope swing. The water appeared clean, clear and still. No sources of pollution, although a the road is very close by therefore the right bank is much more human oriented. The soil was found to be dry and sandy. Figure 3: Caboolture Road, North Brisbane, Queensland C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 6
  7. 7. Site 3: Litherland Crossing Many preliminary observations were made during the visit to this site. The water appeared clear with a minor amount of moss and scum found downstream. Upstream an unusual foam was also observed. No serious pollution was found, only an abandoned tyre found nearby the bank. Land use included minimal use for farming, residential and hobby farming. The soil appeared dry and hard although very moist closer to the bank. Figure 4: Litherland Road, Caboolture, Queensland Site 4: Centenary Lakes Centenary Lakes can be found on Morayfield Road in Caboolture. It is very different to the other sites as it is more human maintained and used. The vegetation levels observed were at a minimum as they were all human produced for the residential use of the area. It is a very flat area and displayed boardwalks and concreted paths. The soil of the area was very moist due probably due to recent rainfalls. Figure 5: Morayfield Road, Caboolture, Queensland During the visit to Centenary Lakes many different observations were made as this site differed in many ways to the other sites around the Caboolture Area. This area was depicted to be a much more residential area compared to the other sites. (Appendix A) As shown in the Map above, the shape of Centenary Lakes differs greatly to the others, as it it rounder and in the shape of an eight (8). Due to previous flooding and heavy rainfalls, the water appeared discoloured, dirty, murky and dark and many unusual odours were observed. Reasons for this may be from the potential sources located very close by to the area such as the main highway; Morayfield Road, human activity, sports centres nearby, toilet access and facilities, street lights, signs, water taps, garbage pollution from human activity, car parks, bridges, picnic tables and parks. Animal life at Centenary Lakes was evident as the area was highly filled with ducks and different insects and birds. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 7
  8. 8. Site 5: Beachmere Boat Ramp The Beachmere Boat Ramp is is the river mouth. The water at this site appeared very brown and muddy. Many boats were observed and also cars. This area is of residential use due to human usage. Mangroves, sand and mud were the main vegetation of the area. A number of animal life was viewed such as pelicans, soldier crabs and fairy shrimp. It is a very flat open area consisting of a muddy and sandy surface. Figure 6: Smith Road, Beachmere, Queensland 4.1 Reasons for Selection of Key Water Quality Indicators In order to assess the water quality and health, a number of water indicators were recorded from each site: Salinity Dissolved Oxygen Phosphorous pH Turbidity Riparian Zone 4.1.1 Salinity Salinity is an important factor for the survival of animal and plant living and all other living organisms. All plants, animals, bacteria and algae need a certain level of salinity in order to survive. If there happen to be any changes in salinity levels, it can kill an organism. During drought periods, when the occurrence of constant shallow watering is present large amounts of salts can appear in the top soil. All natural waters including freshwater lakes and rivers all contain dissolved salts at various concentrations. This is because dissolved salts originate primarily from the chemical and physical weathering of rocks and minerals contained in the Earthʼs crust. These weathered materials are dissolved by rainfall, which transport them to lakes rivers and oceans. Salinity influences where aquatic plants and animals live and affects other aspects of water quality. 4.1.2 Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen levels are also another important aspect when it comes to water quality and health. A rare disease known as ʻgas bubble diseaseʼ where bubbles block the flow of the blood through blood vessels, can cause death to fish if the water contains an excessive amount of dissolved gases. Aquatic invertebrates are also affected by gas bubble disease but at levels higher than those lethal to fish which is why the amount of dissolved oxygen needs to be kept at a C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 8
  9. 9. reasonable level. A sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality for the reason of oxygen which is a necessary element to all living things. The lower the concentration, the greater the risk to all aquatic life. If oxygen levels remain below 1-2mg/l for a certain period of time many fish will die. Dissolved oxygen is essential for the survival of all aquatic organisms such as crabs, clams, zooplankton and fish. 4.1.3 Phosphorous The growth of plants and animals all need the key element phosphorous which is when phosphates are formed. Phosphate stimulates the growth of plankton and aquatic plants which provide food for fish. This may cause an increase in the fish population and improve the overall water quality. However, if an excess of phosphate enters the waterway, algae and aquatic plants will grow wildly, choke up the waterway and use up large amounts of oxygen. This condition is known as eutrophication or over-fertilization of receiving waters. This rapid growth of aquatic vegetation eventually dies and as it decays it uses up oxygen. This process in turn causes the death of aquatic life because of the lowering of dissolved oxygen levels. Phosphates are not toxic to people or animals unless they are present in very high levels. Digestive problems could occur from extremely high levels of phosphate. 