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Chapter 7 overview

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  • Media Notes:
  • Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USpatent1310719.fig1.png
  • More Information: The terms message digest and hash value are often used interchangeably to describe the output of a hash function. The terms digest or fingerprint may also be used.
  • More Information: In 2005, security flaws were identified in MD5 and SHA-1 indicating that a stronger hash function would be desirable. SHA-2 is the recommended hash functions. There is also a contest sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to design a hash function which will be given the name SHA-3 by 2012. For more detail, refer to http://www.itl.nist.gov/lab/bulletns/B-05-08.pdf.
  • TIP: To try an online HASH converter, refer to http://hash-it.net/.
  • More Information: Refer to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) website at http://www.keylength.com/en/4/ to see updated key length recommendations
  • Generic – someone working in a sever farm…
  • More Information: For a sample DH demo, refer to http://ds9a.nl/tmp/dh.html.
  • More Information: In January 2000, the restrictions that the U.S. Department of Commerce placed on export regulations were dramatically relaxed. Currently, any cryptographic product is exportable under a license exception unless the end users are governments outside of the United States or are embargoed. Visit http://www.commerce.gov for more information on the current U.S. Department of Commerce export regulations.
  • More Information: For more information on AES, go to http://www.nist.gov/aes. Also, In 2008, the NIST held a similar competition to develop a new SHA version, SHA-3. For more information, refer to http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/sha-3/index.html.
  • More Information: For a sample DH demo, refer to http://ds9a.nl/tmp/dh.html.
  • More Information: For a demonstration of the RSA algorithm refer to http://www.securecottage.com/demo/rsa2.html
  • More Information: The draft and additional PKI information is available at http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/pkix-charter.html.
  • More Information: For more information on these standards, visit http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2124
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. CCNA Security Chapter Seven Cryptographic Systems
    • 2. 222© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Lesson Planning • This lesson should take 3-4 hours to present • The lesson should include lecture, demonstrations, discussions and assessments • The lesson can be taught in person or using remote instruction
    • 3. 333© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Major Concepts • Describe how the types of encryption, hashes, and digital signatures work together to provide confidentiality, integrity, and authentication • Describe the mechanisms to ensure data integrity and authentication • Describe the mechanisms used to ensure data confidentiality • Describe the mechanisms used to ensure data confidentiality and authentication using a public key
    • 4. 444© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Lesson Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, the successful participant will be able to: 1. Describe the requirements of secure communications including integrity, authentication, and confidentiality 2. Describe cryptography and provide an example 3. Describe cryptanalysis and provide an example 4. Describe the importance and functions of cryptographic hashes 5. Describe the features and functions of the MD5 algorithm and of the SHA-1 algorithm 6. Explain how we can ensure authenticity using HMAC 7. Describe the components of key management
    • 5. 555© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Lesson Objectives 8. Describe how encryption algorithms provide confidentiality 9. Describe the function of the DES algorithms 10. Describe the function of the 3DES algorithm 11. Describe the function of the AES algorithm 12. Describe the function of the Software Encrypted Algorithm (SEAL) and the Rivest ciphers (RC) algorithm 13. Describe the function of the DH algorithm and its supporting role to DES, 3DES, and AES 14. Explain the differences and their intended applications 15. Explain the functionality of digital signatures 16. Describe the function of the RSA algorithm 17. Describe the principles behind a public key infrastructure (PKI)
    • 6. 666© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Lesson Objectives 18. Describe the various PKI standards 19. Describe the role of CAs and the digital certificates that they issue in a PKI 20. Describe the characteristics of digital certificates and CAs
    • 7. 777© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Secure Communications • Traffic between sites must be secure • Measures must be taken to ensure it cannot be altered, forged, or deciphered if intercepted MARS Remote Branch VPN VPN Iron Port Firewall IPS CSA Web Server Email Server DNS CSA CSA CSA CSA CSA CSA CSA
    • 8. 888© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Authentication • An ATM Personal Information Number (PIN) is required for authentication. • The PIN is a shared secret between a bank account holder and the financial institution.
