Environmental Impact Assessment - Gwadar Port Passenger Ship Operation


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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of PASSENGER SHIP OPERATION AT GWADAR PORT of Pakistan

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Environmental Impact Assessment - Gwadar Port Passenger Ship Operation

  1. 1. of PASSENGER SHIP OPERATION AT GWADAR PORT An Environmental Impact Assessment
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION Purpose and Need of Action <ul><li>Gwadar </li></ul><ul><li>A population of 72,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Deep seaport ready to fulfill national requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries is the main economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for business due to strategic location </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for tourism due to beach, desert, and unique landscape features </li></ul><ul><li>Gwadar destined to become a hub of business activity providing a trade corridor to China and Central Asian Estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger Ferry Ship can provide easy access to the Gwadar from other ports </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger Cruise Ships can anchor for tourism trips </li></ul>
  4. 4. 4. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION <ul><li>Preliminary Works </li></ul><ul><li>Dredging to remove sediment to create ship approach channels </li></ul><ul><li>Development of ship docking berths </li></ul><ul><li>Port passenger terminal construction activities </li></ul><ul><li>Activities Due to Passenger Ship at Gwadar </li></ul><ul><li>Ship dock at the port for few days </li></ul><ul><li>Passengers move in and out from the ship </li></ul><ul><li>Support Services </li></ul><ul><li>Ships may require fueling </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown technical services </li></ul><ul><li>Supply of goods for onboard passengers </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Activities Due to Presence of Ship </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics requirement for passengers </li></ul><ul><li>business activity </li></ul>
  5. 5. 5. Existing Environment <ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Long coastal area but almost entirely desert owing to little rain fall </li></ul><ul><li>Very little vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>No or limited facilities of sanitation and waste management </li></ul><ul><li>Household garbage dumped at coast line </li></ul><ul><li>Gwadar is in Hingol National Park which is formed by Govt. to protect endangered species in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Urial and Sind Ibex are found in Hingol National Park </li></ul><ul><li>Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Sea water is relatively clean due to no industrialization in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Many fish are found near Gwadar coast infact one-fourth of the total fish catch in Pakistan is produced in waters of Gwadar </li></ul><ul><li>Sea species like marsh crocodile, green turtle , masher fish, houbara bustard, dalmatian pelican, spot-billed pelican, plumbeous dolphin are found in the waters of Gwadar and protected under the umbrella of Hingol National Park </li></ul>
  6. 6. Existing Environment Continued… <ul><li>Social Setting </li></ul><ul><li>The Balochs constitute an overwhelming proportion of population of Gwadar </li></ul><ul><li>Fishermen migrate to other areas to earn livelihood in summer due to rough sea </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita income of the people of Gwadar is very low </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women are generally very social and friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Violence activities have recently surged in the area due to misconception in people about ownership of Gwadar port. </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>No or little elements of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional dust storms cause particle suspension </li></ul><ul><li>Common birds are See See Partridge and Waterfowls. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 6. Environmental Impacts of Ship Operation <ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage or Black water (approx 10 gallons / person / day) </li></ul><ul><li>Gray water, the largest liquid waste by passengers ships consists of non-sewage wastewater, including drainage from dishwashers, showers, laundry, baths, galleys, and washbasins. </li></ul><ul><li>Oily bilge water contains fuel, oil, wastewater from engines, rags, metal shavings, paint, glass and cleaning agents </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of metric ton of “Ballast Water” is taken in the ship to offset the fuel consumption or to stabilize the ship </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts Due to Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Human sewage carry bacteria, pathogens, diseases, viruses, the eggs of intestinal parasites, and harmful nutrients, they can contaminate the fish of Gwadar which can in turn pose health risk to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Gray water can contain coliform, food waste, detergents, cleaners, pesticides, heavy metals and medical waste which can deplete the dissolved oxygen in water necessary to support life </li></ul>
  8. 8. 6. Environmental Impacts of Ship Operation Continued… <ul><li>Oil effect marine mammals, sea birds, fish, other invertebrates, coral reefs, and mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>Ballast water introduces non-native species or bio-invaders which may cause habitat destruction, bio-diversity loss. Many disease contaminated species can also cause loss of precious sea life and can pose health risk in caught fish </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Waste and it’s Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Although in small quantities but hazardous wastes generated on cruise ships effect the marine life due to toxicity. This waste include dispose of paint waste, laser printer cartridges, mercury vapor light bulbs, chemical batteries and outdated pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>A highly toxic paint tributyltin (tbt), is used in the hulls of passenger ships </li></ul><ul><li>These toxic waste can pose a serious threat to the endangered aquatic life of Gwadar </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel engines of ships burn High Sulphur content fuel which produce sulphur dioxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Onboard incinerators burn large volumes of garbage, plastics etc producing dioxin, furans and heavy metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphur and particulate matter may cause respiratory problems, asthma attacks, especially in children of Gwadar and surrounding areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. 6. Environmental Impacts of Ship Operation Continued…
  10. 10. 6. Environmental Impacts of Ship Operation Continued… <ul><li>Dredging </li></ul><ul><li>Dredging to maintain the channel may increase water turbidity (cloudiness), harm habitat, and disturb or kill threatened and endangered species. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ship activity at Gwadar may hinder the local fishing activity in the area which may cause frustration in the fishermen </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger ship activity will urge Govt. to develop better civic facilities in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Business activity will generated due to a large number of people moving in and out of Gwadar, this will help fishermen to earn their livelihood when they cannot go fishing due to rough sea </li></ul>
  11. 11. 7. Mitigation Measures <ul><li>Mitigating Water and Oil Pollution Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Using regulatory measures to establish a no discharge zone within 12 miles from Gwadar coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering by “oil-water separator” to reduce effects of oily bilge discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Force the ships to use sanitation devices which can treat and hold sewage for later discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigating Air Pollution Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of both sulphur oxide and nitrous oxide can be easily achieved when ships use low sulphur fuel when docked at the port </li></ul><ul><li>Power can be supplied to the ship from the local grid which will enable ships to turn off their engines and help reduce emissions </li></ul>
  12. 12. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Project is environmentally feasible but with strong mitigation we can ensure a sustainable passenger ship operation at Gwadar without significantly effecting the environment </li></ul><ul><li>There is a chance of violation by the ships due to weak regulatory controls </li></ul><ul><li>If mitigation measures are not taken then marine life of Gwadar will be under seriously threat </li></ul><ul><li>The passenger ship operation will enable betterment of civic facilities in the area and also generate a significant business activity which will reduce the dependence of people of Gwadar on fisheries only </li></ul>
  13. 13. THANKS