4.1.4 pH The PH of water is a very important aspect when referring to water quality and health. A change in the pH of water can change the behaviour of other chemicals in the water. It is the measurement of how acidic of how basic (alkaline) a solution is. When substances dissolve in water they produce charged molecules called ions. It is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. Water that is neutral has a pH of 7 while acidic water has pH values less than 7 and pH levels of 0 being most acidic. Most animals and plants have adapted to life in water with a specific pH and even a small change in this can cause them to suffer. 4.1.5 Turbidity Turbidity is the condition resulting from suspended solids in the water, including silts, clays, industrial wastes, sewage and plankton. A more simple and complex way to describe turbidity is the measure of how cloudy, dirty or muddy the water quality is. The particles absorb heat in the sunlight which raises water temperature, lowering dissolved oxygen levels and also prevents sunlight from reaching plants below the surface. In this process, this decreases the rate of photosynthesis which means less oxygen can be produced by plants. Turbidity may kill fish and their larvae, caused by soil erosion, excess nutrients, various wastes and pollutants and the action of bottom feeding organisms which stir sediments up into the water. 4.1.6 Riparian Zone The Riparian zone can be described as a vegetated area consisting of plants such as shrubs, trees, grasses, on the banks of a river. Riparian vegetation, in-stream cover, in-stream habitats and bank stability are all indicators in helping maintain water quality, as well as providing many habitats for birds, frogs, fish, insects, macro-invertebrates and many other organisms. Trees are the most effective in helping maintain water quality and health. Trees maintained along stream banks can help prevent stream bank erosion and strips of trees provide wind breaks to help prevent soil erosion, provide shade and shelter for animals and wildlife and helps improve the appearance. Healthy riparian zones decrease erosion, reduce nutrient and sediment runoff and also helps control light and temperature in the waterway. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 9
  10. 10. 4.2 Assessment of water quality indicator samples from Caboolture River The table below displays all the results observed and recorded during the field study assessment. Indicators salinity, dissolved oxygen and phosphorous are all measured in parts per million (ppm). The pH of the water is measured from a measurement of how acidic or how basic (alkaline) a solution is and is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. The turbidity of water is a measure of the degree to which the water looses its transparency from suspended particulates. Turbidity is measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) using an instrument called nephelometer or turbidimeter. Lastly the riparian disturbance zone was recorded by observances of vegetation made at each site on a scale from 1 to 4. Table 1: Caboolture River Water Quality Indicator Results Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp Salinity 200 ppm 300 ppm 400 ppm 150 ppm 4250 ppm Dissolved Oxy- 2 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm gen Phosphorus 2.5 ppm 2.5 ppm 3.5 ppm 3.5 ppm 4 ppm pH 8 8 8 7.5 7 Turbidity 40 - 50 upstream, 1 m downstream Clear - 1m 1m 40 cm 30 - 35 cm Riparian Zone 3 2 3 4 4 4.2.1 Salinity Levels in the Caboolture River Area Salinity is a measure of how much salt is in the water and is usually measured in parts per million units. Parts per million is how many grams of salt are dissolved per litre of water. It is a term used to describe the existence of elevated levels of different salts such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcium sulfates and bicarbonates in soil and water and is usually formed from water tables rising close to the ground surface. The salinity of the selected areas of the Caboolture Region all displayed different results. From the results in the table there are a few limitations in which reason for each result. Taking the first three sites all of which observed more ʻriverʼ like features. Centenary Lakes displayed a very low content of salinity levels which may be a result from the human usage levels of this area, previous flooding and heavy rainfalls. Salinity can be influenced by both natural and human influences. Natural influences include tidal stage, stratification of estuarine and rainfall. Human influences include dam and river diversions, land development and water discharges. The results of Centenary Lakes are highly due to human influences and the natural influence of rainfall. Table 2: Salinity Levels Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp Salinity 200 ppm 300 ppm 400 ppm 150 ppm 4250 ppm C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 10