    • 9. 999© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Integrity • An unbroken wax seal on an envelop ensures integrity. • The unique unbroken seal ensures no one has read the contents.
    • 10. 101010© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Confidentiality • Julius Caesar would send encrypted messages to his generals in the battlefield. • Even if intercepted, his enemies usually could not read, let alone decipher, the messages. I O D Q N H D V W D W W D F N D W G D Z Q
    • 11. 111111© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. History Scytale - (700 BC) Jefferson encryption device Vigenère table German Enigma Machine
    • 12. 121212© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Transposition Ciphers F...K...T...T...A...W. .L.N.E.S.A.T.A.K.T.A.N ..A...A...T...C...D... Ciphered Text 3 FKTTAW LNESATAKTAN AATCD The clear text message would be encoded using a key of 3. 1 FLANK EAST ATTACK AT DAWN Use a rail fence cipher and a key of 3. 2 The clear text message would appear as follows. Clear Text
    • 13. 131313© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Substitution Ciphers Caesar Cipher Cipherered text 3 IODQN HDVW DWWDFN DW GDZQ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The clear text message would be encoded using a key of 3. 1 FLANK EAST ATTACK AT DAWN Shift the top scroll over by three characters (key of 3), an A becomes D, B becomes E, and so on. 2 The clear text message would be encrypted as follows using a key of 3. Clear text
    • 14. 141414© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Cipher Wheel Cipherered text 3 IODQN HDVW DWWDFN DW GDZQ The clear text message would be encoded using a key of 3. 1 FLANK EAST ATTACK AT DAWN Shifting the inner wheel by 3, then the A becomes D, B becomes E, and so on. 2 The clear text message would appear as follows using a key of 3. Clear text
    • 15. 151515© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Vigenѐre Table a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z A a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z B b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a C c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b D d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c E e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d F f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e G g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f H h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g I i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h J j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i K k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j L l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k M m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l N n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m O o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n P p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Q q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p R r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q S s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r T t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s U u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t V v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u W w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v X x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Y y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Z z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y
    • 16. 161616© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Stream Ciphers •Invented by the Norwegian Army Signal Corps in 1950, the ETCRRM machine uses the Vernam stream cipher method. •It was used by the US and Russian governments to exchange information. •Plain text message is eXclusively OR'ed with a key tape containing a random stream of data of the same length to generate the ciphertext. •Once a message was enciphered the key tape was destroyed. •At the receiving end, the process was reversed using an identical key tape to decode the message.
    • 17. 171717© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Defining Cryptanalysis Cryptanalysis is from the Greek words kryptós (hidden), and analýein (to loosen or to untie). It is the practice and the study of determining the meaning of encrypted information (cracking the code), without access to the shared secret key. Allies decipher secret NAZI encryption code!
    • 18. 181818© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Cryptanalysis Methods Known Ciphertext Brute Force Attack With a Brute Force attack, the attacker has some portion of ciphertext. The attacker attempts to unencrypt the ciphertext with all possible keys. Successfully Unencrypted Key found
    • 19. 191919© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Meet-in-the-Middle Attack With a Meet-in-the-Middle attack, the attacker has some portion of text in both plaintext and ciphertext. The attacker attempts to unencrypt the ciphertext with all possible keys while at the same time encrypt the plaintext with another set of possible keys until one match is found. Known Ciphertext Known Plaintext Use every possible decryption key until a result is found matching the corresponding plaintext. Use every possible encryption key until a result is found matching the corresponding ciphertext. MATCH of Ciphertext! Key found
    • 20. 202020© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Choosing a Cryptanalysis Method Cipherered text 2 IODQN HDVW DWWDFN DW GDZQ There are 6 occurrences of the cipher letter D and 4 occurrences of the cipher letter W. Replace the cipher letter D first with popular clear text letters including E, T, and finally A. Trying A would reveal the shift pattern of 3. 1 The graph outlines the frequency of letters in the English language. For example, the letters E, T and A are the most popular.