  11. 11. Salinity Levels of Selected Sites of the Caboolture Area 5,000 3,750 2,500 1,250 0 ng d g s p ke in oa m si ss Ra La rR s ro ro ry at ve C C na Bo Ri rs nd te illo re e la en er tu er Ke hm C l th oo Li ac ab Be C Figure 7: Salinity Levels of Selected Sites of the Caboolture Area There is an exceeding amount of salt found in Site 5 which was the Beachmere Boat Ramp as Beachmere is the mouth of the river and connects to ocean waters; therefore displaying higher levels of salt. Centenary Lakes measured only 150 ppm of salinity level found in itʼs water. These results are not exactly accurate as only a sample was taken for Laboratory 4.2.2 Dissolved Oxygen Levels in the Caboolture River Area The dissolved oxygen levels in each site displayed very close results ranging from 1 ppm to 2 ppm. This displays that the levels of dissolved oxygen are not at appropriate levels for aquatic and plant life with Keillorʼs Crossing displaying the highest level. This may due to a number of reasons: • This area may be further away from industrial or residential sites. • Less pollution found in this area as it is located further away from residential zones. • The water used was only a sample for lab testing Table 3: Dissolved Oxygen Levels Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp Dissolved Oxy- 2 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm gen C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 11
  12. 12. Dissolved Oxygen Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area 5.00 3.75 2.50 1.25 0 ng d g s p ke in oa m si ss Ra La rR s ro ro ry at ve C C na Bo Ri rs nd te illo re e la en er tu er Ke m C l th oo ch Li ab a Be C Figure 8: Dissolved Oxygen Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area The results in the graph above clearly shows the distinct relationship between the five sites. Caboolture River Road, Litherland Crossing, Centenary Lakes and Beachmere Boat Ramp all shared similar results, leaving an inconsistency of the first site of Keillors Crossing. As this site displays one unit higher than the other results, the dissolved oxygen levels differs greatly. For fish and aquatic organisms to live in the water of any area of the river, enough oxygen needs to be available for them to survive. In order for these aquatic organisms to survive the dissolved oxygen levels need to be at least 5-6 ppm which greatly affects the quality of the water. At Keillorʼs Crossing fish would not be able to survive as there is not enough oxygen. A few limitations need to be considered from the results obtained such as the water tested in the Laboratory was only a sample which does not give very accurate results. Also, the period between the field study excursion when the sample was obtained and the day it was tested was about a week in between which greatly affected the results. “Moreover, oxygen affects a vast number of other water indicators, not only biochemical but esthetic ones like the odor, clarity and taste. Consequently, oxygen is perhaps the most well-established indicator of water quality.” Source: (http://www.lenntech.com/why_the_oxygen_dissolved_is_imporant.html) C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 12
  13. 13. 4.2.3 Phosphorous Levels in the Caboolture River Area Phosphorous is a necessity in plant life, but an excessive or very limited amount can affect the sur- vival of both plant and animal life. If an excessive amount of phosphorous is found in the river, overstimulation will occur which will cause algae blooms. Table 4: Phosphorous Levels Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp Phosphorus 2.5 ppm 2.5 ppm 3.5 ppm 3.5 ppm 4 ppm Phosphorous is certainly an important factor in determining water quality and is also one of the nutrients necessary for all aquatic organisms and life to survive water conditions. It stimulates plankton to provide food for fish which is a vital necessity for survival. Phosphorous is an essential element for plant life but if there is an excessive amount of it, it will speed up eutrophication of the river. From the table below an inconsistency was found in site 5; Beachmere Boat Ramp. An excessive amount of phosphorous will overstimulate the growth in the river which then reduces the quality of the water. This is a very important aspect of the river system and without it all aquatic plants and animals will die. Sites 1 and 2; Keillors Crossing and Caboolture River Road display a lower level of phosphorous than the other three sites. Phosphorus Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area 5.00 3.75 2.50 1.25 0 ng d ng es p oa m k si si Ra La rR s s ro ro y at ve C C r na Bo Ri rs nd te llo re e la en er ltu i er Ke hm C th oo Li ac ab Be C Figure 9: Phosphorous Levels of Selected Sites of the Caboolture Area C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 13
  14. 14. 4.2.4 pH Levels in the Caboolture River Area The pH levels of all areas visited portrayed very similar results with a slight difference between Site 4 and Site 5. Centenary Lakes and Beachmere Boat Ramp displayed the most acidic of all areas. This may be due to the fact that both are more residential than any of the other sites visited. This largely affects the water as chemical run-off and pollutants from cars and other sources are able to run into the water. Table 5: pH Levels Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp pH 8 8 8 7.5 7 The pH level of water is yet another aspect in maintaining water quality and help survival to aquatic organisms and life. pH is measured on a scale of 0-14 as previously mentioned; 0 being most acidic, values less than 7 being acidic and values above 7 being neutral. From the results in the graph below, Beachmere showed the most acidic water, then Centenary Lakes. The remaining sites displayed values of 8 which is slightly neutral and is a much positive result for aquatic life. Beachmere attained the lowest result of 7 which means its water differs in the form that it is the most acidic. pH Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area 10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5 0 ng d ng es p oa m k si si Ra La rR s s ro ro y at ve C C r na Bo Ri rs nd te llo re e la en er ltu i er Ke hm C th oo Li ac ab Be C Figure 10: pH Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 14