    • 21. 212121© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Defining Cryptology Cryptography Cryptology + Cryptanalysis
    • 22. 222222© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Cryptanalysis
    • 23. 232323© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Cryptographic Hashes, Protocols, and Algorithm Examples IntegrityIntegrity AuthenticationAuthentication ConfidentialityConfidentiality MD5 SHA HMAC-MD5 HMAC-SHA-1 RSA and DSA DES 3DES AES SEAL RC (RC2, RC4, RC5, and RC6) NIST Rivest HASH HASH w/Key Encryption
    • 24. 242424© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Hashing Basics • Hashes are used for integrity assurance. • Hashes are based on one-way functions. • The hash function hashes arbitrary data into a fixed- length digest known as the hash value, message digest, digest, or fingerprint. Data of Arbitrary Length Fixed-Length Hash Value e883aa0b24c09f
    • 25. 252525© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Hashing Properties XWhy is x not in Parens? h e883aa0b24c09f H (H)Why is H in Parens? = (x)h Hash Value Hash Function Arbitrary length text
    • 26. 262626© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Hashing in Action • Vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks - Hashing does not provide security to transmission. • Well-known hash functions - MD5 with 128-bit hashes - SHA-1 with 160-bit hashes Pay to Terry Smith $100.00 One Hundred and xx/100 Dollars Pay to Alex Jones $1000.00 One Thousand and xx/100 Dollars 4ehIDx67NMop9 12ehqPx67NMoX Match = No changes No match = Alterations Internet I would like to cash this check.
    • 27. 272727© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. MD5 • MD5 is a ubiquitous hashing algorithm • Hashing properties - One-way function—easy to compute hash and infeasible to compute data given a hash - Complex sequence of simple binary operations (XORs, rotations, etc.) which finally produces a 128-bit hash. MD5
    • 28. 282828© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. SHA • SHA is similar in design to the MD4 and MD5 family of hash functions - Takes an input message of no more than 264 bits - Produces a 160-bit message digest • The algorithm is slightly slower than MD5. • SHA-1 is a revision that corrected an unpublished flaw in the original SHA. • SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA- 512 are newer and more secure versions of SHA and are collectively known as SHA-2. SHA
    • 29. 292929© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Hashing Example In this example the clear text entered is displaying hashed results using MD5, SHA-1, and SHA256. Notice the difference in key lengths between the various algorithm. The longer the key, the more secure the hash function.
    • 30. 303030© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Features of HMAC • Uses an additional secret key as input to the hash function • The secret key is known to the sender and receiver - Adds authentication to integrity assurance - Defeats man-in-the-middle attacks • Based on existing hash functions, such as MD5 and SHA-1. The same procedure is used for generation and verification of secure fingerprints Fixed Length Authenticated Hash Value + Secret Key Data of Arbitrary Length e883aa0b24c09f
    • 31. 313131© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. HMAC Example Data HMAC (Authenticated Fingerprint) Secret Key Pay to Terry Smith $100.00 One Hundred and xx/100 Dollars 4ehIDx67NMop9 Pay to Terry Smith $100.00 One Hundred and xx/100 Dollars 4ehIDx67NMop9 Received Data HMAC (Authenticated Fingerprint) Secret Key 4ehIDx67NMop9 Pay to Terry Smith $100.00 One Hundred and xx/100 Dollars If the generated HMAC matches the sent HMAC, then integrity and authenticity have been verified. If they don’t match, discard the message.