  15. 15. 4.2.5 Turbidity Levels in the Caboolture River Area Each site varied in turbidity levels of how cloudy, dirty or muddy the water appeared and some had closely similar results. Keillorʼs Crossing, Caboolture River Road and Litherland Crossing were visually observed to have low turbidity levels as they were more ʻnaturalʼ sites across the Caboolture River; and Centenary Lakes and Beachmere were classified as being more closer to residential areas. The preliminary observations of the waters characteristics were primary ways in determining the turbidity level of the water, although to find more accurate results a Secchi Dish was used to measure the water at each site. Table 6: Turbidity Levels Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp Turbidity 40 cm (1 m clear) 1 m Clear 40 cm 30 - 35 cm From the results in the table below, the turbidity levels in found at Centenary Lakes was exceed- ingly excessive. This is a result of the high level of residential zones surrounding the area and the human activity involved. Another reason for the high level of turbidity is from previous flooding and heavy rainfall. Mud was also found on the bank of the lake which made it much more evident of a high turbidity level. Beachmere also visually appeared to have a high but not excessive turbidity level, which also mud was evidently found on the bank of the river. Turbidity Levels of Selected Sites of Caboolture Area 40 30 20 10 0 ng d ng es p oa m k si si Ra La rR s s ro ro y at ve C C r na Bo Ri rs nd te llo re e la en er ltu i er Ke hm C th oo Li ac ab Be C Figure 11: Turbidity Levels of Selected Sites in the Caboolture Area C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 15
  16. 16. 4.2.6 Riparian Disturbance Rating in the Caboolture River Area Riparian zones usually consist of vegetated areas on each bank of a body of water. The areas are considered effective natural barriers, which prevent agricultural pollution from being exported and contaminating the larger ecosystem. Vegetation is an important factor when it comes to rivers and specifically the natural environment. Vegetation includes trees, plants, grasses, herbs, shrubs, rushes and hedges all of which are very vital aspects of river development. These areas prevent agricultural pollution from being exported and contaminating the larger ecosystem, as it works as a barrier around the river system. The Riparian Disturbance Ratingʼs are rated on a scale from 1-4: 1: Very Low Disturbance 2: Low Disturbance 3: High Disturbance 4: Very High Disturbance Table 7: Riparian Disturbance Rating Keillors Cross- Caboolture Litherland Centenary Beachmere ing River Road Crossing Lakes Boat Ramp Riparian Zone 3 2 3 4 4 The results in the table above, represent the level of vegetation disturbance towards selected river sites around the Caboolture Area. The disturbance may be a result of erosion, natural disasters or human activity to the area and its natural processes. The lower the disturbance rating, the better for the river and its health. Vegetation plays an extremely important part in a riverʼs water quality and health. It maintains the cleanliness of the water and sustains the habitat of all living organisms. Riparian Disturbance Rating of Selected Sites of Caboolture River 5.00 3.75 2.50 1.25 0 ng d ng es p oa m k si si Ra La rR s s ro ro y at ve C C r na Bo Ri rs nd te llo re e la en er ltu i er Ke hm C th oo Li ac ab Be C Figure 12: Riparian Disturbance Rating of Selected Sites of Caboolture River From the results shown below, Centenary Lakes and the Beachmere Boat Ramp had both displayed the highest disturbance rating of all sites. The answer to their vegetated disruptions are for the reason that both are very high residential areas in which are used for human related activities or usage. Centenary Lakes consists of cleared land on for the reasons that it is a human fabricated area for many different uses. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 16
  17. 17. 4.3 Health of the Caboolture River As a result of the field study trip, the water quality of the Caboolture Area is currently at a reasonable level, but there is definitely room for improvement in all areas of water quality indicators. Of each of the indicators portrayed a widespread idea of the quality in each site, this then gave a better understanding and made it much more compliant to what indicators of the river need to be improved. Many limitations needed to be mindful of when reading each of the sites results. This includes aspects such as: - The period of when the results were taken to when they were tested in the laboratory - Only took samples - The area of which the site was located in (closer to residential areas, industrial plants, nearby ac- tivity etc) To facilitate the constitute of the Caboolture Riverʼs quality and health, a grade is given to each site to state the condition of the riverʼs water health levels. Listed below in the table is each site