    • 32. 323232© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Using Hashing • Routers use hashing with secret keys • Ipsec gateways and clients use hashing algorithms • Software images downloaded from the website have checksums • Sessions can be encrypted Fixed-Length Hash Value e883aa0b24c09f Data Integrity Entity Authentication Data Authenticity
    • 33. 333333© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Key Management Key Management Key Generation Key Storage Key Verification Key Exchange Key Revocation and Destruction
    • 34. 343434© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Keyspace DES Key Keyspace # of Possible Keys 56-bit 256 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 72,000,000,000,000,000 57-bit 257 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 1 144,000,000,000,000,000 58-bit 258 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11 288,000,000,000,000,000 59-bit 259 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111111 576,000,000,000,000,000 60-bit 260 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 111111111111 1,152,000,000,000,000,000For each bit added to the DES key, the attacker would require twice the amount of time to search the keyspace. Longer keys are more secure but are also more resource intensive and can affect throughput. With 60-bit DES an attacker would require sixteen more time than 56-bit DES Twice as much time Four time as much time
    • 35. 353535© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Types of Keys 2242242432112Protection up to 20 years 192192177696Protection up to 10 years 160160124880Protection up to 3 years Hash Digital Signature Asymmetric Key Symmetric Key 2562563248128Protection up to 30 years 51251215424256Protection against quantum computers  Calculations are based on the fact that computing power will continue to grow at its present rate and the ability to perform brute-force attacks will grow at the same rate.  Note the comparatively short symmetric key lengths illustrating that symmetric algorithms are the strongest type of algorithm.
    • 36. 363636© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Shorter keys = faster processing, but less secure Longer keys = slower processing, but more secure Key Properties
    • 37. 373737© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Confidentiality and the OSI Model • For Data Link Layer confidentiality, use proprietary link- encrypting devices • For Network Layer confidentiality, use secure Network Layer protocols such as the IPsec protocol suite • For Session Layer confidentiality, use protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) • For Application Layer confidentiality, use secure e-mail, secure database sessions (Oracle SQL*net), and secure messaging (Lotus Notes sessions)
    • 38. 383838© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Symmetric Encryption • Best known as shared-secret key algorithms • The usual key length is 80 - 256 bits • A sender and receiver must share a secret key • Faster processing because they use simple mathematical operations. • Examples include DES, 3DES, AES, IDEA, RC2/4/5/6, and Blowfish. Key Key Encrypt Decrypt $1000 $1000$!@#IQ Pre-shared key
    • 39. 393939© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Symmetric Encryption and XOR Plain Text 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Key (Apply) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 XOR (Cipher Text) 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Key (Re-Apply) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 XOR (Plain Text) 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 The XOR operator results in a 1 when the value of either the first bit or the second bit is a 1 The XOR operator results in a 0 when neither or both of the bits is 1
    • 40. 404040© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Asymmetric Encryption • Also known as public key algorithms • The usual key length is 512–4096 bits • A sender and receiver do not share a secret key • Relatively slow because they are based on difficult computational algorithms • Examples include RSA, ElGamal, elliptic curves, and DH. Encryption Key Decryption Key Encrypt Decrypt $1000 $1000%3f7&4 Two separate keys which are not shared
    • 41. 414141© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Asymmetric Example : Diffie-Hellman Get Out Your Calculators?
    • 42. 424242© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Symmetric Algorithms Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Key length (in bits) Description DES 56 Designed at IBM during the 1970s and was the NIST standard until 1997. Although considered outdated, DES remains widely in use. Designed to be implemented only in hardware, and is therefore extremely slow in software. 3DES 112 and 168 Based on using DES three times which means that the input data is encrypted three times and therefore considered much stronger than DES. However, it is rather slow compared to some new block ciphers such as AES. AES 128, 192, and 256 Fast in both software and hardware, is relatively easy to implement, and requires little memory. As a new encryption standard, it is currently being deployed on a large scale. Software Encryption Algorithm (SEAL) 160 SEAL is an alternative algorithm to DES, 3DES, and AES. It uses a 160-bit encryption key and has a lower impact to the CPU when compared to other software-based algorithms. The RC series RC2 (40 and 64) RC4 (1 to 256) RC5 (0 to 2040) RC6 (128, 192, and 256) A set of symmetric-key encryption algorithms invented by Ron Rivest. RC1 was never published and RC3 was broken before ever being used. RC4 is the world's most widely used stream cipher. RC6, a 128-bit block cipher based heavily on RC5, was an AES finalist developed in 1997.
    • 43. 434343© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Symmetric Encryption Techniques 64 bits 64bits 64bits 0101001011001010101010010110010101 1100101blank blank 0101010010101010100001001001001 0101010010101010100001001001001 Block Cipher – encryption is completed in 64 bit blocks Stream Cipher – encryption is one bit at a time EncryptedMessage EncryptedMessage
    • 44. 444444© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Selecting an Algorithm DES 3DES AES The algorithm is trusted by the cryptographic community Been replaced by 3DES Yes Verdict is still out The algorithm adequately protects against brute-force attacks No Yes Yes
    • 45. 454545© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. DES Scorecard Description Data Encryption Standard Timeline Standardized 1976 Type of Algorithm Symmetric Key size (in bits) 56 bits Speed Medium Time to crack (Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second) Days (6.4 days by the COPACABANA machine, a specialized cracking device) Resource Consumption Medium
    • 46. 464646© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Block Cipher Modes DES DES DES DES DES DES DES DES DES DES Initialization Vector ECB CBC Message of Five 64-Bit BlocksMessage of Five 64-Bit Blocks
    • 47. 474747© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Considerations • Change keys frequently to help prevent brute-force attacks. • Use a secure channel to communicate the DES key from the sender to the receiver. • Consider using DES in CBC mode. With CBC, the encryption of each 64-bit block depends on previous blocks. • Test a key to see if it is a weak key before using it. DES
    • 48. 484848© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. 3DES Scorecard Description Triple Data Encryption Standard Timeline Standardized 1977 Type of Algorithm Symmetric Key size (in bits) 112 and 168 bits Speed Low Time to crack (Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second) 4.6 Billion years with current technology Resource Consumption Medium
    • 49. 494949© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Encryption Steps When the 3DES ciphered text is received, the process is reversed. That is, the ciphered text must first be decrypted using Key 3, encrypted using Key 2, and finally decrypted using Key 1. 1 2 The clear text from Alice is encrypted using Key 1. That ciphertext is decrypted using a different key, Key 2. Finally that ciphertext is encrypted using another key, Key 3.
    • 50. 505050© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. AES Scorecard Description Advanced Encryption Standard Timeline Official Standard since 2001 Type of Algorithm Symmetric Key size (in bits) 128, 192, and 256 Speed High Time to crack (Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second) 149 Trillion years Resource Consumption Low
    • 51. 515151© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Advantages of AES • The key is much stronger due to the key length • AES runs faster than 3DES on comparable hardware • AES is more efficient than DES and 3DES on comparable hardware The plain text is now encrypted using 128 AES An attempt at deciphering the text using a lowercase, and incorrect key
    • 52. 525252© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. SEAL Scorecard Description Software-Optimized Encryption Algorithm Timeline First published in 1994. Current version is 3.0 (1997) Type of Algorithm Symmetric Key size (in bits) 160 Speed High Time to crack (Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second) Unknown but considered very safe Resource Consumption Low
    • 53. 535353© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Rivest Codes Scorecard Description RC2 RC4 RC5 RC6 Timeline 1987 1987 1994 1998 Type of Algorithm Block cipher Stream cipher Block cipher Block cipher Key size (in bits) 40 and 64 1 - 256 0 to 2040 bits (128 suggested) 128, 192, or 256
    • 54. 545454© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. DH Scorecard Description Diffie-Hellman Algorithm Timeline 1976 Type of Algorithm Asymmetric Key size (in bits) 512, 1024, 2048 Speed Slow Time to crack (Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second) Unknown but considered very safe Resource Consumption Medium
    • 55. 555555© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Using Diffie-Hellman AliceAlice BobBob Calc Calc 5566 mod 2323 = 88 1. Alice and Bob agree to use the same two numbers. For example, the base numberbase number gg=55and prime numberprime number pp=2323 2. Alice now chooses a secret numbersecret number xx=66. 3. Alice performs the DH algorithm: ggxx modulo pp = (5566 modulo 2323))= 8 (Y)8 (Y)and sends the new number 8 (Y)8 (Y) to Bob. 55,, 2323 55,, 2323 66 Secret SharedShared Secret 1 1 2 3 88