and itʼs recommended grade. Table 8: Recommended Grade for each site SITE GRADE Keillorʼs Crossing B- Caboolture River Road B- Litherland Crossing C+ Centenary Lakes D- Beachmere Boat Ramp D A grade is given to each site to aid in the understanding of each river siteʼs water quality, which represents its health from good to bad. Keillors Crossing was awarded a B- as its overall water quality was good but there could have been room for improvement. A B- was given to Caboolture River Road as the results from the preliminary observations and many of the water quality indicators, this area displayed fairly good results. Litherland Crossing had been assigned a C+ as this area was also the same as the two previous sites but displayed less riparian zone and human construction. Centenary Lakes was designated a D- which means overall it didnʼt display very positive results and could definitely be improved. Beachmere Boat Ramp which is the mouth of the river, was awarded a D as its over results did not reach the required standards and could also be improved. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 17
  18. 18. 5 Analysis of Proposed Land Use Options The Moreton Bay Regional Council is heavily committed to helping preserve the health of the wa- terways within itʼs boundaries and have proposed three possible land use options for the selected area shown on the map below. Figure 13: Proposed Land Area This area needs to take part in the contribution in the maintenance of the Caboolture River and its health. The three proposals made by the Moreton Bay Regional Council includes the following: ➡ Residential Zone ➡ Industrial Precinct ➡ Nature Reserve The decision between one of the three area needs to contribute greatly to towards the Caboolture River to obtain improved results. The most suitable option should address positive affects towards not only the river itself but the economy, society and the environment. These factors must all be examined to satisfy the wider community and help in the improvement of the Caboolture River water system. Each option additionally need to consider future requirements and whether or not they have long term benefits or disadvantages. Before any action can be taken a critical analysis of each option needs to be examined. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 18
  19. 19. 5.1 Analysis of a Residential Zone Applying a Residential Zone to the proposed area would greatly affect a number of factors includ- ing the economy, society and most importantly the environment of the proposed land area and itʼs surroundings. Residential areas consist of buildings and houses and includes continuous human activity and living in order for it to come about. Because human activity is going to be more ele- vated, an excessive amount of rubbish, pollutants and residential wastes will become much more controversial. To overcome this issue, Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices will require to be integrated allowing to assist in the removal of pollution. Although generating new homes for more people to live, human activity is one of the main reasons for unhealthy river systems. Environmentally speaking, a residential zone greatly affects the health and quality of the river by disposing wastes and all non-environmental friendly aspects. Much of the land would be used to acreage land for housing and buildings all of which will not benefit to- wards the health of the river. This option also becomes very beneficial on the economy and to a certain extent on the social per- spective. As mentioned previously, purchasing of the land would not cause a dilemma; so costs arenʼt much of an issue, but for society it is creating homes for people to live. Although this is use- ful for the community, it is not useful for the main purpose of maintaining the riverʼs health system. 5.2 Analysis of an Industrial Precinct The option of applying an Industrial Precinct is most likely to disadvantage the surrounding envi- ronment but may benefit to parts of society. Similar to option 1, this option includes the non- purchasing of land for the Moreton Bay Regional Council as they would receive the money back in return from the government. Although that may be seen as an advantage, the aim of the proposal is to help maintain the health of the river and itʼs surroundings which is greatly disadvantaged if applying an industrial precinct as the water of the river will be contaminated. Not only does an Industrial precinct affect the river sys- tem, but also disadvantages the health of humans and the surrounding environment such as smoke and chemicals. The type of company would also be dependent on altering the rivers health. The design of an industrial area is that it would create more jobs for people. This option would also be in need of helping control pollutants and human wastes and which is why a Stormwater Quality Improvement Device (SQID) would need to be established. This device will help remove all pollutants and residential rubbish which harm the waterʼs health. Applying an Industrial Precinct to the proposed area would help keep the industry together such as Morayfield, Caboolture. 5.3 Analysis of a Nature Reserve Although it may seem clear that applying a nature reserve is the most effective in helping improve the health and quality of the Caboolture River, there are also many indicators which need to be considered before going ahead with the idea. This option is very different to the other two options economically, but displays many ethical benefits compared to the others. In order for this option to go ahead the Moreton Bay Regional Council would have to buy land and all vegetation necessary for the nature reserve. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 19