    • 56. 565656© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Using Diffie-Hellman Alice Bob 66 Secret Calc Shared Calc 15155566 mod 2323 = 88 4. Meanwhile Bob has also chosen a secret numbersecret number xx=1515, performed the DH algorithm: ggxx modulo pp = (551515 modulo 2323) = 19 (Y)19 (Y) and sent the new number 19 (Y)19 (Y)to Alice. 5. Alice now computes YYxx modulo pp = (191966 modulo 23)23)= 22. 6. Bob now computes YYxx modulo pp = (8866 modulo 23)23)= 22. 551515 mod 2323 = 1919 191966 mod 2323 = 22 881515 mod 2323 = 22 The result (22) is the same for both Alice and Bob. This number can now be used as a shared secret key by the encryption algorithm. The result (22) is the same for both Alice and Bob. This number can now be used as a shared secret key by the encryption algorithm. Shared Secret 88 1919 44 5 6 55,, 2323 55,, 2323
    • 57. 575757© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Asymmetric Key Characteristics • Key length ranges from 512–4096 bits • Key lengths greater than or equal to 1024 bits can be trusted • Key lengths that are shorter than 1024 bits are considered unreliable for most algorithms Plain text Encrypted text Plain text Encryption Decryption Encryption Key Decryption Key
    • 58. 585858© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Public Key (Encrypt) + Private Key (Decrypt) = Confidentiality Computer A Bob’s Public Key Can I get your Public Key please? Here is my Public Key. 1 Bob’s Public Key 3 2 Encrypted Text Bob’s Private Key4 Encryption Algorithm Encryption Algorithm Encrypted Text Computer B Computer A acquires Computer B’s public key Computer A uses Computer B’s public key to encrypt a message using an agreed-upon algorithm Computer A transmits The encrypted message to Computer B Computer B uses its private key to decrypt and reveal the message
    • 59. 595959© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Private Key (Encrypt) + Public Key (Decrypt) = Authentication Bob uses the public key to successfully decrypt the message and authenticate that the message did, indeed, come from Alice. Alice’s Private Key 1 Encrypted Text Encryption Algorithm Encrypted Text 2 Alice’s Public Key Can I get your Public Key please? Here is my Public Key 3 4 Encryption Algorithm Encrypted Text Alice’s Public Key Computer A Computer B Alice encrypts a message with her private key Alice transmits the encrypted message to Bob Bob needs to verify that the message actually came from Alice. He requests and acquires Alice’s public key
    • 60. 606060© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Asymmetric Key Algorithms Key length (in bits) Description DH 512, 1024, 2048 Invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Two parties to agree on a key that they can use to encrypt messages The assumption is that it is easy to raise a number to a certain power, but difficult to compute which power was used given the number and the outcome. Digital Signature Standard (DSS) and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) 512 - 1024 Created by NIST and specifies DSA as the algorithm for digital signatures. A public key algorithm based on the ElGamal signature scheme. Signature creation speed is similar with RSA, but is slower for verification. RSA encryption algorithms 512 to 2048 Developed by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman at MIT in 1977 Based on the current difficulty of factoring very large numbers Suitable for signing as well as encryption Widely used in electronic commerce protocols EIGamal 512 - 1024 Based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement. Described by Taher Elgamal in 1984and is used in GNU Privacy Guard software, PGP, and other cryptosystems. The encrypted message becomes about twice the size of the original message and for this reason it is only used for small messages such as secret keys Elliptical curve techniques 160 Invented by Neil Koblitz in 1987 and by Victor Miller in 1986. Can be used to adapt many cryptographic algorithms Keys can be much smaller
    • 61. 616161© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Security Services- Digital Signatures • Authenticates a source, proving a certain party has seen, and has signed, the data in question • Signing party cannot repudiate that it signed the data • Guarantees that the data has not changed from the time it was signed Authenticity Integrity Nonrepudiation
    • 62. 626262© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Digital Signatures • The signature is authentic and not forgeable: The signature is proof that the signer, and no one else, signed the document. • The signature is not reusable: The signature is a part of the document and cannot be moved to a different document. • The signature is unalterable: After a document is signed, it cannot be altered. • The signature cannot be repudiated: For legal purposes, the signature and the document are considered to be physical things. The signer cannot claim later that they did not sign it.
    • 63. 636363© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. The Digital Signature Process Confirm Order Encrypted hash Confirm Order ____________ 0a77b3440… Signature Algorithm Signature Key Data Signature Verified 0a77b3440… Verification Key 0a77b3440… Signed Data1 2 3 4 6 Validity of the digital signature is verified hash 5 The sending device creates a hash of the document The sending device encrypts only the hash with the private key of the signer The signature algorithm generates a digital signature and obtains the public key The receiving device accepts the document with digital signature and obtains the public key Signature is verified with the verification key
    • 64. 646464© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Code Signing with Digital Signatures • The publisher of the software attaches a digital signature to the executable, signed with the signature key of the publisher. • The user of the software needs to obtain the public key of the publisher or the CA certificate of the publisher if PKI is used.
    • 65. 656565© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. DSA Scorecard Description Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) Timeline 1994 Type of Algorithm Provides digital signatures Advantages: Signature generation is fast Disadvantages: Signature verification is slow
    • 66. 666666© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. RSA Scorecard Description Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman Timeline 1977 Type of Algorithm Asymmetric algorithm Key size (in bits) 512 - 2048 Advantages: Signature verification is fast Disadvantages: Signature generation is slow
    • 67. 676767© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Properties of RSA • One hundred times slower than DES in hardware • One thousand times slower than DES in software • Used to protect small amounts of data • Ensures confidentiality of data thru encryption • Generates digital signatures for authentication and nonrepudiation of data
    • 68. 686868© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Public Key Infrastructure Alice applies for a driver’s license. She receives her driver’s license after her identity is proven. Alice attempts to cash a check. Her identity is accepted after her driver’s license is checked.
    • 69. 696969© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. PKI: A service framework (hardware, software, people, policies and procedures) needed to support large- scale public key-based technologies. Certificate: A document, which binds together the name of the entity and its public key and has been signed by the CA Certificate authority (CA): The trusted third party that signs the public keys of entities in a PKI-based system Public Key Infrastructure PKI terminology to remember:
    • 70. 707070© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. CA Vendors and Sample Certificates http://www.verizonbusiness.com/ http://www.verisign.com http://www.rsa.com/ http://www.entrust.com http://www.novell.com http://www.microsoft.com
    • 71. 717171© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Usage Keys • When an encryption certificate is used much more frequently than a signing certificate, the public and private key pair is more exposed due to its frequent usage. In this case, it might be a good idea to shorten the lifetime of the key pair and change it more often, while having a separate signing private and public key pair with a longer lifetime. • When different levels of encryption and digital signing are required because of legal, export, or performance issues, usage keys allow an administrator to assign different key lengths to the two pairs. • When key recovery is desired, such as when a copy of a user’s private key is kept in a central repository for various backup reasons, usage keys allow the user to back up only the private key of the encrypting pair. The signing private key remains with the user, enabling true nonrepudiation.