  20. 20. A nature reserve is one of the most natural and effective ways to help maintain the sustainability of the Caboolture River. This option would suit best for the community as it provides a positive impact towards the community and applying the other two options displays a number of disadvantages such as the cause of conflict thus is why this option benefits to the community. The heath of the Caboolture River in future would be promised to be improved if this option were to be proposed. It would help maintain the riverʼs biodiversity and fabricate a healthy riparian zone which distinctively means an improvement in a healthy river system. The natural vegetation of the reserve will work with nature and life so that there is no decrease within the waters quality. 6. Recommendations for Best Land Use Option After an analysis of the three possible land use options, evidently all three display certain indica- tors which are seen as either beneficial or deprived to the Caboolture Area and itʼs wider commu- nity, although the purpose of the Land Use proposal is to assist in maintaining the Caboolture River. The most recommended possibility would evidently have to be Option 3; Nature Reserve. Alternatively, this option is the most suitable option when in view of the Caboolture Riverʼs health. It is a much more environmentally friendly resource and would substantially help in the improvement of the river system. This option would cause less stress and conflict as it would all come naturally in the process of improving the waterʼs health system instead of having to worry about human activities. It is better to have an option which will cause no conflict rather than to have one which will. A nature reserve is the best land use option for the proposed area (See map; Figure 13). 7. Conclusion As the maintenance of the Caboolture River is an important aspect of the Moreton Bay Regional Council, it is important that all indicators are achieved to their appropriate levels to keep the river system healthy and to obtain a healthier environment. The field study excursion was a very vital examination in helping determine which areas and what areas of the Caboolture River needed reviewing. The excursion was a very helpful element in the recommendation of the best possible option for the proposed land area used to preserve the natural processes of the Caboolture River and its community. Each site displayed altered divergent results which was very useful in piecing together the necessary information needed to assist in the preservation of the water health. Keillors Crossing, Caboolture River Road and Litherland Crossing differed to that of Centenary Lakes and Beachmere Boat Ramp in most cases of the water quality indicators. This helps fabricate new beneficial ideas for the proposed land use area and discourage any negative information. For the proposed land area, option 3 was found to be the best possible land use option as it had many beneficial aspects contributing towards the Caboolture River water system. C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 20
  21. 21. References Happs, J. C. (1977). Water Pollution And Its Measurement: A Practical Guide For Use In Schools. Brisbane: The Jacaranda Press. Date viewed: Wednesday, 20 May 2009 Dissolved Oxygen Resource: Why is is important? Aqua Plant (Note: American Source) Date viewed: Saturday, 16 May 2009 4:33 pm Last updated: http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/contents/dissolved_oxygen.htm Phosphorous Resource: What does it do to rivers? Science Buzz is supported by the National Science Foundation. Copyright © Science Museum of Minnesota, 2004-2009, except where noted. http://www.sciencebuzz.org/museum/saint_croix_pollution/what_does_phosphorus_do_in_ the_river Riparian Zone Resource: Date viewed: Friday, 15 May 2009 9:38 am Last updated: Wed, 06 Feb 2008 14:31:46 GMT http://hydrolab.arsusda.gov/ope3/slideshows/angier/jashow.htm Salinity Resource: © The State of Queensland (Department of Environment and Resource Management) 2009. Date viewed: Friday, 15 May 2009 9:40 am Last updated 20 October 2008. http://www.nrw.qld.gov.au/salinity/whatis.html Turbidity Resources: (Source: Cuyahoga River Water Quality Monitoring Program, Cleveland State University) Date viewed: Friday, 15 May 2009, 10:05 am Last updated: unknown http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/fenlewis/Waterquality.html http://www.lenntech.com/turbidity.htm C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 21
  22. 22. Appendices Appendix A - Centenary Lakes Centenary Lakes is a high residential area as shown in the photograph below. The presence of parks, chairs, roads, signs and the design of the vegetation clearly represents the area as residen- tial. For these reasons, Centenary Lakes differs greatly to that of the other sites. Photograph of Centenary Lakes by Damien Ackroyd, 7 May 2009 C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 22
  23. 23. Appendix B - Title Page Image The image shown on the title page is Caboolture River Road; Site 2. Photograph of Caboolture River Road by Damien Ackroyd, 7 May 2009 C a b o o l t u r e R i v e r Wa t e r H e a l t h 23

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