    • 72. 727272© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. The Current State • Many vendors have proposed and implemented proprietary solutions • Progression towards publishing a common set of standards for PKI protocols and data formats X.509
    • 73. 737373© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. X.509v3 • X.509v3 is a standard that describes the certificate structure. • X.509v3 is used with: - Secure web servers: SSL and TLS - Web browsers: SSL and TLS - Email programs: S/MIME - IPsec VPNs: IKE
    • 74. 747474© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. X.509v3 Applications • Certificates can be used for various purposes. • One CA server can be used for all types of authentication as long as they support the same PKI procedures. Internet Enterprise Network External Web Server Internet Mail Server Cisco Secure ACS CA Server SSL S/MIME EAP-TLS IPsec VPN Concentrator
    • 75. 757575© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. RSA PKCS Standards • PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Standard • PKCS #3: DH Key Agreement Standard • PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Standard • PKCS #6: Extended-Certificate Syntax Standard • PKCS #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard • PKCS #8: Private-Key Information Syntax Standard • PKCS #10: Certification Request Syntax Standard • PKCS #12: Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard • PKCS #13: Elliptic Curve Cryptography Standard • PKCS #15: Cryptographic Token Information Format Standard
    • 76. 767676© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Public Key Technology • A PKI communication protocol used for VPN PKI enrollment • Uses the PKCS #7 and PKCS #10 standards PKCS#7 PKCS#10 Certificate Signed Certificate PKCS#7 CA
    • 77. 777777© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Single-Root PKI Topology • Certificates issued by one CA • Centralized trust decisions • Single point of failure Root CA
    • 78. 787878© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Hierarchical CA Topology • Delegation and distribution of trust • Certification paths Root CA Subordinate CA
    • 79. 797979© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Cross-Certified CAs • Mutual cross-signing of CA certificates CA2 CA1 CA3
    • 80. 808080© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Registration Authorities The CA will sign the certificate request and send it back to the host 1 Enrollment request 2 Completed Enrollment Request Forwarded to CA 3 Certificate Issued RA CA Hosts will submit certificate requests to the RA After the Registration Authority adds specific information to the certificate request and the request is approved under the organization’s policy, it is forwarded on to the Certification Authority
    • 81. 818181© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Retrieving the CA Certificates Alice and Bob telephone the CA administrator and verify the public key and serial number of the certificate CA Admin CA CA Certificate CA Certificate Enterprise Network POTS Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate POTS Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate 1 1 2 2 3 3 Alice and Bob request the CA certificate that contains the CA public key Each system verifies the validity of the certificate
    • 82. 828282© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Submitting Certificate Requests CA Admin CA Enterprise Network POTS Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate POTS Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate 1 1 2 3 Certificate Request Certificate Request 3 Both systems forward a certificate request which includes their public key. All of this information is encrypted using the public key of the CA The certificate is retrieved and the certificate is installed onto the system The CA administrator telephones to confirm their submittal and the public key and issues the certificate by adding some additional data to the request, and digitally signing it all
    • 83. 838383© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. Authenticating Private Key (Alice) Certificate (Alice) CA Certificate Private Key (Bob) Certificate (Bob) CA Certificate Certificate (Bob) Certificate (Alice) Each party verifies the digital signature on the certificate by hashing the plaintext portion of the certificate, decrypting the digital signature using the CA public key, and comparing the results. 1 2 2 Bob and Alice exchange certificates. The CA is no longer involved
    • 84. 848484© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute. PKI Authentication Characteristics • To authenticate each other, users have to obtain the certificate of the CA and their own certificate. These steps require the out-of-band verification of the processes. • Public-key systems use asymmetric keys where one is public and the other one is private. • Key management is simplified because two users can freely exchange the certificates. The validity of the received certificates is verified using the public key of the CA, which the users have in their possession. • Because of the strength of the algorithms, administrators can set a very long lifetime for the certificates.
    • 85. 858585© 2009 Cisco Learning Institute.

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