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  • 1. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012 1
  • 2. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Civil Services INDEX Mentor LOKPAL BILL A DRAMA UNFOLD.. January: 2012 Chief Editor: Sachchida Nanda Jha PAGE NO: 3 Editor: Yagya INDIA-JAPAN STARTING ACTIVE PARTNERSHIP Designed by: Chandan Kumar 011 – 45151781 PAGE NO: 8 Disclaimer: Editor and Publisher are not responsible for any views, » National Issues 15 data, figures etc. Expressed in the articles by the author(s). Maps are nota- tional. » International Issues 24 For Advertisement » Economy Issues 31 Contact at: 011–45151781 » India & The World 47 » Science & Technology 53 » Sports 67 » Awards & Prizes 72 » In the News 77 » Special Study Material: SCRA: Exam Practice Paper 932 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 3. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : LOKPAL BILL A Drama Unfold would have given the Lokpal consti- as it seeks to create an autonomous tutional status. On December 22, the and independent Lokpal at the Cen- government introduced the Bill tre and Lokayuktas in the States with along with the Constitution (116th powers of superintendence and di- Amendment) Bill in the Lok Sabha. rection over investigation and pros- However the UPA government didn’t ecution of public servants accused put it to vote in the Upper House. of corruption. Yet, it failed to secure This Bill incorporated some of the the requisite support in the Lok recommendations of the Parliamen- Sabha because members found a tary Standing Committee on Person- huge gap between its object and theThe Jan Lokpal Bill campaign began nel, Public Grievances, Law and Jus- provisions of the Lokpal andin January 2011 in the backdrop of tice. This was a completely new Bill Lokayuktas Bill.the publicity that accompanied the as the government had withdrawnseveral mega-scams that surfaced its previous Lokpal Bill, which it in- During the debate in Parliament, thein 2010, notably those relating to the troduced in the Lok Sabha on August opposition was critical of theCommonwealth Games and the 4, 2011, and later referred to the governments control over the selec-telecom spectrum allocations. It Standing Committee. The Standing tion and removal of members of thecaught the public imagination with Committee tabled its report on De- Lokpal. But the Standing Commit-Anna Hazares fast at Jantar Mantar cember 9, 2011. The August Bill did tee report shows that it wanted toin New Delhi in April 2011. That not propose to confer constitutional dilute the provisions with regard toforced the UPA government to con- status on the Lokpal. The Standing selection and removal in the Bill thatstitute a joint drafting committee for Committee recommended constitu- was introduced in August. That Billa Lokpal bill. The civil society repre- tional status so that the Lokpal had had proposed a nine-member selec-sentatives in the committee pro- higher stature and increased legiti- tion committee, five of whom wouldposed a bill called the Jan Lokpal macy. The committee believed that have been government nominees.bill, which became the basis for dis- constitutional status would enhance The Standing Committee recom-cussions. The basic principles on the legal and moral authority of the mended a four-member selectionwhich the bill was drafted were Lokpal institution and also insulate committee comprising the Primeculled from the United Nations Con- the basic principles of the Lokpal Minister, the Speaker of the Lokvention against Corruption, which from the vicissitudes of ordinary or Sabha, the Chief Justice of Indiarequired all countries to put in place transient majorities. (CJI), an eminent Indian nominatedanti-corruption investigative agen- unanimously by the Comptroller andcies that would be independent of Yet, the Lok Sabha, which passed the Auditor General (CAG), the Chiefthe executive government and would Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill with a Election Commissioner (CEC) andhave the jurisdiction to investigate few amendments, rejected the Con- the Chairman of the Union Publicall public servants for corruption. stitution (116th Amendment) Bill, Service Commission (UPSC), and theThe Lok Sabha passed a historic which required two-thirds majority Leader of the Opposition in the LokLokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011, but of the House present and voting for Sabha. The December Bill proposesdefeated a parallel Constitution its passage. The object of the Con- five members, of whom three should(116th Amendment) Bill, which stitution Amendment Bill is laudable be government nominees – the WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 4. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Minister, the Speaker, the says, shall refer a preliminary in- case for preliminary inquiry to theLeader of the Opposition in the Lok quiry against Group A, B, C and D CBI (other than Group A, B, C and DSabha – and the CJI or a judge of the employees to the Central Vigilance officers). The Bill also provides thatSupreme Court nominated by the CJI, Commission (CVC). The Bill further the Lokpal shall exercise generaland one eminent jurist nominated by says that after conducting the in- superintendence over the CBI (simi-the President. Had the government quiry, the CVC shall submit a report lar to the CVCs supervision cur-accepted the Standing Committees to the Lokpal in the case of Group A rently). These additional dilutions inrecommendation, it could have and B employees and proceed ac- the later Bill, according to critics,dented somewhat the oppositions cording to specified procedure in the reduce the Lokpal to just a post of-criticism. case of Group C and D staff. The fice. CVC, according to the current Bill,Though the Bill kept the CBI with the shall send periodic reports to the The committee recommended thatgovernment, it allowed the Lokpal to Lokpal on its cases. the Lokpal conduct only the prelimi-have its own anti-corruption inves- nary inquiry and that it be authorisedtigative body. It eliminated the need The Rajya Sabha witnessed a sordid to initiate it suo motu. In such cases,to get prior sanction for investiga- drama. Several parties which had the inquiry would have to be donetion from the government. It provided walked out in the Lok Sabha (the by a five-member Lokpal Bench thatfor the confiscation of the assets of Samajwadi Party and the Bahujan is not connected with the suo motucorrupt public servants and the re- Samaj Party) or had not moved any initiation. More important, the ac-covery of losses caused by their acts amendments there (the Trinamool cused would not get an opportunityof corruption from them. But it cre- Congress) moved amendments in to be heard at this stage, though theated a terribly cumbersome proce- the Rajya Sabha and their represen- Bill of August allowed that. The laterdure for investigation, by which a tatives delivered fiery speeches op- Bill rejects both these recommenda-preliminary inquiry and hearing of posing the provisions of the Bill. tions and sticks to the August ver-the corrupt public servant were made When it became clear that at least sion, which provided that the Lokpalcompulsory before investigation three of the amendments (those re- could initiate an inquiry only on thecould begin. This ended the possi- lating to the selection and removal basis of a complaint by a citizen. Thebility of making surprise raids and of Lokpal members, the CBI being only concession the Bill makes is thatseizures on the premises of corrupt brought under the administrative the Lokpal shall have its own inquirypublic servants or their abettors. The control of the Lokpal, and the dele- wing to conduct a preliminary in-Bill of August provided that the tion of the chapter on Lokayuktas in quiry on a complaint it has receivedLokpal would have its own investi- the States) were likely to be passed, and has decided can be inquiredgation and prosecution wings. The the government engineered distur- into.Standing Committee, however, bances in the House, resorted to fili-sought to dilute this by recommend- bustering and prevented the amend- Under Article 252 or 253ing instead that the Lokpal conduct ments from being voted upon. Anda preliminary inquiry, after which the the House was prorogued with the Some parties questioned that lokpalCentral Bureau of Investigation Bill hanging in the air.The drama in bill should be brought under article(CBI) would investigate. Also, the the Rajya Sabha showed that the 253 & not under article 252.CBI would have autonomy over its government was not even willing to Article 252: Article 252. Power ofinvestigation. go by the will of Parliament. This Parliament to legislate for two or gives rise to fundamental questions more States by consent and adop-The committee also proposed that about the functioning of Indian de- tion of such legislation by any otherthe Lokpal will have a supervisory mocracy. Staterole over the CBI in cases relating The Bill adds that if a prima facie (1) If it appears to the Legislaturesto Group A and B officers. The Bill case exists against a public servant, of two or more States to be desir-of December further diluted these the Lokpal may refer it to the CBI for able that any of the matters withrecommendations. The Lokpal, it investigation. Also, it may refer a respect to which Parliament has no 4 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 5. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : to make laws for the States lows a strong central bias. Notices for 187 Amend-except as provided in Articles 249 Some of the special features of In- ments in Rajya Sabhaand 250 should be regulated in such dia are as follows:States by Parliament by law, and if Agreement between the States: If Notice had been given for as manyresolutions to that effect are passed two states agree that the Parliament as 187 amendments to the Lokpalby all the House of the Legislatures can legally make laws with respect and Lokayukta Bill, 2011 includingof those States, it shall be lawful for to the two states, then the Parlia- from the Trinamool Congress forParliament to pass an Act for regu- ment can make laws relating to any deletion of the entire Part III of thelating that matter accordingly, and law or set of laws related to the State Bill regarding establishment of theany Act so passed shall apply to Laws. This is an extension of the Par- Lokayuktas. The Biju Janata Dal andsuch States and to any other State liamentary legislative as laid down the Shiromani Akali Dal too had givenby which it is adopted afterwards by by the Article 252 of the Indian Con- similar notices. By afternoon, theresolution passed in that behalf by stitution. Rajya Sabha had received 173the House or, where there are two amendment notices. The numberHouses, by each of the Houses of Implementation of Treaties: The swelled to 187 by evening as an-the Legislature of that State. Parliament makes laws for the nounced by the Minister of State for(2) Any Act so passed by Parliament implementation of treaties, even if Personnel V. Narayanasamy. Nor-may be amended or repealed by an the subject falls under the legisla- mally notices are taken 24 hours inAct of Parliament passed or adopted tive power of the State, for the big- advance but on Thursday, noticesin like manner but shall not, as re- ger international interest of the were accepted till late evening, whilespects any State to which it applies, country. This power has been given the government took the stand in thebe amended or repealed by an Act to the Union by the Article 253. House that there were too manyof the Legislature of that State amendments which “needed consid- Suggested Amendments: Team eration.”Article 253: Article 253. Legislation Anna had suggested 34 amendmentsfor giving effect to international to rectify the governments Bill, and Among major amendments were theagreements Notwithstanding any- pointed out that four of these were ones given by the Bharatiya Janatathing in the foregoing provisions of critical to making the Lokpal a work- Party for deletion of words “not lessthis Chapter, Parliament has power able institution. These were that the than” 50 per cent of members ofto make any law for the whole or any selection and removal procedure Lokpal belonging to Scheduledpart of the territory of India for should be made independent of the Castes, Scheduled tribes, Otherimplementing any treaty, agreement government; the CBI should be Backward Classes, Minorities andor convention with any other coun- brought under the Lokpals admin- Women in Clause 3. They also askedtry or countries or any decision made istrative control or, alternatively, the for deletion of the word ‘Minoritiesat any international conference, as- Lokpal should have its own investi- in Clause 3 and inclusion of Leadersociation or other body. gative body; all government ser- of Opposition in Rajya Sabha on Se- vants should be brought under the lection Committee in Clause 4. TheyRelation between Union and States Lokpals investigative ambit; and the also wanted Lokpal to appoint hisThe relation between Union and procedure for investigation should secretary and not select from aStates is the very bedrock of the In- be in line with the normal criminal panel given by the government.dian Federal system. India is a fed- investigation procedure. But the gov-eral State with a national govern- ernment was adamant in not ac- The Communist Party of India (Marx-ment and a government of each con- cepting any of these either, and ist) gave amendment for replace-stituent state. Although the structure went on to bulldoze the passage of ment of eminent jurist on the Selec-of India is federal in a general way, its Bill. It rejected all the amend- tion Committee with “an eminentyet there are certain aspects that are ments moved by the Opposition in person to be nominated by the Chiefunique to federalism as practiced in the Lower House. Election Commissioner, ComptrollerIndia. The Indian government fol- and Auditor General and Union Pub- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 6. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Service Commission. They also row - one with a clean and indepen- ness in W. Bengal. But at present,wanted the Inquiry Wing under the dent CBI under an incorruptible everything she does is to extract theLokpal to be replaced by “Investiga- Lokpal. But after an entire year of maximum from the Congress.tion Wing” with the Central govern- wrangling with the government.ment providing officers and staff Conclusionunder exclusive jurisdiction of the Meanwhile, the elections in UP areLokpal as decided in consultation round the corner, and the Congress India’s politicians again stand dis-with the Lokpal. The Party gave an- has been expanding its reach with credited in the eyes of people, whoother amendment for inclusion un- some crafty electoral mathematics, are asking questions to which theder the Lokpal of “any corporate a specialization offered at the politicians, both the ruling party andbody, its promoters, its officers in- Allahabad University. Ajit Singh is the opposition, do not have an an-cluding Director against whom there already in the bag. He was traded swer. If we truly want to make Indiais a complaint of corruption in rela- the lucrative civil aviation ministry corruption free we need to look attion to grant of government licence, in return for joining the Congress the new generation. Yes the govern-lease, contract, agreement or any electoral alliance in UP. Likewise, thement can help — first by cleaningother action to influence govern- Railway Ministry is being “dangled” up their administration and then byment policy through corrupt means.” in front of Mulayam Singh Yadav of punishing corrupt people so severelyThey wanted Lokpal to take suo the SP. Doing well in the UP elections that punishment becomes a deter-motu action in a compliant of cor- will surely serve as a shot in the arm rent to corruption. The governmentruption. for the Congress. First, it might can support and reward honesty — cause a mental breakdown for reward people who pay taxes in- Other Angle Mayawati, especially after the elec- stead of harassing them and go af- tion commission decided to cover ter the people who do not pay taxesPassing of “Lokpal” Bill seems quite her statues across the state. Sec- and yet lead opulent lives. Reward-an impossible task,because every ondly, it sets the stage for Rahul ing honesty and penalising dishon-party to it has its interest.The UPA Gandhi’s coronation as the PM. Be- esty will create an ecosystem thatgovernment summarily “check- sides, it will also give the Congress supports a life of integrity. Let themated” the social activists and greater leverage against Didi. honest man be privileged and ac-drove them into existential crisis knowledged so that people aspire towhile simultaneously reducing the On the other side of this pitched be honest.Lokpal bill to a maere a game tool. battle is the opportunistic BJP, whichAt the moment, the activists will be recently threw open its gates for We need to target schools and col-happier with the “no bill at all” than Mayawati discards in UP. In contrast, leges; motivate the youngsters tothe current version of the bill tabled the same BJP passed a strong take charge so that they can startby the government. None of the po- Lokayutkha bill in Uttarkhand. The changing the world around them. Welitical parties wants the Lokpal bill. BJP’s goal is simple - stall the bill, have to stop paying the cop for traf-Even if individual politicians want it, harp on the government’s incompe- fic offences, and we have to havethey can’t do a thing about it be- tence, and cash in on the general dis- the will to fight each time a bribe iscause their “High Command” does content in the country, in hope of asked of us. The people of India neednot want it. But the country’s future riding an anti-corruption wave to get the media now — the media thatis at stake. The politicians are out back in power. The battle lines are catapulted the movement to fameto maintain the status-quo in order drawn. On one side is the Congress needs to open an action line whereto protect their corrupt practices and party and its fickle, calculative al- every act of corruption can be re-ill-gotten wealth. But Team Anna lies. The leading trouble-maker ported and exposed. Because thishas accepted this mission and is not among the allies is the TMC. The battle can be won, this change cangoing to relent until their goals are Congress needs her now and she be made and we do not need regu-met. Team Anna rallied the masses knows that. Her primary long-term lation to do so.and raised hopes of a utopian tomor- goal is to put the CPI(M) out of busi- 6 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 7. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Advertise your Business Here Contact Us Online WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 8. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : India-Japan Starting Active Partnership billion to $15 billion will help India this month, India, Japan, and the better manage the rupees slump United States held their first trilat- against the dollar. This should also eral strategic dialogue. It is credit- boost financial cooperation and eco- able that despite the political insta- nomic and trade ties, which are cur- bility in Japan, and the scandal-in- rently far below potential. The In- duced paralysis in India, both coun- dian side wants more Japanese in- tries managed to fit in these high-The determined effort by India and vestment. For its part, Japan, which level exchanges. It is crucial thatJapan to inject life into their bilat-has just lifted a longstanding ban ongrowing India-Japan ties are viewederal relationship is showing positive the export of weapons, will be look- independently of each countrys re-results. The meeting between Prime ing to sell defence hardware to New lations with China. New Delhi andMinister Manmohan Singh and Japa- Delhi. Beijing are engaged in improvingnese premier Yoshihiko Noda, the relations at various levels, includingsixth of the annual India-Japan sum- Prime Minister Noda reiterated his trade, eventually aiming to amica-mits, is a marker of the steady gratitude for the substantial support bly resolve the boundary question.progress. It yielded the first official extended from India in the wake of China is Japans biggest trading part-confirmation since Japans devastat- the Great East Japan Earthquake. ner; the two have a bilateral tradeing tsunami-earthquake-Fukushima Prime Minister Singh expressed his of $340 billion that neither can af-meltdown that the country has not hope that Japan will make a full re- ford to endanger. The fears ex-shut the door on a civilian nuclear covery as early as possible.The two pressed in a section of Chinas newsdeal with India. While Mr. Noda Prime Ministers concurred that, as media that Mr. Nodas visit is partstressed the importance of learning next year marks the 60th anniversary of a “containment strategy” aimedthe right lessons from Japans of the establishment of diplomatic at Beijing are needless. The Chinesenuclear accident, it appears that relations between Japan and India, government has done well to playnegotiations on a deal to assist In- they would make best use of the them down.dia develop peaceful nuclear energy opportunity to strengthen culturalwill continue. and people-to-people exchanges in History order to deepen mutual understand-His pledge of $4.5 billion over the ing at their citizens level. Exchange between Japan and Indianext five years for the development is said to have begun in the 6th cen-of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Cor- Prime Minister Nodas visit capped tury when Buddhism was introducedridor, a commitment of financial as- a year of intense bilateral activity. to Japan. Indian culture, filteredsistance for two more infrastructure The Foreign Ministers held a strate- through Buddhism, has had a greatprojects — Phase 3 of the Delhi gic dialogue in October, followed by impact on Japanese culture, and thisMetro and a biodiversity conserva- talks between the defence minis- is the source of the Japanesetion project in West Bengal — and ters. In February, the two sides peoples sense of closeness to In-his interest in sharing high-speed signed the Comprehensive Economic dia. After World War II, in 1949, In-railway technology with India are sig- Partnership Agreement covering dian Prime Minister Jawaharlalnificant. Japans enhancement of its trade in goods as well as services; Nehru donated two Indian elephantscurrency swap arrangement from $3 it came into effect in August. Earlier to the Ueno Zoo in Tokyo. This 8 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 9. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : a ray of light into the lives and Prime Minister Singhs visit to manufacturing abilities, whereasof the Japanese people who still had Japan in October 2008, have led to India has advantages in IT servicesnot recovered from defeat in the war. the establishment of the "Strategic and bioinformatics. Thanks toJapan and India signed a peace and Global Partnership between vigorous economic growth in thetreaty and established diplomatic Japan and India" as well as the wake of the economic reforms andrelations on 28th April, 1952. This further strengthening of the bilateralthe “Look East Policy” introducedtreaty was one of the first peace relationship. Most recently, during after 1991, India has successfullytreaties Japan signed after the World Prime Minister Hatoyamas visit to deepened its economic relationsWar II. Ever since the establishment India in December 2009, Japan and with the East Asian countries. Weof diplomatic relations, the two India singed the Joint Statement can see a remarkable expansion ofcountries have enjoyed cordial rela- "New Stage of Japan-India Strategic India’s economic tie-ups with thetions. and Global Partnership". ASEAN countries, China and Korea since the late 1990s, with only Bilateral Treaties and While India has become the largest IndoJapan relations lagging behind. Agreements recipient of Japanese ODA since India-China bilateral trade has 2003-04, both bilateral trade in remarkably expanded to be more goods and Japan’s FDI into India than four times larger than India-» Treaty of Peace (1952) have almost stagnated during the Japan bilateral trade.» Agreement for Air Service (1956) past decade. With major Indian» Cultural Agreement (1957) exports to Japan being dominated Koizumi’s Visit to India» Agreement of Commerce (1958) by products of mineral oils, gems & in 2005» Convention for the Avoidance of jewels, marine products (mainlyDouble Taxation (1960) shrimps) and iron ore, India and The significance of visit of Japanese» Agreement on Cooperation in the Japan have not yet formed such a Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi infield of Science and Technology dynamic international division of 2005 cannot be understated(1985) labour as can be seen among the considering the fact that this was the East Asian countries. Japan’s first visit by a Japanese head of stateIn the post World War II period, cumulative FDI into India is so far after a hiatus of nearly half aIndias iron ore helped a great deal larger than that of Korea, but as far decade. Prior to that, only twoJapans recovery from the as electronics appliances are serving Japanese heads of statedevastation. Following Japanese concerned, Japanese companies have visited India with a 10 year gap.Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishis visit have been overwhelmed by Korean While these statistics amplyto India in 1957, Japan started companies in the Indian market. demonstrate that a regular exchangeproviding yen loans to India in 1958, of high-level political visits haveas the first yen loan aid extended India and Japan are highly been a weak link in Indo-Japaneseby Japanese government. Since complementary economies, but their ties, perhaps Prime Minister1986, Japan has become Indias mutual complementarities remained Koizumi’s visit is a landmark one aslargest aid donor, and remains so. underexploited hitherto. Recently, it promises to initiate bilateralPrime Minister Moris visit to India however, a new tide has been comprehensive ventures into twoin August 2000 provided the observed in Japan to expand Indo- areas - economic and strategic,momentum to strengthen the Japan- Japan relations based on mutual which were lying potentiallyIndia relationship. Since then, annual complementarities. Japan has untapped for several years. Themeetings between prime ministers, abundant capital and is highly highlight of the Prime Minister’s visitincluding Prime Minister Koizumis advanced in technological skills and was indubitably the signing of thevisit to India in April 2005, Prime product development while India is ‘Japan-India Partnership in a NewMinister Singhs visit to Japan in endowed with a huge market and Asian Era: Strategic Orientation of aDecember 2006, Prime Minister abundant human resources. Japan is Japan-India Global Partnership’ — anAbes visit to India in August 2007, outstanding in terms of eight-fold initiative announced WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 10. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : strengthening Japan-India certainly a more comprehensive common interests and concerns inGlobal Partnership, which include delineation and framework of areas the years to come so that they canthe following: of common interests and concerns. look back at their relations with pride» Enhanced and upgraded dialogue In a nutshell, it can be stated that and satisfaction at the end of thearchitecture, including strengthening there is a unique paradox that has next five decades, when weof the momentum of high-level defined India-Japan relations at celebrate a hundred years of theexchanges, launching of a High Level large. On the one hand, there has establishment of relations.Strategic Dialogue and full been the absence of any major Bilateral trade is expanding in theutilization of the existing dialogue dispute. On the other, however, what recent years. However, the speedmechanisms. has been missing is the richness that and scope of expansion are still» Comprehensive economic could have characterized bilateral limited. Joint Study Group (JSG),engagement, through expansion of ties. In other words, the relationship composed of government officialstrade in goods and services, to date can be chronicled as one of and representatives of business andinvestment flows and other areas of missed opportunities. It is clear that academia from the two countries,economic cooperation, and the synergy of Indo-Japanese held four meetings after July, 2005.exploration of a Japan-India cooperation is essential not just to JSG submitted its report to botheconomic partnership agreement. Prime Ministers when they met in further bilateral relations, but for the greater cause of a more secure Asia- July, 2006, which includes a» Enhanced security dialogue and Pacific region. Even though the visit recommendation for launching EPAcooperation. by Prime Minister Koizumi was short, negotiations. In December, 2006, the» Science & Technology Initiative it should be used as bedrock for Prime Ministers of the two countries» Cultural an academic initiatives furthering bilateral ties. decided to launch immediateand strengthening of people-to- negotiations for the conclusion of apeople contacts An increased awareness among the bilateral Economic Partnership» Cooperation in ushering a new general populace of the two nations A g r e e m e n t / C o m p r e h e n s i v eAsian era as envisaged under the eight-fold Economic Partnership Agreement» Cooperation in the UN and other initiative is equally crucial as the aiming to complete in substance asinternational organization, including extent of media coverage received soon as possible in approximatelyearly reform of the UN Security by such landmark steps as Koizumi’s two years. Thirteen rounds ofCouncil visit and need to be highlighted. negotiations were held in New Delhi» Cooperation in responding to While India’s embarkation on a ‘Look and Tokyo respectively as of Julyglobal challenges and opportunities. East’ policy in the last decade was 2010. symptomatic of the significanceWhile this eight-fold initiative India attaches to the region, the time Japan-India Strategic Dialogue onincorporates many issues addressed has come to exploit the full potential Economic Issues which reviews theby the two countries in their Joint of interaction with countries like current status of bilateral economicDeclaration of December 2001, it is Japan. The two countries should issues discussed at Summit work together in the areas of meetings, and undertakes Buy Books Online For CSAT, IAS Mains, Bank, SSC, CDS & Other Exam Preparation. CLICK BELOW LINK TO ORDER 10 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 11. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : as necessary was held 3 times in New Delhi and Tokyo with the negotiations with a view torespectively as of July 2010 since the Dialogue was launched in July 2007. concluding an Agreement forIn August 2007, the Business Leaders Forum was held in New Delhi on the Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses ofoccasion of Prime Minister Abes visit to India, and the Second meeting Nuclear Energy in a mutuallywas held in Tokyo in October 2008. satisfactory manner. With regard to rare earths, the two Prime Ministers shared the view that both Governments should continue their dialogue in order for Japanese and Indian enterprises to jointly undertake industrial activities. The long-awaited India-Japan CEPA/Japanese private-sector’s interest in India is rising, and, currently, about EPA was finally signed in February627 Japanese companies have branches in India. (The figure doubled over 2011, and came into effect inthe last 3 years.) August. Tariffs will be eliminated on 90 per cent of Indian and 97 per cent of Japanese goods over ten years. Japan is expected to export more auto-parts and steel products to India and import more agricultural and marine products from India.The two Prime Ministers welcomed the entry into force of the Japan-India National treatment, on the side ofComprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) in August this Japan, is accorded for theyear and the commencement of negotiations on an agreement on social application of approvals for thesecurity. With regard to the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), Prime release of generic medicines. SomeMinister Noda announced the intention of the Government of Japan to improvement has been made for themake available finance totaling 4.5 billion US dollars in the next five years. movement of people, including YogaThe two Prime Ministers concurred that they would promote participation instructors, English teachers andof Japanese companies to realize the DMIC. Indian cuisine masters. IndiaJapanIn this regard, both Governments reached an agreement on such issues as bilateral trade will be more thanJapans involvement with the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor doubled to $25 billion by 2014 underDevelopment Corporation (DMICDC), relaxation of financial restrictions the CEPA/ as to promote DMIC projects, allocation of natural gas for DMIC projects,and early realization of three model projects, namely, seawater desalination What is CEPA ?at Dahej, Gujarat, a microgrid system using large-scale photovoltaic (PV)power generation Project at Neemrana Industrial Area in Rajasthan, and The second phase of India’s Lookgas-fired independent power producer (IPP) Project in Maharashtra. The East Policy aims to achieve just that.two Prime Ministers concurred on the need to strengthen bilateral Against this background, India-cooperation on infrastructure development in Southern India, improvement Japan ties are appropriatelyof connectivity between Chennai and Bangalore, and development of Indias positioned for take-off. TheHigh-speed railway system. Prime Minister Noda pledged that the significance of Prime MinisterGovernment of Japan would extend ODA loans totaling approximately 1.7 Singh’s visit to Japan can be seen inbillion US dollars (approx. 134.3 billion yen) in total for two projects four areas: conclusion of four yearsincluding for the Delhi Mass Rapid Transport System Project. The two Prime of negotiations on a ComprehensiveMinisters decided to enhance the earlier bilateral currency swap Economic Partnership Agreementarrangement from 3 billion US dollars to 15 billion US dollars. Concerning (CEPA), deciding to speed upcivil nuclear cooperation, Prime Minister Singh noted that he understood negotiations on a civil nuclear deal,Japans sensitivity well. The two Prime Ministers decided to move forward simplifying visa procedures, and WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 12. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : common ground for that civil nuclear energy can be a , As for the destination of Japan’s ITconvergence of interests in securing mutually beneficial area for offshoring, currently 80 per cent ofpeace and stability in Asia. CEPA is cooperation. India welcomes Japanese companies offshore tobroader than a free trade agreement Japanese firms to participate in the China and only 25 per cent to India.because it includes steps to promote expansion of its nuclear industry for For India, Japan accounts for onlygreater investment and also peaceful purposes. less than 2 per cent of its totaladdresses intellectual property software and IT services exports. Asrights. The CEPA will help address Until recently, Japanese companies for Japanese subsidiaries of IBM andthis imbalance and Japan will have had a negative image about India’s Accenture, they are already fullyto reduce tariffs on 97 per cent of investment environment, which utilizing Indian IT resources throughIndian imports, and India will have constituted a sense of offshoring to their Indianto reduce tariffs on 90 per cent of “psychological distance” from India. subsidiaries. It will be strategicallygoods imported from Japan over the However, the success of Korean more important for Japanesenext decade. Japan will get greater companies in gaining a large share companies to focus on India as anmarket access for most industrial of the Indian consumer electronics IT offshore location, especially ifgoods, as well as several market indicates that what Japanese they want to go global.agricultural products such as durian, companies tended to identify ascurry, tea leaves, lumber, shrimp and areas of concern, i.e. adverse The level of people-to-peopleshrimp products. India will get investment environment, are not exchange between India and Japanimproved market access in Japan in necessarily critical factors that is still far from satisfactory, whichauto parts, steel panels, and other deterred Korean or Singaporean is exemplified by stagnated studentindustrial materials, as well as DVD companies. The number of Japanese exchanges. It should be rememberedplayers, video cameras and companies in India has increased that there are as many as threeindustrial machinery. from 267 in January 2006 to 438 in million Indian Americans, most of January 2008 and from 550 in whom are professionals, playing anThe two countries began talks on a October 2008 to 725 in October indispensable role in deepening andcivilian nuclear deal in June 2010 but 2010. Their investment value has cementing the relationship betweenthe subject is too sensitive in Japan more than doubled to 189 billion yen India and USA. Improving thebecause India has refused to adhere in 2007-08 and totalled 809 billion scholarship and Japanese languageto the NPT and CTBT as it considers yen in 2008-09, outstripping training schemes for Indianthem discriminatory, even though Japanese FDI into China. students, increasing the number ofIndia has voluntarily suspended lectures given in English at Japanesenuclear testing. In late 2009, Prime Japan is globally ranked the second universities, and providing attractiveMinister Singh said that India’s largest IT market with an estimated career paths for Indian graduates toposition on the CTBT could change turnover of $100 billion. Japan is apply for Prospects and Challengesif Beijing and Washington were to renowned as one of the most for Expanding India-Japan Economicjoin the pact. China, India and the competitive nations in Relations enlarged employmentUS are three of the nine “Annex 2” manufacturing industries or opportunities in Japanesestates that must ratify the treaty for hardware production. As of 2007, companies are urgently needed forit to enter into force. Japan thus Japan had a total of 907,990 IT attracting more Indian students toagreed to start negotiation with engineers and was short of 501,000 Japan. Now is a good time, whenIndia on a framework for the IT engineers including 360,000 entering a new phase of India-Japanpeaceful transfer of nuclear power professionals. Generally speaking, relations, for us to consolidate ourtechnologies to India. Prime Japanese companies are inclined relations especially throughMinister Kan agreed to speed up towards in-house procurement and accelerated people-to-peoplenegotiations, while seeking India’s are rather cautious about overseas exchanges. Number of Japaneseunderstanding for Japan’s IT offshoring. But when they nationals residing in India: 3,284 (assentiments. Both leaders agreed offshore, they prefer to turn to China of October, 2008) 12 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 13. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : of Indian nationals residing Project (Phase 2) (Yen Loan: 146.0in Japan: 22,335 (as of December, million dollars).2008). » Transmission System Modernization and StrengtheningThe Japanese economy has been Project in Hyderabad Metropolitanstrained in the aftermath of the Area (Yen Loan: 197.5 millionmassive earthquake and tsunami, dollars)accompanied by radiation leak atthe Fukushima nuclear power plant. ConclusionWe cannot ignore the after effectsof the Great East Japan Earthquake As this year marks the fifth yearon India-Japan economic relations. since the establishment of theF irst, the number of Indian IT Japan-India Strategic and Globalengineers working in Japan has been Partnership in 2006, with the 60threduced from 15,000 to 7,000, since anniversary of the establishment ofmany Indian IT engineers have not diplomatic relations next year, thisyet returned to Japan. Further, since State visit by Prime Minister Nodadomestic supply chains have been has impressed on all sides thedamaged by the earthquake and friendly bilateral relationshipgiven the record appreciation of the between Japan and India, andyen, Japanese companies are under contributed to further consolidatingeven greater pressure to reallocate a trusting relationship at the leaders Advertise yourtheir production facilities to level. With regard to bilateral Business Hereemerging economies. relations, the two Prime Ministers [ Contact Us Online ] shared the view that they should these factors provide a good expand cooperation in the area ofopportunity for further accelerating maritime security in the political andJapanese FDI into India. The security fields. Substantial progressfollowing two tasks should be was made in many economic areas,addressed for further expanding including cooperation for the DMIC,India-Japan economic relations. infrastructure development inFirst, the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Southern India including theCorridor should be started along the connectivity between Chennai andright line, which will be the Bangalore, enhancement of thetouchstone for future India-Japan bilateral currency swapcollaboration. Second, human arrangement, extension of ODAexchanges should be promoted by loans including for the Delhi Massall means for cementing and Rapid Transport System, joint rareexpanding bilateral relations. earths projects, among others. WithJapanese Aid to India (1,545.7 regard to regional situations andmillion dollars) global issues, the two Prime» Kerala Water Supply Project (II) Ministers also affirmed that the two(Yen Loan: 273.1 million dollars) countries continue cooperation in» Delhi Mass Rapid Transport various regional issues in Asia andSystem Project (Phase 2) (II) (Yen other international issues such asLoan: 113.2 million dollars) the global economy and climate» Gujarat Forestry Development change. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 14. Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012 UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Candidates,As Civil Services aspirants, all of you are facing a number of problems, from choosing optional Subjects towhat to read in General Studies and many more. These are the main hurdles between you and yourSuccess. To tackle these problems, some of you are taking the help of Coaching institutions, but most ofyou who don’t have this access are in a very difficult Situation. More over the Coaching institutions areCharging very high amounts from the candidates. However their guidance does not yield any result in thereal examination. So this creates a very dim and confusing situation. To Sought out these problems, we arelaunching a free guidance Programme. Where you can avail the guidance of our experts.They will help you prepare in these following areas:-Guidance and Study Materials for CSAT Paper I and CSAT Paper IIHow to choose your optional subjects?What to read and how to read?What should be the right approach for this examination?Overall strategy and individual specific strategy.Suggested readings and many more.Along with these guidance programmes we are also providing.Important news and Articles from The Hindu, Times of India and Indian Express on a daily basis.Important Articles from Press Information Bureau and from various websites of Government Minis-tries on a weekly basis.Our main concern at the moment, is to create equality among the aspirants because the candidate who arestaying in far flung areas or who are doing self study according to the popular notions are in a verydisadvantageous position as compared with the candidates who are taking Coaching from reputed institu-tions. So by launching this programme, we believe in injecting some ray of hope among the Candidates whoare suffering from this injustice. We hope you all appreciate this small effort of ours. CLICK BELOW LINK FOR DETAILS: CLICK BELOW LINK FOR DETAILS: Thank You Course Director S.A. Majid +919911626661, +918800966252 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM14 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 15. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : National Issues and Kashmir, Manipur and Andaman Seven Asian countries report an es- Infant Mortality and Nicobar Islands, the IMR came timated 100,000 or more people liv- Rate is Declining down by two points while it re- ing with HIV in 2009, collectively mained static in Lakshdweep and accounting for more than 90 per centInfant mortality rate (IMR) has Puducherry. A one point decline was of people with HIV in the region. In-shown a 3 point decline, dropping reported from Arunachal Pradesh, dia tops the list followed by China,from 50 deaths per 1,000 live births Goa and Daman and Diu. Impor- Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia,to 47 and moving a step closer to tantly, the government intended to Myanmar and Vietnam, though theachieving the Millennium Develop- set up facilities such as Special New highest prevalence rate, one perment Goals (MDG) target of 30. How- Born Care Units, New Born cent, was observed only in Thailand.ever, IMR increased by one point in Stabilisation Units and New Born In Asia, the rate of HIV transmissionKerala, Mizoram and Dadra and Baby Corners at different levels with appears to be slowing down. TheNagar Haveli. According to the lat- at least one at the district level. The estimated 3,60,000 people who wereest Sample Registration System mother and child tracking system newly infected with HIV in Asia in(SRS), conducted by the Registrar- had evoked a huge response, with 2010 were considerably fewer thanGeneral of India, the two worst per- 1.32 crore women and 82.6 lakh chil- the 4,50,000 estimated for 2001.forming States — Madhya Pradesh dren already registered.and Himachal Pradesh — have Ex-Im Bank of Indiashown an impressive 5 point decline. 50 % of HIV Patients in Amendment Bill, 2011In the former, the figure dropped Asia live in Indiafrom 67 in 2009 to 62 in 2010 and in Rajya Sabha approved the Export-the latter, it was from 45 to 40 . While India has half of Asias HIV patients Import Bank of India Amendmentthe IMR national average is 47, it and is way ahead of China in dis- Bill, 2011, on 27 December 2011. Itstands at 51 in the rural areas and ease burden. It also finds a place in aims at promoting international31 in the urban regions. However, the list of 22 countries prioritised for trade by raising the capital funds ofneo-natal deaths continue to be a preventing mother to child transmis- overseas trading from two thousandchallenge where 34 babies are still sion infection, according to the lat- crore rupees to ten thousand croredying for every 1,000 born. est UNAIDS report, drafted jointly rupees. The Bill was passed by theUnion Health and Family Welfare with the United Nations Childrens Lok Sabha earlier.Secretary P. K. Pradhan said Bihar, Fund (UNICEF) and the World HealthGujarat, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan,Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Organisation (WHO). About 48 lakh Lokpal and Lokayukta people were living with HIV in Asia Bill, 2011Tripura had shown a four-point de- in 2010 and nearly half of them – 49cline in the IMR. Andhra Pradesh, per cent to be precise – are in India, The Lok Sabha on 27 December 2011,Assam, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, says the report released on the eve approved the Lokpal and LokayuktaKarnataka, Maharashtra, Delhi, of World AIDS Day. The percentage Bill, 2011 with the government mak-Nagaland, Uttarakhand and of pregnant women who tested posi- ing it clear that setting up ofChandigarh have shown a three- tive for HIV infection in India also Lokayuktas by the states would notpoint decline. Similarly, in Jharkhand, rose from 2 per cent in 2005 t0 23 be mandatory. However, the Consti-Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Jammu per cent in 2010. tutional Amendment Bill, designed WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 16. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : confer constitutional status on the licensing rights for. MI17 — the su-anti-corruption watchdog, fell A bill to Add More per-secret military intelligence de-through, as the government failed to Scheduled Tribes to partment that analyses data pro-get two-thirds support for it. vided by Indias spy satellites — re- List passed lies on software provided by globalThe Lokpal and Lokayukta Bill, 2011 software giants Intergraph, Oracle, Rajya Sabha of Indian Parliament onwas approved after the government and Bentley. 22 December 2011 passed themoved a few other key amend- bill the Constitution (Scheduledments, including keeping the De- Rolta, an Indian company, supplied Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill,fence Forces and Coast Guard per- photogrammetry and geographical 2011 to amend the list of Scheduledsonnel out of the purview of the anti- information system software li- Tribes and add more tribes fromgraft ombudsman and increasing the censed from these firms to the Army North-Eastern India. The bill includesexemption time of former MPs from in 1996, integrating them into a six more tribes namely Thangal,five to seven years. A number of single package to meet MI17s spe- Zeme, Mate, Inpui, Liangmai,amendments moved by the Opposi- cific needs. From then to 2008, Rongmei from Manipur and substi-tion, including Corporates, Media things went well — when a new con- tutes Galo in place of Galong in theand NGOs receiving donations, were tract for 14 photogrammetry and list of Scheduled tribes in Arunachaldefeated. The government rejected geographical information system Pradesh. At present, 26 communitiesthe oppositions demand to bring CBI packages came up to be signed. The exist in the list of Scheduledunder Lokpal. earlier contract bound Rolta to pro- Tribes in Arunachal Pradesh, which vide software “updates and up- includes Galong as well. The Lok Regulation of Factor Sabha had passed the Bill on 19 grades” free of cost, as part of a (Assignments Receiv- maintenance contract. In 2008, December 2011. though, the phrasing was changed able) bill, 2011 Ap- to just “updates”— freeing Rolta of proved Indian Army Blinded the obligation to provide the most by Controversial recent software released by theRajya Sabha approved the Regula- Equipment original equipment manufacturer.tion of Factor (Assignments Receiv- Rolta was paid Rs.506.45 crore forable Bill, 2011) on 27 December The Indian Armys imagery interpre- equipment purchased between 19982011 to help micro, small and me- tation capabilities, critical to provid- and 2008. In addition, it receiveddium enterprises.The bill aims at ing information on the locations of annual maintenance contracts forregulating assignment of receiv- enemy troops and their military as- equipment purchased during thisables by making provision for regis- sets, have been compromised by period; as of December 2008, theirtration of the rights and obligations flawed contracts placed with a com- cumulative value was Rs. 40.66of parties to contract. It applies to pany that has failed to provide criti- crore per annum.all types of industry whether it is cal software upgrades, an investiga-small, medium or big. It will help tion by The Hindu has found. Docu- But by early this year, highly-placedmitigate the payment problem of the ments obtained by The Hindu from military sources said, MI17s image-MSME units. Factors will be regu- the Ministry of Defence show that processing speeds had fallen to justlated by the Reserve Bank of India. the firm responsible for supplying a seventh of those being obtainedThe Lok Sabha had already passed and integrating software used in by the National Technical Researchthe bill. critical image intelligence analysis Organisation, which also analyses was relieved of its responsibility to the same data using similar software provide free upgrades in 2008 — with the latest upgrades, Intergraph- and is now on the verge of receiving Erdas. The records of the contract a Rs.165-crore contract for the sup- negotiation committee, or CNC, ply of software it may no longer have show a series of questionable deci- 16 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 17. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : led to this outcome. In the sity seats. The approval will come Women in Clause 3. They also askedfourth meeting of the CNC, one in force from 1 January, 2012. It sug- for deletion of the word ‘Minoritiesmember noted that an odd change gests that minorities can get 4.5 jobs in Clause 3 and inclusion of Leaderhad been made to the name of the out of every 100 government jobs of Opposition in Rajya Sabha on Se-software being supplied to MI17: and university seats. As per the data lection Committee in Clause 4. They“the vendor,” he observed, “had released by the National Commis- also wanted Lokpal to appoint hisadded [the] company name ‘Rolta sion for Religious and Linguistic Mi- secretary and not select from ain all the software being provided by norities, the OBC population was 52 panel given by the government.him.” The change of name implied percent of India’s population, of The Communist Party of India (Marx-that the equipment being supplied which minorities constitute 8.4 per- ist) gave amendment for replace-was not the same as was purchased cent. Justice Rajinder Sachar Com- ment of eminent jurist on the Selec-in 1996, which would have necessi- mittee Report-released in November tion Committee with “an eminenttated fresh acquisition procedures to 2006- had found the minority com- person to be nominated by the Chiefbe initiated. munity under-represented in all Election Commissioner, Comptroller spheres of professional and public and Auditor General and Union Pub-Free Medicare For Poors life. lic Service Commission. They also in Maharashtra wanted the Inquiry Wing under the Notices for 187 Amend- Lokpal to be replaced by “Investiga-Maharashtra government will spend ments in Rajya Sabha tion Wing” with the Central govern-Rs. 800 crore on the first phase of a ment providing officers and staffhealth scheme for the poor, which Notice had been given for as many under exclusive jurisdiction of theis slated to benefit nearly 50 lakh as 187 amendments to the Lokpal Lokpal as decided in consultationfamilies from eight districts, and Lokayukta Bill, 2011 including with the Lokpal. The Party gave an-Maharashtra Deputy Chief Minister from the Trinamool Congress for other amendment for inclusion un-Ajit Pawar said at a function. Under deletion of the entire Part III of the der the Lokpal of “any corporatethe ‘Rajiv Gandhi Jeevandayee Bill regarding establishment of the body, its promoters, its officers in-Arogya Yojana, any family earning Lokayuktas. The Biju Janata Dal and cluding Director against whom therebelow Rs. 1 lakh per annum can get the Shiromani Akali Dal too had given is a complaint of corruption in rela-free medical treatment and care similar notices. By afternoon, the tion to grant of government licence,worth Rs. 1.5 lakh a year. Rajya Sabha had received 173 lease, contract, agreement or anyMaharashtra Chief Minister amendment notices. The number other action to influence govern-Prithviraj Chavan said that no other swelled to 187 by evening as an- ment policy through corrupt means.”State had implemented such a nounced by the Minister of State for They wanted Lokpal to take suoscheme on such a wide level. He, Personnel V. Narayanasamy. Nor- motu action in a compliant of cor-along with the Deputy Chief Minis- mally notices are taken 24 hours in ruption.ter and State Health Minister Suresh advance but on Thursday, noticesShetty distributed identity cards to were accepted till late evening, while Courts Can Interfere inneedy families from the city at the the government took the stand in the the Case offunction here. House that there were too many Contractual Job amendments which “needed consid- 4.5 Percent Quota For eration.” The Supreme Court of India on 20 Minorities Among major amendments were the December 2011 ruled that courts can ones given by the Bharatiya Janata interfere in the case of contractualThe Union cabinet of India on 22 Party for deletion of words “not less job if the decision taken by the man-December 2011 approved 4.5 per- than” 50 per cent of members of agement is arbitrary. A bench of thecent share for minorities within the Lokpal belonging to Scheduled apex court, however, said that scope27% OBC quota in jobs and univer- Castes, Scheduled tribes, Other of such judicial review is not all per- Backward Classes, Minorities and WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 17 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 18. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : It said a writ Court is entitled Ancient numbers in the vaamato gatih). The first digit atto judicially review of the action and land of Ramanujan right looking like the cross is the sym-determine whether there was any bol for 4. It is followed by the sym-illegality, perversity, unreasonable- Literary sources in Tamil mention bol for 100 (resembling the Brahminess, unfairness or irrationality that numbers only in words. However, we letter sa) and the last symbol at leftwould vitiate the action. The court do have ancient literary references is 8, incised in reversed direction.passed the order on a petition filed specifically mentioning eN (‘nu- As there is no accompanying text,by Grid Corporation of Orissa Ltd meral) as distinguished from we do not know the significance ofchallenging the Orissa High Courts ezhuttu (‘letter of the alphabet, for the number. The find is still interest-order. In its order Orissa high court example, Tolkappiyam 655.4, ing for the absence of the place-asked the grid corporation to rein- Tirukkural 392). But as palm leaf value system. The convention of us-state one of its employee whose manuscripts decay with time and ing symbols for 10, 100, and 1000 incontractual job was terminated. hardly last for more than 200 years, expressing the higher numerals was we have to turn to durable stone or current in Tamil Nadu until the ad- National Food Security pottery inscriptions to know what the vent of printing and the adoption of Bill approved ancient Tamil numerals looked like. the international form of Indian nu- We illustrate two of them here, one merals with place-value system. TheThe Union Cabinet of India on 18 from each class (Figs. 1 & 2). The pottery inscription is also good evi-December 2011 approved a draft oldest stone inscription featuring a dence for widespread literacy, in-National Food Security Bill that numeral is the Tamil-Brahmi cave cluding numeracy, in the ancientseeks to give legal entitlement of inscription from Tondur, near Tamil country.cheaper food-grains to 62.5 per cent Gingee, in Villupuram district, as-of the countrys population. The to- signed to about the 3rd century C.E. Animals also Entitled total financial liability to implement the (Fig. 1). The numeral 3 engraved at Accident Compensationlaw would be 3.5 lakh crore rupees, the end of a short two-line inscrip-as funds will be required to raise tion in the cave is represented by A bench of the Supreme Court in-agriculture production, create stor- three horizontal parallel lines. The cluding Justices BS Chauhan and TSage space and publicity among inscription records that the village Thakur on 16 December 2011 ruledothers. The bill aims to provide In- of Agalur gifted three stone beds in that even animals are entitled todian citizens access to nutritional the cave chiselled by Mosi. The gift accident compensation. The courtfood at affordable prices. This bill was made to the Jaina monks resi- upheld an award of 13.48 lakh ru-proposes to give a legal entitlement dent in the cave. The village still pees for the death of a temple el-to food to 75 percent of our rural exists with the same name Agalur, ephant. The animal was hit by apopulation and 50 percent of our near Tondur, both of which still have KSRTC (Kerala State Transport Cor-urban population. sizeable Jaina populations. The nu- poration) bus. The court refused to meral 3 has the same form as in con- accept the contention that the Mo-The bill also provides for 7 kg of rice, temporary Prakrit inscriptions in the tor Vehicles Act would be applicablewheat and coarse grains per person Brahmi script in North India. to human beings and not to animals.per month to priority households at It clarified that the definition of3 Rupees, 2 rupees and 1 rupee per A well-preserved pottery inscription property in the Motor Vehicles Actkg respectively. from Alagankulam near is very inclusive and wide. There- Rameswaram has only the numeral fore, animal should be included un- incised in fairly large size (Fig. 2). der this act. The court added that the The inscription is dated to the 1st or elephant was owned by the temple 2nd century C.E. The number is read and it was God’s property. 408, from right to left, following the ancient convention of reading the digits from the right (ankaanaam 18 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 19. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 5 Girls Gailed as ‘icons polyclinics. Initially, 227 polyclinics Kalam Favours by President had been approved by the Union Linking of Rivers Cabinet of India. Later, in 2008 an-The girls, with little education and other 199 polyclinics were sanc- Former President of India A.P.J. Abdulalmost no support, turned down tioned, out of which 20 are func- Kalam advocated interlinking riversmarriage proposals and faced the tional and 179 polyclinics are in vari- and dams to form a smart nationalanger of their families and the com- ous stages of implementation. Dur- water grid management scheme asmunity. Their stories of courage im- ing the year 2010-11, a total of 89 India cannot afford civil war or con-pressed the President so much that lakh patients attended the polyclin- flict over water. He said rivers, wa-she got them invited to the ics. With the commissioning of all terways and water resources mustRashtrapati Bhavan. They earned the sanctioned polyclinics, the en- be nationalised on the lines of roadspraise from the President, who de- tire fraternity of Ex-Servicemen and power sectors. “Water is nowscribed them as “icons” and asked would be covered comprehensively. in the control of States. It has to bethem to share their stories and en- linked by forming a national watercourage girls to say no to under-age Cable Television Net- grid management just like National marriages. For Afsana and Sunita, works Regulation Act Highways and power grid,” he was their second meeting with the amended Inaugurating ‘Agricon 2011, a con-President who encouraged them to ference on agriculture R&D trendscampaign against child marriage The Lok Sabha on 13 December 2011 2020, organised by CII, he said, “Wa-among their peers. unanimously passed a Bill to further ter cannot be a [source of] conflict amend theCable Television Net- in India. India cannot afford to haveWhile education opens up new av- works Regulation Act, 1995. It re- a civil war on water when we haveenues for the girl child, an early places a Presidential Ordinance of to work unitedly for development.marriage brings with it a cycle of 25 October, 2011. As per the Nation is bigger than the individualmisery, poor health and poverty, she amendments, there will be a check parties (political parties) and States.said. A young mother with children on objectionable contents. Indian rivers have to be operated byoften become victim of poor health Doordarshan will be able to provide the Army, Navy or the armed forcesand mortality. She urged the district more free-on-air channels in the for equitable distribution of water toauthorities to create more aware- DTH mode to audiences across the double food production.”ness of what the girls have done by country. Cable TV operators violat-taking them on a tour of their dis- ing the provisions of the Bill will face About 170 million hectare arabletrict during their school holidays to penalty. land will be reduced to 100 millioninspire others. hectare due to increasing population The legislation will reduce depen- growth and afforestation and envi-10 % of the Group B Posts dence on the television rating points, ronmental preservation activities, Dr in Paramilitary Forces to TRP. By 2014, the entire cable net- Kalam said and urged agricultural work will be digitized. Those Cable scientists and technologists to work Ex-Servicemen operators who will violate the Cable with organisations such as IFFCO to enhance average productivity perThe Union Ministry of Home Affairs Television Network Regulation hectare from 1.1 tonnes to 3.4agreed to fill 10% of the Group ‘B’ Act,1995 Government will have the tonnes of the available land for cul-posts in Central Paramilitary Forces right to consider about the continu- tivation with less need of water. Re-from among Ex-Servicemen. Pres- ity of the Licence of those cable op- ferring to precision farming projectently, the scheme caters to 38 lakh erators. Till date, this kind of provi- of the State, he said by doing thebeneficiaries including 12 lakhEx- sion was not in existence in the form right thing, in the right place at theServicemen and over 26 lakh depen- of Act. right time, Tamil Nadu had createddents. This scheme is currently be- a great awareness among the farm-ing implemented through 247 ers which gave higher productivity, WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 20. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : access and made farmers as Karnataka Now Third in moves, displaces, damages or de-entrepreneurs. Sugar Production stroys any pipeline, shall be punish- able with rigorous imprisonment ofWhen the entire nation was strug- Karnataka has now emerged as one a term which shall not be less thangling to achieve even two per cent of the top sugar producing States in one year, but which may extend togrowth in agriculture, Gujarat the country, after Maharashtra and three years and shall also be liableposted seven to nine per cent over Uttar Pradesh. The States sugar pro- to fine. Section 16 provides that of-the past six years. The Gujarat gov- duction has shot up to 37.14 lakh fence under sub-section 15 shall beernment was able to do it by imple- tonnes, an increase of 12.25 lakh deemed to be cognizable under thementing mission mode action. Dr. tonnes in just under a year, accord- Cod of Criminal Procedure,Kalam also cited Bihars experience ing to reports received in the State 1973. The proposed amendmentsin doubling the productivity and said headquarters about a fortnight ago. provide for higher quantum of pun-“these experiences clearly show that The sugar year commences in Octo- ishment in terms of imprisonment‘we can do it, but what we need is ber and ends in September. Even and provision for death penalty ina mission mode approach across the sugar recovery has improved dra- rare cases where the Act of sabo-nation with respect to agriculture; matically, and Karnataka now stands tage is dangerous and is likely toand we need a creative leadership second, after Maharashtra. Sugar cause death of any other person. Thewho has a vision for leading the sec- recovery is the yield of sugar for ev- Bill further proposes to amend sec-ond green revolution for the next 10 ery tonne of sugarcane crushed in tion 16 of the aforesaid Act to makeyears.” factories. The average recovery in the offences under sub-section (2), the State is now 10.95 per cent. It is (3) of section 15 of the said Act to Mullaperiyar Dam’s 11.50 per cent in Maharashtra and be cognizable and non-bailable. The Water Level Should Not 9.7 per cent in Uttar Pradesh. It was amendment to the act was neces- sary to prevent pilferage of petro- Exceed 136 Feet a happy augury that Karnataka had emerged as the third largest sugar leum by organized gangs and sabo- producer in the nation. It was only teurs.The Supreme Court of India directedTamil Nadu to ensure that the water some years ago that the State over-level in the Mullaperiyar dam does took Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Supreme Court directionnot exceed 136 feet but declined to Nadu. It now has almost 60 sugar for Night Shelters forentertain Kerala’s plea for reducing factories, a quantum jump over the Homeless Peoplethe level to 120 feet. A five-Judge past decade. Sugarcane productionConstitution Bench, headed by Jus- in the State has increased from 228 The Supreme Court directed statetice DK Jain gave the order. The Su- lakh tonnes to 339.03 lakh tonnes governments to build adequate num-preme Court asked Tamil Nadu and in just about a year although the ber of night shelter to ensure thatKerala to maintain restraint on their area under sugarcane has only mar- no homeless person has to sleepstatements on the Mullaperiyar dam ginally increased. under sky this winter. A bench of jus-row. Urging for sanity and sensitiv- Amendments to the Petroleum and tices Dalveer Bhandari and Justiceity, the court lamented that they were Minerals Pipeline Act Dipak Misra asked the governmentsadding fuel to the fire instead of The Lok Sabha on 12 December 2011 to file their detailed report by 3dousing it. The Bench also asked the passed the amendments to the Pe- January 2012 on the status of nightCentre to clarify its position on Tamil troleum and Minerals Pipelines (Ac- shelters, which are operating in theirNadus plea for deployment of Cen- quisition of Right of User in Land) states. The bench, which passedtral Industrial Security Force to pro- Act, 1962. The Bill aims to make separate orders for different states,tect the dam from possible vandal- provisions for sufficient deterrence asked the Chief Secretaries to en-ism. to criminals from committing the sure construction of sufficient num- offence of pilferage or sabotage. The ber of shelters for the homeless and existing sub-section (2) of section 15 poor people. provides that whoever willfully re- 20 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 21. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : NCT of Delhi Laws ning, monitoring, implementation tion. (Special Provisions) Bill and maintenance of water supply • The panel stated that Judicial Ac- schemes in the area with active par- countability Bill is meant to of 2011 ticipation of the villagers. The mem- strengthen the existing in-house pro- bership of the committee will con- cedure of the judiciary to deal withThe Lok Sabha on 12 December 2011 sist of 6 to 12 persons comprising wrong behaviour of judges.unanimously passed the National elected Panchayat members and at • The panel also recommended thatCapital Territory of Delhi Laws (Spe- least 50 percent women with due the former judges working as chair-cial Provisions) Bill of 2011, which representation to Scheduled castes persons and members of tribunalsgranted a three-year term extension and Tribes. The committee will be should also be brought under theto the Master Plan of Delhi (MPD). an integral part of the village NJC.It is meant to ensure continued panchayat. This initiative has been • It may also be given the power forimplementation of all the ongoing taken under the National Rural Drink- dismissal or removal of judges byschemes for its betterment. The re- ing Water Programme to decentral- relevant amendments in the consti-vised master plan of Delhi will have ize power and responsibilities and tution.a long-term vision of 25 years to to give greater focus on water andaddress the problems speciallyfaced by the weaker sections of the sanitation issues. Tamper-Free Highsociety. The government intends to Security Number Platesimplement the second phase of the Constitutional for VehiclesJawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Amendment to Set upMission after its current phase is NJC Suggested Supreme Court of India on 8 Decem-over. The objective of the bill is to ber 2011 directed all states to en-prevent sealing and demolition of The Parliamentary panel on law and sure vehicles carry tamper-free highunauthorised structures in Delhi tilljustice, headed by Abhishek Singhvi security number plates within four31 December, 2014. It seeks to stated that the Constitution should weeks. Giving last opportunity tomaintain the status quo regarding be amended to set up a National state governments to implement theunauthorised colonies, which in- Judicial Commission with powers to scheme, a bench of the apex courtcludes storages, warehouses, and initiate criminal prosecution and ruled that contempt proceedings willgodowns for farm produce, village sacking of corrupt judges. The con- be initiated against the state au-abadis (settlements)and their cluded that judiciary cannot be left thorities in case of non-complianceextensions.Commercial establish- unpoliced in matters of corruption. of the scheme within the time limitments in rural areas and urbanised The report prepared by the Parlia- fixed by it.villages of Delhi are expected to getmentary panel recommended set-a reprieve after the proposed bill isting up of a National Judicial Com- The bench added that no further timeenacted. mission (NJC) to create a broad- will be granted to put in force the based and comprehensive model of scheme and directed the state au- Village Water and judges appointments. If necessary it thorities to file their affidavits on Sanitation Committee in should include amendments in the compliance of its order within four Each Gram Panchayat Constitution in the process of com- weeks. The court passed the order prehensive model of judges appoint- on a PIL seeking its direction to in- ment. troduce tamper-proof number platesThe Government decided to set up Recommendations of the Parlia- and licences for vehicles.a village water and sanitation com- mentary Panelmittee in each Gram Panchayat, vil-lage and ward to ensure safe drink- • The NJC has to be entrusted withing water supply. The committee will powers of both transfer and crimi-be set up as a standing committee nal prosecution of judges for corrup-in each Gram Panchayat for plan- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 22. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Inspection of During the months of July-November bench of the Supreme Court includ- Mullaperiyar Dam by 2011, 25 earthquakes were reported ing Justices Aftab Alam and R M in the Mullaperiyar dam region . Lodha made the above observation.Empowered Committee Some of the earthquakes on 26 July and 18 and 26 November were more Section 497 of IPC: Section 497 ofThe Empowered Committee in its than magnitude 3 on the Richter IPC states that whoever has sexualmeeting on 5 December 2011 de- Scale. The highest magnitude 3.8 intercourse with a person who is andcided to send two technical mem- was recorded on 26 July 2011. The whom he knows or has reason tobers to inspect the Mullaperiyar frequent earthquakes caused panic believe to be the wife of anotherdam before finalising its report fol- among 50 lakh people in the down- man, without the consent or conniv-lowing apprehensions raised by stream region of the Periyar dam. ance of that man, such sexual inter-Kerala about the safety of the dam The fear was further heightened by course not amounting to the offenceafter mild tremors occurred in the the incessant rain in the catchments of rape, is guilty of the offence ofarea. The Empowered Committee is of Mullaperiyar shooting the storage adultery, and shall be punished withheaded by former Chief Justice of above 136 feet mandated by the pro- imprisonment of either descriptionIndia, A.S. Anand. The committee visions of the Amendment Act of for a term which may extend to fivehad conducted a spot inspection of 2006. If the Mullaperiyar dam breaks years, or with fine, or with both. Inthe dam in December 2010. During due to flood or earthquake, a mass such case, the wife shall not be pun-its meeting on 5 December, the com- disaster would follow, wherein not ishable as an abettor.mittee considered the reports of the only the life and property of 50 lakhstudies and investigations con-ducted by various agencies it con- people will be affected in Kerala, but 21 Anti-Retroviral lakhs of farmers of Tamil Nadu will Treatment Plus Centresstituted to study the dams safety. It also lose irrigation of about 2.5 lakhalso discussed the applications filed acres. Kerala therefore feels that The National AIDS Controlrespectively by Kerala and Tamil Tamil Nadu should agree for the con- Organisation (NACO) decided to rollNadu and took note of their submis- struction of a new dam offered by out 21 Anti-Retroviral Treatmentsions. Kerala as a precautionary measure. (ART) Plus centres to meet the in-The committee, according to Keralaought not to have relied on the Su- creasing demand of providing sec-preme Courts order as it was not Adultery Law ond line drugs to HIV patients whobarred from receiving evidence in Biased against Men failed to respond to treatment pro-respect of seismic threat to the vided previously. The NACO’s ARTdam. Following Kerala’s argument The Supreme Court of India on 1 programme is headed by Dr B Bthe committee agreed to hear the December 2011 stated that sec- Rewari. 21 more ART Plus centresStates arguments on this count. tion497 of the Indian penal Code is will be rolled out exclusively for suchSince Kerala filed an application for biased against men. The section HIV positive people who require sec-bringing on record the recent trem- punishes a man alone for adultery ond line drug therapy. 2600 peopleors and sought an oral hearing, the for having consensual sex with a are currently on second line drugscommittee decided to send two of married woman. As per the observa- for HIV as they were critical despiteits members to conduct a spot in- tion of the court, the provision of taking medication. Presently a totalspection of the dam. Keralas plea section 497 reduces a married of 4.48 lakh people are availing freefor oral hearing was also accepted. woman to a property of the husband of cost drugs at 324 ART centres.The committee directed Tamil Nadu and it punishes man only despite the Centres were proposed in Surat,and Kerala to make submissions on fact that the woman with whom he Patna, Guwahati, Lucknow,2 January 2012. On 3 January the had consensual sex was an equal Ahmedabad, and Jaipur. The govern-committee will consider the modali- partner in the alleged crime. The ment earmarked Rs 350 crore for theties for finalising its report to the court added that the provision is entire project of providing free ofSupreme Court. under criticism from certain sections cost drugs at all ART centres. Of for showing a strong gender bias. A these 21 centres, seven are already 22 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 23. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 10 centres had also been set up to provide the facility for second line drugs and seven paediatric HIVcentres in the country. In addition to the 324 ART centres and other second line ones, there are 678 link centresand 259 community care centres.NACO streeses on strengthening the link between the ART centres and more than 5000 Integrated Counsellingand Testing Centres where people are initially identified and detected with the virus. As per the National FamilyHealth Survey-3, there are 2.47 million HIV infected people in India of which 3.8 per cent are children. Nearly 40per cent of the people are unaware of their HIV status. According to NACO, there are around 30000 patientsavailing of medication in the private sector. The World AIDS Day theme was getting to zero, but for the NACO itwas also providing 100 per cent access to anti-retroviral drugs. (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL, IAS, Jobs, Results, Notification ALERTS in Email. Step-1: Fill Your Email address in LINK below. You will get a confirma- tion email within 10 min. Step-2: Verify your email by clicking on the link in the email. (IMP: check Inbox and Spam folders) Step-3: Done! Now you will regular Alerts on your email. Click Below Link to get Free Newsletter: WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 23 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 24. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : International Issues Pakistan Budges on the request to the Parliamentary Ban lifted by Committee. Meanwhile, the formal Bonn Meet Maldives on Spas communication to the U.S. asking it to vacate the Shamsi airbase hasPakistan on Wednesday hinted at the Maldives on 4 January 2012 lifted been sent with December 11 set aspossibility of participating in the ban on spas in the upmarket tourist the deadline. Pakistan has releasedcoming Bonn Conference on Af- destination following its verification footage of two posts which cameghanistan but ruled out any high- that these spas were not being used under fire from helicopters of thelevel representation on the ground for prostitution. Earlier, it was al- coalition forces in Afghanistan andthat Afghan soil had been used by leged that these spas were the hub wanted to know where the NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organisation of prostitution. Following this, the casualties were in case there was(NATO) to attack the country in what tourism ministry ordered all mas- firing from the Pakistani side.the Army calls a “deliberate” act of sage centres to close six days ago.aggression. Agreeing to consider The tourism industry is an importantGerman Chancellor Angela Merkels EU to ban Import of foreign exchange earner and em-repeated requests for Islamabads Iranian Crude Oil ployer in the Maldives and the banparticipation, Prime Minister Syed on spas could harm the industry.Yusuf Raza Gilani said he would re- The member states of European Maldives in 2011 received more thanfer the suggestion of having Union(EU) on 4 January 2012, 850000 tourists.Pakistans Ambassador in Germany agreed in principle to ban import ofattend the deliberations to the Par- Iranian crude oil to put pressure on Israel-Palestine talksliamentary Committee on National Iran for its nuclear programme. How-Security. Ms. Merkel called Mr. Gilani ever, the time-frame to implement The Israel-Palestine talks ended into impress upon him the importance this was not decided. The United the first week of January 2012 withof Pakistans participation at the States, which recently imposed fresh the international mediators frommeeting to make it meaningful. As sanctions on Iran, has welcomed the Quartet (the United Nations, theMr. Gilani was unwilling to budge on news. Meanwhile, Iran has dis- United States, the European Union,high-level participation, she sug- missed the threat of new sanctions and Russia) and Jordan ended with-gested the Ambassador be permit- and denies Western claims that it is out any breakthrough in Amman,ted to represent Pakistan so that its trying to develop a nuclear weapons capital of Jordan. The talks and theseat at the table was not left vacant. programme. Western powers accuse outcome were positive and the twoIn view of bilateral relations and the Iran of trying to develop nuclear sides agreed to carry forward thefact that the German Foreign Minis- weapons under the cover of a civil- discussions. The Amman round ofter was among the first to person- ian energy programme. The EU is one peace talks may not have yielded aally call his Pakistani counterpart to of Iran’s biggest markets for oil. This breakthrough, yet it has broken theexpress solidarity with Pakistan and generates most of the Iranian ice between the Israeli and Pales-condole the death of 24 Pakistan government’s revenue. China is the tinian sides to discuss resumptionArmy soldiers in the NATO firing at top buyer of Iranian oil.The EU is a of the stalled peace talks. IsraelPakistani outposts on Saturday political and economical union of 27 charged the Palestinians with rag-morning, Mr. Gilani agreed to refer member states. ing propaganda campaigns and uni- 24 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 25. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : diplomatic initiatives against cording to Googles Transparencyit while Palestine asked Israel to stop Report for January to June 2011, the security concerns, 14 due to imper-settlement construction and accept Internet search giant received re- sonation, three identified as porno-the 1967 borders. USA and Saudi quests from the Indian government graphic items, and one request dueArabia inked an Agreement worth – which seems to include State and to national security reasons. How-29.4 billion US Dollars Central governments, police and ever, the single largest category is courts – to remove 358 items. In a government criticism; apart from the 236 items on orkut, the government White Paper by China breakdown of reasons for such re- quests, 255 items were classified also asked for 19 items on YouTube under the “government criticism” to be removed on these grounds.China on 29 December 2011 issued category. It is not clear if Google Overall, Google says it complied fullya white paper entitled China’s Space would classify offensive items about or partially with 51 per cent of theActivities in 2011. The white paper a political leader under the category requests. “We received requestsis on the development of space in- of defamation or government criti- from state and local law enforce-dustry since 2006 and the major cism. Interestingly, the biggest ment agencies to remove YouTubetasks for the next five years. It was chunk of this is accounted for by a videos that displayed proteststhe third white paper on China’s single “request from a local law en- against social leaders or used offen-space activities. The white paper forcement agency to remove 236 sive language in reference to reli-was issued by the State Council In- communities and profiles from [so- gious leaders,” said the Google re-formation Office. China has made cial networking site] orkut that were port. “We declined the majority ofthe space industry an important part critical of a local politician.” Google these requests and only locally re-of the nation’s overall development did not identify this politician, but it stricted videos that appeared to vio-strategy with the objective of explor- did state that “we did not comply late local laws prohibiting speeching and utilizing outer space for with this request, since the content that could incite enmity betweenpeaceful purposes. The Major tasks did not violate our Community Stan- communities.”, which were listed in the white pa-per for the next five years include dards or local law.” Googles statis-space transportation system, Earth tics gain significance in the light of Iranian Embassy shutsatellites, human spaceflights and its alleged refusal to comply with the down by UKdeep-space exploration. The white Indian governments recent demandpaper stated that China would work to block the publication of incendi- The United Kingdom shut down thetogether with the international com- ary hate speech from its sites. On Iranian embassy in London and ex-munity to promote world peace and Monday, Union Minister for Commu- pelled all its staff in retaliation todevelopment. nications and Information Technol- the storming of the British diplo- ogy Kapil Sibal summoned execu- matic compound by an angry mob. India wanted 358 tives of Google, Yahoo, Facebook They were asked to leave the UK and Microsoft for a meeting after within 48 hours. The British govern- items removed they stonewalled repeated requests ment also shut its embassy in Iran to block incendiary communal ma- and evacuated the staff. France andIndia is one of only four countries terial being posted on social net- Germany have both recalled theirwhich, during the first half of 2011, working sites they operated. ambassadors to Iran for consulta-requested Google to remove content tions following the attack on the U.K.on the basis that it was critical of However, Googles Transparency embassy in Tehran.the government. Google refused to Report data seems to indicate thatcomply. The other countries were only 8 items were requested to be Arab League ObserversThailand and Turkey -- where Google removed under the category of hate in Syriarestricted local users from access- speech. Instead, 39 items were re-ing the offending content -- and the quested to be removed on grounds A team of 50 Arab League Observ-United States, where it refused. Ac- of defamation, 20 due to privacy and ers arrived in Damascus in Syria on WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 25 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 26. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : December 2011. The team con- 3400 dissident Iranians will be themselves in by blocking roads withsisting of experts from Algeria and shifted to Camp Liberty, a former U.S. trees and rocks. The siege of WukanTunisia is led by Sudanese General military base near the Baghdad In- was the denouement of more thanMustafa Daby. It would take about a ternational Airport. three months of protests over landweek for Arab League to find out if acquisition, seen as the biggestthe peace plan is being implemented CSTO agreed to driver of the more than 180,000in totality. The Arab Observer mis- Tighten Rules “mass incidents” Chinese authori-sion to monitor the implementation ties record every year.of League mediated peace plan The leaders of the CSTO (Collectivewould visit the worst hit cities in Security Treaty Organisation) na- Local authorities had recently ap-phases. However, the group will tions on 21 December 2011 agreed peared willing to address grievancesmaintain an element of surprise by that the deployment of foreign bases over what villagers said was inad-only announcing the specific areas in their territory would be done with equate land compensation, whenthey would be visiting on the same the approval of all partners of the they welcomed a group of residents,day of departure. The 50-member defence alliance. The CSTO summit elected by the local community togroup consists of politicians, law- was held in Moscow. Besides represent the farmers interests, tomakers and military officials. They Belarus and Kazakhstan, CSTO in- negotiate. However, the chief nego-will split themselves into ten groups cludes Armenia, Russia, Tajikistan, tiator, Xue Jinbo, was subsequentlyfor different cities. The team is likelyKyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. held by authorities and died in cus-to visit Homs amidst reports of kill- Kazakhstan succeeded Belarus as tody this week. The Lufeng city gov-ings of 23 people by the security the President of CSTO. However, the ernment, which oversees Wukan,forces. CSTO agreement does not apply to said in a statement he died of heart existing facilities such as a German problems, though Wukans residentsIranian Exiles in Iraq to be relocated air transit facility in Uzbekistan, widely suspected he was murderedThe United Nations (UN) and the French military aircraft in Tajikistan while in custody. Following XuesIraqi Government on 24 December and US transit centre in Kyrgyzstan. death and after months of stalled2011 signed an agreement to relo- negotiations with local officials, thecate Iranian exiles living in a camp residents of Wukan decided enough A unique protest inin northeastern part of Iraq. The Iraqi was enough, storming the local po-government has been insisting on China lice station and clashing with police.closing the camp by the end of this By Wednesday, authorities had beenmonth. Under the agreement, UN It is the farmers who are usually driven out of the village, with bothHigh Commission for Refugees will evicted in land conflicts in Chinas the local police station as well asmonitor the relocation while Iraqi villages. But in the southern Chinese the Communist Partys local officesGovernment will be responsible for village of Wukan this week, a first- reported as being deserted, andtheir security. UNHCR would decide of-its-kind rebellion by 20,000 villag- Wukan village — in a likely first inthe refugee status for the residents ers over a land conflict has forced Chinas modern history — being en-of Ashraf here. This will be the first out the entire local government, tirely controlled and administered bystep toward resettlement to the Communist Party leadership and its residents.third countries other than the native police forces, sparking clashes thator the host countries. Camp Ashraf resulted in an unprecedented siege Villagers in Wukan have demandedwas the base of dissident Iranians of the village, located in prosperous that officials return Xues body, asled by the Peoples Mujahedeen Or- southern Guangdong province, on well as suspend plans to acquireganization of Iran. The group moved Wednesday. According to accounts lands for a development project. Itto Camp Ashraf during the regime from witnesses posted on Chinese remains unclear whether the localof Saddam Hussein and sided with websites, the village has now been officials will concede to the de-Iraq in the war against Iran in the surrounded by thousands of riot po- mands, or on the other hand use1980s. The camp, now home to over lice, while villagers had barricaded greater force to disperse the pro- 26 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 27. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : This weeks incident came as to 34th position in 2011 while Sri was “requested to accept a pleaChinas highest leaders met in Lanka ranked 8th. Bangladesh was bargain between the parties cover-Beijing for an annual economic work placed at 78th position and Nepal ing sentences, the allocation ofconference. The meeting, chaired by at 84th. Thailand was the most gen- costs, the forfeiture of assets andPresident Hu Jintao, concluded with erous nation, with 85 per cent of its other matters”.a declaration that the focus of people. The United Kingdom was theChinas economic development in second most generous nation, with Sanctions on Libya liftedthe coming year would be “making 79 per cent regularly giving to by USAprogress while maintaining stabil- charity.Charities Aid Foundation’sity.” World Giving Index ranked nations The USA government on 16 Decem- on the strength of monetary dona- ber 2011 lifted most of its sanctions Hillary Clinton visited tions and charitable acts. on Libya, unfreezing some of Libyas Myanmar assets held in the United States. The Switzerland may Free USA government freed about 30 bil-Making a diplomatically risky trip to Nuclear Smugglers lion dollars in assets owned by thethe long-isolated Southeast Asian Libyan government and 2 Libyannation of Myanmar, U.S. Secretary of In an unexpected turn of events, banks that had been blocked sinceState Hillary Rodham Clinton said Swiss authorities announced a de- February. But holdings of the lateshe wanted to see for herself cision to enter into a plea bargain leader Muammar al-Qadhafi and hiswhether new civilian leaders were with the notorious Tinner family family, as well as those of his aides,truly ready to throw off 50 years of members, who have been in jail over will be kept frozen. The US decisionmilitary dictatorship a test that in- nuclear smuggling charges in the il- coincided with a similar action by thecludes rare face-to-face meetings licit network of disgraced Pakistani UN Security Council, which decidedwith former members of the junta. scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan. The to end a freeze on the assets ofDuring her visit, Ms. Clinton will also Tinners, Friedrich and his two sons Libyas financial institutions, includ-encourage Myanmar to sever mili- Urs and Marco, were also accused ing the central bank.tary and nuclear ties with North Ko- of being informants for the CIA andrea. Ms. Clinton arrived in the capi- one of the father-sons team was Fai Pleads Guilty total of Naypyidaw on the first trip by actually said to have been a CIA con- Conspiracya U.S. Secretary of State to Myanmar tractor. The Office of the Attorneyin more than 50 years. She is to General of Switzerland has noted Syed Ghulam Nabi Fai (62), ameet senior Myanmar officials on that it had formally filed charges Kashmiri-origin U.S. citizen arrestedThursday before heading to the com- against the Tinnners under the War by the Federal Bureau of Investiga-mercial capital of Yangon, where she Material Act, an indictment based on tion on July 19, 2011 for allegedlywill see opposition leader Aung San their alleged aiding of “the illegal acting as an unregistered lobbyist ofSuu Kyi. nuclear weapons programme of an Pakistans Inter-Services Intelli- unknown state through various ac- gence, pleaded guilty to conspiracy Most Uncharitable Na- tivities”. and tax violations. Fais guilty pleation in South Asia is India pertained to a decades-long scheme However, the Swiss authority also to conceal the transfer of at leastAs per the Charities Aid Foundation’s sought to close the case against the $3.5 million from the government ofWorld Giving Index, India ranked as Tinners after the courts found ver- Pakistan to fund his lobbying effortsthe most uncharitable nation of dicts of guilt “in relation to offences in America related to Kashmir, theSouth Asia in 2011. India is the worst under the WMA and against one of U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ) saidperformer in South Asia with a glo- the sons for forgery of documents”. in a statement. Specifically Faibal ranking of 91. India was ranked The prosecutors said the proceed- pleaded guilty on two counts ofat 134 in 2010. Pakistan was ranked ings in respect of other offences had “criminal information,” the DoJ re- already been dropped and the court WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 27 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 28. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs :, explaining that the first count Sanctions on Libya’s world supply and demand of oil.was conspiracy to falsify, conceal Central Bank lifted by OPEC is an organisation of twelveand cover up material facts he had oil-exporting countries consisting of UNSCa duty to disclose; and to defraud Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudithe Treasury Department by imped- Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, The UN Security Council on 16 De-ing the lawful functions of the IRS in Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Libya, cember 2011 lifted sanctions onthe collection of revenue. The sec- Algeria and Ecuador. The Libyas central bank and theond count to which he admitted guilt organisation has its headquarters in countrys foreign investmentswas the charge of endeavouring to Vienna since 1965, and hosts regu- banks. The move is aimed at easingimpede the administration of tax lar meetings among the oil ministers the current cash crisis in Libya. Thelaws. In a case that rocked the al- of its member nations. United States has also lifted mostready dismal U.S.-Pakistan relation- of the sanctions against Tripoli. Theship over the summer the arrest of Libyan banks assets abroad were India signed LoanFai was followed by revelations that Agreement with ADB frozen in early 2011 as part of sanc-he had served as the Director of the tions against former Libyan leaderKashmiri American Council (KAC), a Col. Muammer Gaddafi. The USA The Government of India and thenon-governmental organisation in rolled back most sanctions on the Asian Development Bank (ADB) onWashington, D.C. government of Libya to keep its com- 15 December 2011 signed an agree- mitment to the Libyan people. ment for the first tranche (113 mil-NATO ended its Training lion US dollars) under the 350 mil- Mission in Iraq OPEC to increase its lion US dollars Himachal Pradesh Clean Energy Transmission Invest- ProductionNATO ended its training mission in ment Programme, which is a multi-Iraq on 17 December 2011. The mis- tranche financing facility. The total OPEC, (The Organisation of the Pe-sion was aimed at assisting in the estimated investment cost of the troleum Exporting Countries) in itsdevelopment of Iraqi security forces programme is 437.85 million US summit held in Vienna, on 14 De-training structures and institutions. dollars which includes financing of cember 2011 decided to increase itsIt was comprised of 120 soldiers 87.85 million US dollars by the state production ceiling to 30 million bar-from 12 countries. All of them will govt. of Himachal Pradesh. The rels a day, which is the first changeleave by the end of 2012. The move programme is for the upgradation of in three years. Earlier, the produc-follows a day after US military transmission system to help tion output was 24.88 million bar-handed over the last military base Himachal Pradesh take greater ad- rels per day. OPEC agreed to the newin Iraq and officially announced vantage of its vast hydropower re- limit but it wont set individual quo-shutdown of its operations in the sources. It will help expand the sup- tas for each member country. OPECcountry. ply of power to industry, commerce is increasing its quota to match up and households, within and outside actual production. The last OPECEarlier, the alliance had been asked the state, and thereby contribute to summit in June failed to reach con-by Prime Minister Maliki to extend job creation and poverty reduction. sensus when six members includingits training mission until the end of Iran and Venezuela opposed the idea to pump more oil by Saudi US Mission in Iraq ended2013 and it had accepted the requestin principle. However, Baghdad Arabia and three other Gulf coun-made it clear that it cant grant im- tries, who increased their oil produc- The US military officially ended itsmunity to the soldiers on its own as tion to make up for Libyan exports mission in Iraq on 15 Decemberthe matter has to be taken to the which was stopped following the 2011. As per Pentagon statistics,cabinet and then parliament for ap- approximately 4487 US soldiers lost civil war.proval. OPEC will need to produce 30.1 mil- their lives in Iraq war, with another lion barrels a day in 2012 to balance 32226 Americans wounded in action. 28 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 29. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : the official declaration of for Economic Cooperation Develop- providing for the exchange of taxending its mission in Iraq, US mili- ment – Rintaro Tamaki. The ITD is a information.tary still has two bases in Iraq and joint initiative of various4000 troops. While in 2007, there organisations working on tax issues Japan decided towere 505 bases and more than – the IMF, the OECD, the World Bank, Impose Sanctions170000 troops. However, these two the European Commission, the IADB, Against Iranmilitary bases will be closed and the and CIAT. This conference providesfinal US troops will be withdrawn by an opportunity to address how taxa- Japan announced on 9 December31 December 2011. tion can be seen as a part of the 2011 that it is imposing a fresh solution to growing inequalities in round of financial sanctions against Veiled Women barred income and wealth around the Iran. Japan will freeze the assets of From taking Oath of world. The use of plenary and paral- 106 organizations, one individual Citizenship by Canada lel sessions, with active country par- and three Iranian banks. ticipation, allows a peer dialogue More than 350 Iran-based entities between Ministers of Finance andThe Government of Canada an- are now subject to Japanese sanc- Heads of Revenue Administrationnounced on 12 December 2011 that tions. However, the move will not internationally.women who aspire for Canadian citi- restrict imports of Iranian crude oil,zenship can’t wear burqa or Islamic a step many Western nations havehijab when they take oath of citizen- Issued discussed been urging. Resource-starved Ja-ship. Belgium, France, Australia and • Design of growth-enhancing and pan relies on Iranian oil for 10 per-Netherlands have also banned equitable tax systems cent of its energy supply.women from covering their face in • Administrative challenges, issuespublic. The government received and solutions for fair tax systems New Sanctions againstcomplaints from lawmakers and • Income taxes, progressivity and Syria by Turkeyjudges that they found it difficult to inequality across regionsknow whether women who masked • Fair tax systems: vital for state- Turkey on 8 December 2011 an-their faces were actually reciting the building and an exit from aid depen- nounced a new set of sanctionsoath or not. dency • Informality, inequality and the Role against Syria. Turkey would impose of the tax systems 30 percent tax on goods coming 4th International Tax from Syria. The move as a response • Gender friendly tax systems and Dialogue inequality to Damascus imposing 30 percent • Taxation of elites and inequality customs duty on goods importedThe 4th International Tax Dialogue from Turkey besides suspending the(ITD), a global conference on Tax and free trade agreement with Ankara. HighlightsInequality was inaugurated by the Turkey earlier announced a series of • More global cooperation is re-Finance Ministry of India from 7 economic sanctions on Syria for its quired to tackle black money in In-December to 9 December 2011. In- crackdown on anti-regime protests. dia: annual illicit capital outflowsdian Finance Minister Pranab These include an immediate ban on from emerging and developingMukherjee inaugurated the three- transactions with the Syrian Govern- economies has been estimated atday Tax meet. More than 400 senior ment and its central bank and freez- $725-810 billiontax policymakers from almost 90 ing the Syrian government assets in • Direct Taxes Code (DTC) has beencountries attended it including Turkey. Turkey has also been seek- proposed in India: DTC seeks to re-Deputy Managing Director of the ing alternative routes to bypass Syria place the archaic Income Tax Act,International Monetary Fund – Min for trade with the Middle East. The 1961 and thereby modernize theZhu, World Bank Vice President – Turkish government was considering taxation regime. It’s supposed to beOtaviano Canuto, and Deputy Sec- three alternative routes through implemented from 1 April 2012retary General of the Organization Egypt’s Alexandria, Lebanon and • Uruguay signed 7 new agreements Iraq to bye pass Syria. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 29 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 30. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : by the Asoka Mission. The new body Austerity budget was named as the International Bud- For 2012 Approved in dhist Confederation which was de- cided to be based in India as Bud- Greece dhists all over the world recognize India as the home of Buddha. ThisGreek Parliament on 7 December move could be proved to be an im-2011 approved a budget for 2012 portant one for a diplomatic rowpledging tough fiscal goals de- between India and China.manded by European Union partnersin return for fresh loans. The aus-terity budget projects a modest pri-mary surplus excluding interest pay-ments on debt. A broad majority ofthe parties backing LucasPapademos caretaker administra-tion secured the economicblueprints passage by 258 votes to41, after the vote concluded. Greekhas been relying on loans from othereurozone countries and the IMF (In-ternational Monetary Fund) sinceMay 2010. In return, Greece cutsalaries and pensions and hike taxesto reduce budget deficits. New InternationalBuddhist Organization in India to be setupThe first Global Buddhist Congrega-tion which was aimed to provide ajoint platform to Buddhist commu-nities across the world and also toimpact geo-politics in Asia was con-cluded in New Delhi on 30 Novem-ber 2011. The four-day congregationdecided to set up a new interna-tional Buddhist organization in India.It was attended by heads and repre-sentatives from Buddhist Sanghas,national Buddhist federations, orga-nizations and institutions from 46different countries of the world. Theinternational Buddhist organizationin India is to serve as a common plat-form for Buddhists worldwide. Thecongregation in India was organized 30 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 31. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Economic Issues extreme volatility in the rupee. loan, which his Ministry to gather Foreign Exchange Re- resources to give thrust to the • The second reason is the dollar serves slipped below has been appreciating against all Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana $300-billion currencies. (PMGSY). The ADB, which has al- ready extended a loan of $800 mil-According to data released by the Special drawing rights (SDRs) and lion was petitioned with a fresh pro-Reserve Bank on 6 January 2012, the reserve position in the Interna- posal for rural connectivity invest-foreign exchange reserves fell by tional Monetary Fund (IMF) also fell. ment programme to construct orover $4.18 billion to $296.69 billion, While SDRs came down by $19 mil- upgrade 7000 km of roads connect-slipping below the long-held $300- lion to $4.4 billion, the reserve posi- ing eligible habitations in Maoist-billion mark in te week ended 30 tion in the IMF was down by $12 affected States of Bihar,December 2011. The drop in the re- million to $2.7 billion. Some experts Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh,serves was attributed to the fall in opined that the dip in foreign ex- Odisha, West Bengal, besidesthe core foreign currency assets change reserve also resulted from Assam where too the PMGSY has(FCAs) and gold reserves. The over- the payout on account of government progressed with little to cheer.all reserves slipped by $1.23 billion expenditure might be accentuatingto $300.86 billion in the previous the fall. While during September- The demand for the loan was madereporting week. FCAs, a major com- December 2011, fall in the foreign in the backdrop of the MoRDs multi-ponent of the forex kitty, fell by $2.72 exchange reserves was around $24 winged programmes in the left wingbillion to $262.93 billion for the week billion, the reserves fell by $34 bil- extremism-affected areas, underended 30 December. Gold reserves lion in the comparable period of which Central forces assist execu-were down by $1.42 billion to $26.62 2008. tion of welfare and developmentbillion. Faced with massive volatil- schemes to wean the local peopleity in the rupee the value of which ADB Loan to Finance from the path of naxalism. The MoRDeroded by 20 per cent since August has been providing incentives and Road Projects in2011, the apex bank resorted sell- assistance to the local people, par-ing dollar reserves to limit or arrest Naxal-hit Areas ticularly tribals, to reduce povertythe depreciation. The reserves de- and ensure economic growth of theclined by $24 billion since early Sep-The Union government in January region. Rural connectivity is consid-tember 2011. The foreign exchange 2012 cleared an external loan to fi- ered pivotal to the success of thiskitty stood at $321 billion on 2 Sep- nance part of the programme stratagem. As per the programmetember 2011. The dip was primarily launched by the Ministry of Rural proposed by the MoRD, the Uniondue to revaluation in foreign currencyDevelopment in left wing extrem- government will supplement with aassets and a fall in the value of goldism-affected villages. The clearance contribution of $127.6 million, inreserves. is for a loan of $500 million from the addition to the $5000 million to fi- Asian Development Bank (ADB) to nance the project that includes set-Two strong reasons was identified speed up construction of rural roads. ting up of training and research cen-for the fall in the reserves: Union Ministry of Rural Develop- tres pertaining to rural roads.• The first one is the continuous in- ment (MoRD) issued directions fortervention by the regulator to curb negotiating and early signing of the WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 31 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 32. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : sitions are in sync with their liabili- the maturity of the investment. AnyIRDA introduced Uniform ties, risk profiles and solvency posi- revisions in interest rates in the sub- Asset-liability tions. The guidelines, which would sequent years would only be appli- come into effect from 1 April 2012, cable to the investments made in Management Norms make it mandatory for insurance the relevant period.However, the companies to prepare an ALM policy rate of interest for the 15-year PPFInsurance regulator IRDA on 4 Janu- as well as get it approved by the In- scheme would not remain fixed forary 2012 introduced uniform asset- surance Regulatory and Develop- the entire period as the interest ac-liability management norms for mar- ment Authority (IRDA) by end of cruals in the PPF account each yearket players to ensure their solvency. March 2012. would vary, depending on the inter-Insurance Regulatory and Develop- est rate announced for that particu-ment Authority (IRDA) announced abroadly-defined uniform framework Benefits of ALM Policy lar year. For PPF, the interest rate fixed every year will be applicablefor reporting asset liability manage- The Asset-Liability Management to all PPF accounts.ment activities adopted by life andnon-life insurance companies. The (ALM) norms are critical for the sound management of the finances The government had hiked the inter-regulator also asked firms to under- of the insurers that invest to meet est rates on small savings depositstake stress tests to ascertain their their future cash flow needs and schemes of various maturities withability to meet financial obligations capital requirements. The ALM effect from 1 December 2011 toin the event of a crisis. IRDA has is- policy will enable the insurers to chanel the outflow of funds fromsued these guidelines to bring about understand the risks they are ex- small savings schemes administereduniformity in the ALM norms being posed to and develop ALM policies by the National Small Savings Fundfollowed by both life and non-life to manage them effectively. The (NSSF) in view of the investor pref-insurance companies. ALM can be used to measure the erence for bank term deposits.IRDA guidelines: The IRDA guide- interest rate risk faced by insurers. The clarification from the Financelines require the ALM (asset liabil- No Floating Interest Ministry came in the face of fearsity management) policy to be ap- that the revision of interest rates onproved by the board of the insurer. Rates on Small Savings small savings schemes from 1 De-Such board-approved policy is to be Schemes cember 2011, are floating rates andsubmitted to the IRDA within 90 that the rates will undergo changedays. While approving the ALM The Finace Ministry on 4 January in sync with fluctuations in yields onpolicy, the board is to take into ac- 2012 clarified that the rates appli- government securities. It had alsocount the asset-liability relation- cable on small savings instruments hiked the interest rates on PPF de-ships, the insurers overall risk tol- schemes would be announced on posits from 8 per cent to 8.6 per centerance, risk and return needs, sol- April 1 each year and the rate would while raising the ceiling on annualvency positions and liquidity require- remain valid till the maturity of the contributions to the fund to Rs.1 lakhments. The guidelines also make it scheme. The Ministry stated that from Rs.70000. Interest rates onmandatory for the board to fre- barring the Public Provident Fund Post Office Savings Accounts rose toquently review the ALM policy of the (PPF), the rates of interest on all 4 per cent from 3.5 per cent. Simi-insurer. Any change in the policy small savings schemes will remain larly, interest rates on deposits ofmust be reported to the regulator. fixed throughout the tenure of in- various maturities of one year, twoUnder the uniform framework, insur- vestment. To clear the confusion years and five years too were raiseders have to put in place an effective over the returns on investment in from December.mechanism to monitor and manage small savings schemes, the Financetheir asset-liability positions. The Ministry pointed out that the rateobjective is to ensure that their in- prevailing at the time of investmentsvestment activities and assets po- will remain fixed and unchanged till 32 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 33. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : emphasised on Ca- Defence Scientific Information & of the net liabilities of the system, pacity Constraint Documentation Centre (DESIDOC)s or around Rs 55000 crore. main function is collection, process-The report of the Department of Tele- ing and dissemination of relevant SEBI allowed Auctioningcommunications, prepared by the technical information for DRDO sci- of Securities through entists. It also provides secure e-working group on Telecom for the Stock Exchanges12th F ive Year Plan (2012-17), mail and Internet connectivity toemphasised on the the urgent need DRDO labs through the networks of The capital market regulator SEBI onfor creating a secure infrastructure ERNET (of Dept. of Electronics) and 3 January 2012 allowed auctioningfor government communication. The NICNET (of the Planning Commis- of securities through stock ex-security of governemnt communica- sion). changes and introduced a newtion need to be ensured by an alter- method for institutional placementnative mechanism because neither Liquidity Eased by RBI of stocks. The move was directed tois it advisable to wait for such a kick-start governments divesmentmandating and capacity building nor The Reserve Bank of India on 3 Janu- programme as well as help promot-is it appropriate to rely on the level ary 2011 decided to conduct an open ers of companies to sell a part ofof security provided by such a market operation (OMO) to inject their holdings. As per the auction-scheme given that communication more liquidity into the system. The ing route, a special window can bewill continue to remain in the open RBI will buy up to Rs 12000 crore of used by promoter stakeholders todomain of Internet. The report high- government bonds via open market sell at least 1% of the paid-up capi-lighted the capacity constraint of the operations on 6 January 2012, includ- tal of a company. It is similar to thecurrent Indian system that allows ing the 10-year paper which till re- block-deal mechanism for secondarytraffic to flow outside the country. cently was the benchmark paper. The stock market transactions, but withAs per the report an investment of central bank has decided to ease li- lesser restrictions. The auctionRs.450 crore is needed to develop quidity by buying back gilts for an method can be only used by promot-and deploy a pan-India secure net- amount of R10,000 crore in the back- ers of top 100 companies based onwork and network-based services drop of banks accessing the Reserve average market capitalisation forsuch as email, VoIP mobile commu- Bank of India (RBI)’s borrowing win- sale of their stakes.nication through a survivable and dow for more than R1 lakh croreavailable network architecture for each day. RBI announced an auction Institutional Placement Programmesecured communication for govern- for R10,000 crore worth of bonds, Under the institutional placementment use. Rs.300 crore is to be spent otherwise known as open market programme (IPP), shares can be soldon establishing a fixed and wireless operation (OMO). only to qualified institutional buy-communication system for high se- ers. Exchanges will provide a sepa-curity of classified government com- The OMO announcement came af- rate window for the offer for sale ofmunication, Rs.100 crore would be ter the market trading hours. the shares which will co-exist with thespent for operational expenditure for Reserve Bank of India decided to normal trading hours. promoter orthe next five years and Rs.50 crore conduct open market operations promoter group of companies how-for research and development. consistent with the stance of the ever will not be allowed to bid for monetary policy and based on the the shares. Allotment will be doneThe Defence Research and Develop- current assessment of prevailing either on price priority or clearingment Organisation (DRDO) has an and evolving liquidity conditions. price basis proportionately andinternal system of communication Banks have been borrowing in ex- would be overseen by the ex-that acts like a private Internet sys- cess of R 1 lakh crore a day from the changes. SEBI’s measure is consid-tem, connecting various centres RBIs liquidity adjustment facility ered to be very progressive step to-working on crucial defence projects, (LAF) or repo window. The liquidity wards creating an organised andthus securing it from any kind of deficit in the system in recent weeks effective mechanism that will nothacking or interception. Also, the has been way beyond the limit of 1% only facilitate fund raising but also WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 33 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 34. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : companies to comply with the the bill in its earlier avatar during goods movement, forcing the gov-listing norms in a non-disruptive the UPA I regime faced resistance. ernment to defer it repeatedly. Rail-manner. There shall be at least 10 Those who had opposed the bill then way Ministry is of the opinion thatallottees in every IPP issuance. No especially the Left parties argued any levy on freight service wouldsingle investor shall receive allot- that options would increase specu- adversely impact the industry. Move-ment for more than 25% of the offer lation in commodities. The report ment of coal and cement among oth-size. suggested that options will actually ers goods would become costlier make it easier for farmers and with the imposition of service tax. Bill to Amend Forward smaller users to participate in the Contracts Regulation derivatives market as trading lot RIL’s $1.529 billion In- sizes will be lower than in futures vestment Plan approved Act 1952 contracts, where the minimum traded quantity for most farm prod- The Union government on 3 JanuaryThe Parliamentary Standing Commit- ucts is 10 tonne. 2012 approved Reliance Industriestee submitted its report on a bill toamend the Forward Contracts Regu- (RIL) $1.529 billion investment plan investing in an option also tends to for developing four satellite fields inlation Act 1952. Parliamentary minimise losses as only the premium the flagging KG-D6 block. RIL’s in-Standing Committee on consumer to buy (call option) or sell (put op- vestment plan will boost falling out-affairs, food and public distribution, tion) is forgone in the event of prices put in the Krishna-Godavari Basinchaired by Congress MP Vilas moving adversely. a futures position KG-D6 block. The investment pro-Baburao Muttemwar, submitted its taken by a trader is on the other hand posal was signed by the three part-report on the FCRA (Amendment) Bill marked to market daily. Marking to ners in the block- RIL, UKs BP Plc2010 to Parliament on 22 December market involves daily settlement of and Niko Resources of Canada and2011. The current department-re- the difference between the prior the representative of DGH. The KG-lated standing committee (DRSC), agreed price and the daily futures D6 block oversight committee, whichset up in 2009, was asked by the Lok price. It can thus lead to huge losses includes officials from the Oil Min-Sabha speaker in December 2010 to alongside supernormal profits. istry and its technical arm, the Di-prepare a report on the bill and sub-mit it to the Lok Sabha Secretariat. rectorate General of HydrocarbonsThe committee in its report recom- Implementation (DGH), met for the third time in threemended a doubling of the maximum of Levy on Railway months on 3 January to finally ap-penalty for trading rule violations to Freight Service deferred prove the proposal. The MC ap-Rs 50 lakh. The standing committee proval, which is the final approvalreport suggested raising the upper The implementation of levy on rail- an operator needs before beginninglimit on penalties for offences like way freight service was put off once work, put a cap on the cost of devel-insider trading to Rs 50 lakh from Rs again in the backdrop of high infla- oping the four fields that surround25 lakh stipulated in the Forward tion. The levy is now likely to come the currently producing Dhirubhai-1Contracts Regulation Act (FCRA) into force from 1 April instead of 1 and 3 (D-1 & D-3) fields in the KG-Amendment Bill 2010. Insider trad- January as announced earlier. The D6 block. The cost cannot vary bying involves using unpublished price levy on transport of goods by rail more than 15%. The MC had at itssensitive information for personal was deferred for the sixth time. Fi- two previous meetings in Novembergain. nance Minister Pranab Mukherjee in and December 2011 refused to ap- the 2010-11 Union Budget had prove the field development plan Report brought transport of goods by rail- (FDP) for the Dhirubhai-2, 6, 19 andThe report recommended that op- way under the service tax net from 22 (D-2, D-6, D-19 and D-22) fieldstions be introduced for the benefit 1 April 2010. However, the proposal after the government representativeof stakeholders. The inclusion of the was vehemently opposed by Railway raised certain objections. RIL agreedclause was one of the reasons why Ministry fearing adverse impact on to cap spending on the four fields at $1.529 billion, plus or minus 15%. 34 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 35. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : four fields can produce 10 mil- RBI allowed NRIs to 97.75% in NEPA. BRPSE alsolion cubic metres of gas per day by hedge their Currency favoured the waiving off NEPAs in-2016, which will help shore up out- terest and statutory dues worth Rs Risk in respect of ECBput from the block, which has seen 304 crore. The Board for Reconstruc-a 35% decline in production in the tion of Public Sector Enterprises sug- The Reserve Bank of India on 29past 15 months. gestion was made to NEPAs admin- December 2011 allowed non-resi- istrative ministry, the Department of dents to hedge their currency risk in Export Duty on Iron Ore respect of external commercial bor- Heavy Industry. BRPSE suggested Exports raised the department to infuse Rs 175 rowings (ECB) denominated in ru- crore in the form of fresh equity to pees, with AD Category-I (authorisedThe Union government raised the ad dealer) banks in India. The apex meet part-finance of total expendi-valorem duty (export duty) on iron bank mentioned that the amount and ture of Rs 318 crore for Revival andore exports to 30 per cent from 20 tenor of the hedge cannot not ex- Mill Development Plan (RMDP).per cent. The decision is expected ceed that of the underlying transac- It also recommended sanction ofto step up finances of cash-strapped tion. Besides, it should be in conso- non-plan loan of Rs 22.48 crore to-government by around Rs 8500-9000 nance with the extant regulations wards cash loss from production forcrore. The Federation of Indian Min- regarding tenor of payment or the first year of production. Theeral Industries, the apex body of realisation of the proceeds. The Madhya Pradesh-based companyminers however complained that In- NGOs suffered a loss of Rs 70.40 crore in (non-Governmentdian ore would no longer be com- organisations) 2010-11. engaged inpetitive internationally. The increase microfinance activities were permit-in export tax could lower the profit ted to avail themselves of ECBs des- Union Governmentmargin of Sesa Goa Ltd., Indias larg- ignated in Indian rupee under the Quadrupled Limits onest iron-ore exporter by volume. automatic route from overseas LoansShipments from the South Asian organisations and individuals as percountry decreased 28% between the ECB guidelines. According to the The Union government quadrupledApril and November to 40 million RBI, once cancelled the contracts (four times) the limits on loans thattons, according to the Federation of cannot be rebooked. The contracts a bank’s internal committee can ap-Indian Mineral Industries. may, however, be rolled over on or prove. The giovernment’s move is before maturity. On cancellation of expected to quicken credit clearanceVolumes were hit by a mining ban in the contracts, gains may be passed at 26 state-run banks, including thethe southern state of Karnataka, a on to the customer. Bank of Baroda and Punjab Nationalfreeze on sale of old stocks in west- Bank. The government directedern Goa state and transport bottle- Financial Package banks to set up a credit approvalnecks in the eastern state of Orissa. committee — comprising chairman, of Rs 257 croreIndia exported 97.64 million tons iron executive directors and three chiefore in 2012. The Supreme Court had Recommended for NEPA general managers who is to handlein early 2011 banned mining in the credit, finance and risk managementmajor iron-ore producing districts of The Board for Reconstruction of Pub- functions. The group can approveKarnataka to prevent illegal mining lic Sector Enterprises (BRPSE) rec- credit proposals up to Rs 400 crore.and environmental damage. In Goa, ommended a financial package of Rs Currently, any loan above Rs 100moves to reduce environmental im- 257 crore to revive the sick news- crore has to be vetted by the man-pact and illegal mining affected pro- print unit NEPA. The initiative was agement committee of the board,duction. The two states account for taken after the government shelved which meet once a month, or 20around 70% of Indias iron-ore ex- its plan to divest majority stake in days. Under the old regime, a man-ports. the company and revive it through a agement committee of the board, joint venture with the private which included a Reserve Bank of sector. The government holds India nominee and two independent WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 35 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 36. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : appointed by rotation, the ity to meet corporate and infrastruc- The Commission accepted the TRAIsbank’s chairman and managing di- ture funding needs, and to rescue recommendations on spectrum shar-rector and executive directors, took distressed lenders. However, it pre- ing as well. The spectrum sharingthese decisions. The prescribed scribed a non-operative bank hold- would be permitted between any twolimit is applicable on Category A ing company structure to avoid cre- licensees holding spectrum, subjectbanks with a business of Rs 3 lakh ation of complex institutions. to the condition that the total band-crore, while smaller public sector width would not cross the permis-banks can use the same structure to Uniform Licence Fee of 8 sible limit under mergers. The per-approve loans up to Rs 250 crore. If % of AGR recommended mission would be for five years, sub-a loan under consideration is higher ject to renewal for one more term ofthan these limits, it would be take Telecom Commission, the decision- five years. As per the new regula-to the management board. making body of the Department of tion, pre-2008 operators will need to Telecommunications recommended pay one-time additional spectrum RBI Ordered Banks to a uniform licence fee of 8 per cent charge. The operators are currently Keep More Capital of adjusted gross revenues (AGR). paying about 6-10%, depending on the circles they operate in. The new For Investments in Uniform license fee of 8 % was rec- ommended as against the prevalent figure of 8% is much more than what Financial Entities the TRAI had earlier suggested at rate of 6-8 per cent depending upon the type of service and circle a firm 6%.The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) or-dered banks to set aside more capi- is operating. The Commission’s move will put more financial pres- Cheques to be issuedtal for their investments in financialentities such as insurance with an sure on telecom operators. The conforming to Chequeobjective to strengthens the ring Telecom Commission is also likely to Truncation System 2010fence around banks. However the impose one-time charges on extra Standardmove can strain capital resources 2G spectrum that operators havewhich are increasingly getting been holding beyond the contractual The Reserve Bank on 27 Decemberscarce. The RBI proposed the raise limit of 6.2 MHz. The Telecom Regu- 2011 directed all banks to issuein risk weight to prevent banks from latory Authority of India (TRAI) also cheques conforming to Cheque Trun-getting affected because of their recommended a charge of 8 per cent cation System (CTS) 2010 standardholdings in other finance entities. of AGR for deciding the license fee. with uniform features from 1 AprilThe banks are to set aside 25% more TRAI recommended that each MHz 2012 onwards. All banks providingcapital following the central bank of additional spectrum (beyond 6.2 cheque facility to their customersraise of the risk weight for buying or MHz of contractual radio waves) held were advised to issue only CTS-2010holding of equity in financial enti- by operators should have one-time standard cheques not later than 1ties. Banks’ investments in paid-up cost of Rs.4571.87 crore (pan-India). April 2012 on priority basis in north-equity of financial entities, even if The Telecom Commission futher ern and southern region. The two-they are exempted from the capital specified that in future additional northern and southern region will bemarket exposure norms, will thus be spectrum would be allotted through part of the northern and southernassigned a 125 percent risk weight. the auction route. CTS grids respectively. CTS-2010The proposal is expected to lead standard cheques are to be issuedbanks, which at present set aside Rs The Telecom Commission had ac- by banks across the country by 309 for every Rs 100 of investment in cepted the TRAI recommendation on September 2012 through a timefinancial entities, to keep aside merger and acquisition (M&A), bound action plan. The Indian Banksabout Rs 11. RBI opined that con- which according to the Commission Association ( IBA) and National Pay-solidation in the banking sector would help consolidation of the mo- ment Corporation of India ( NPCI)would pave the way for stronger fi- bile sector that currently has around were vested with the responsibilitynancial institutions with the capac- a dozen players, the highest in the of coordinating and implementing world. 36 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 37. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : uniform cheque standard across requirement. The NBFCs can thus est consumer of tea imports teathe country by all participating participate in the credit default swap leaves solely for re-export to otherbanks. market only as users. As users, the countries. The dip in imports there- NBFCs would be permitted only to fore signals lower re-exports. The Need for the CTS hedge their credit risk on corporate inbound shipments of tea from mostThe introduction of new cheque stan- bonds they hold. However, they are countries, except Argentina, Iran anddards CTS 2010 was needed on not permitted to sell protection. They the UK, registered a decline in theaccount of several developments in are therefore not permitted to enter first seven months of the 2011-12the cheque clearing: growing use of into short positions in the credit de- financial year. India imports teamulti-city and payable-at-par fault contracts. NBFCs are however largely from Kenya, Malawi, Nepal,cheques at any branch of a bank, permitted to exit their bought CDS Argentina, Iran, Sri Lanka, China andincreasing popularity of Speed Clear- positions by unwinding them with Indonesia, among other for local processing of outstation the original counter-party or by as- India is the second-biggest producercheques and implementation of grid signing them in favour of buyer of of tea in the world and accounts forbased Cheque Truncation System the underlying bond. RBI also tight- about 28% of global output and 14%(CTS) for image-based cheque pro- ened the capital adequacy norms for of trade. There are around 1600 teacessing etc. all NBFCs. The rule tightening exer- estates in India and the industry cise comes in the wake of their employs more than two million Advantage of the CTS stepped-up exposure to off- balance people.The new cheque standard CTS 2010 sheet items. The RBI revised capitalwith set of minimum security fea- adequacy norms for non-banking fi- IT Sector created mosttures will ensure uniformity across nance companies (NBFCs) with an Jobs in the last 5 Yearsall cheque forms issued by banks in objective to improve their capacitythe country as well as help present- and help manage off-balance sheet The information technology (IT) sec-ing banks while scrutinising and exposure. The regulatory framework tor led by the top three listed com-recognising cheques of drawee was expanded to have greater panies, TCS, Infosys and Wipro, cre-banks in an image-based process- granularity in the risk weights and ated the most jobs in the five yearsing scenario, RBI said in a notifica- credit conversion factors for differ- ending 2011 compared with othertion. The homogeneity in security ent types of off-balance sheet items. sectors. Increased employment infeatures is also expected to act as a In the normal course of their busi- the sector was boosted by an overdeterrent against cheque frauds. ness, NBFCs are exposed to credit two-fold jump in aggregate revenue.Also, the standardisation of field and market risks due to asset-liabil- The data is based on the hiring trendplacements on cheque forms would ity transformation as the Indian mar- of a sample of 600 listed companiesenable straight-through-processing kets are now more integrated with that reported annual financials alongboth under CTS and MICR clearing. global ones. with headcount information since 2006. The findings provide a reflec- RBI tightened the Tea Imports Declined tion of the changing trend in India’s Capital Adequacy GDP composition. There was a According to the Tea Board data re- marked shift from the agrarian Norms for all NBFCs leased in December 2011, tea im- phase to the services phase. The ports declined by 14 per cent to 9.91 data revealed that the proportion ofThe Reserve Bank on 26 December million kg in the April-October pe- services sector jobs in the total2011 tightened the prudential norms riod of 2011. Imports of the brew fell headcount of the sample rose tofor the non-banking financial com- by 15% to 14.15 million kg from 46.5% in 2011 from 41.8% in 2006.panies (NBFCs) under which the 16.57 million kg in January-October The sample companies also ex-NBFCs will have to account for risks 2010. The country had imported panded the aggregate headcount bytowards off-balance sheet items 11.55 million kg of tea in same pe- 48% to 43.8 lakh employees be-while computing capital adequacy riod in 2010. India, the worlds larg- tween 2006 and 2011. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 37 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 38. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : showed acreage to be the same in trum in the high-priced sale. IT Sector Uttar Pradesh and higher by 3% in Bharti has 3G bandwidth in 13 ofThe analysis by Economic Times (ET) Maharashtra as compared to the fig- Indias 22 telecom zones while IdeaIntelligence Group of the trend in job ures projected by the ministry of has access in 11 areas andcreation by the organised sector re- agriculture for the two states. Ac- Vodafones India unit in nine. Theflected the rising clout of services cording to the satellite data, acre- announcement by the ministry dealtcompanies. Of the 14.3 lakh jobs age for 2011-12 has been estimated a a blow to the companies, whichcreated between Financial 2006 and at 51.82 lakh hectare. The figure is had hoped to recover their 3G auc-2011, over 8 lakh (56%) were added higher than the estimates made tion payments by providing high-pre-by companies in the services sec- manually by the sugar industry at mium 3G data services across thetors, which includes banking and fi- 50.79 lakh hectare, by the ministry country in Indias fiercely competi-nance, healthcare, hospitality, tech- of agriculture at 50.93 lakh hectare tive telecom market.nology, telecom, trading and retail. and the ministry of food and publicThese companies created four out distribution at 50.25 lakh hectare. Earlier operators had noted that inof seven jobs in the country over the India joined the ranks of major sugar case they could not offer nationwidepast five years thereby outpacing the producers such as Brazil and Thai- roaming, the government should re-manufacturing sector. IT sector play- land in leveraging remote sensing fund the sums paid for 3G spectrumers led the service sector, adding as technology to estimate the cane or restage the auction as it wouldmany as 4.5 lakh employees. TCS, area. alter the basis on which 3G bidsInfosys and Wipro together added were made. Third-generation ser-2.4 lakh people, or more than half Illegal Mutual Roaming vices, or 3G, allow mobile phonethe total additions for the sector. Agreements to be Scrap users to surf the Internet, video con- ference and download music, video First Pan-India Indias telecom ministry on 22 De- and other content at a much faster Satellite Survey cember 2011 informed mobile phone pace than the current second-gen- operators that they must scrap ille- eration service offered in India.The first pan-India satellite survey gal mutual roaming agreements thatjointly commissioned by Indian allow them to provide seamless na- The government had reaped $15 bil-Sugar Mills Association (ISMA) and tionwide 3G services. As per the lion from auctioning the 3G licencesthe National Federation of Co-opera- ministry, the pacts that let the op- in 2010. Bharti and Idea paid 123tive Sugar Factories Ltd (NFCSF) erators offer 3G services outside billion rupees ($2.3 billion) for li-pegged the cane area for 2011-12 their licensed zones are in violation cences while Vodafone paid 116 bil-crop year starting October at 51.82 of terms and conditions of their li- lion rupees. Indian telecom compa- cences. nies which currently generate onlylakh hectares (lh). For the first time small revenues from data servicesthe survey was carried out State-wise and district-wise for the area The government complained that expect the market to grow exponen-under sugarcane, through satellite telecom operators wereusing the 3G tially as less than 10 percent of themapping on such a large-scale. Sat- roaming deals to offer services in 1.2 billion population has access toellite images of the cane area pro- areas where they have not paid for Internet at the moment.cured from the National Remote the spectrum. Leading mobile opera- tors such as Bharti Airtel, Vodafone India has some 881.4 million mobileSensing Agency, Hyderabad, were and Idea Cellular had struck deals and 33.2 million fixed-line subscrib-analysed using the Geographical In- with each other to offer ultra-fast 3G ers with total teledensity at 76, upformation Systems software by services in areas where they did not from 2.5 in 2000.South India-based firm. A satellitemapping of sugarcane acreage car- acquire spectrum in a costly band-ried out for the first time across In- width auction in 2010. The firmsdia showed an increase of 3% over entered into the deals because nonethe government estimate. The data could afford nationwide 3G spec- 38 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 39. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Moodys upgraded be above average with respect to BSE’s market cap currently at Rs Credit Rating of Indian the similarly rated peers. Giving the 52.53 lakh crore, India’s market cap rationale for the upgrade, Moodys in dollar terms works out to $993 Governments Bonds mentioned that diverse sources of billion. On 28 May 2007, when the Indian growth have enhanced its re- rupee was showing unusual strengthCredit rating agency Moodys on 21 silience to global shocks. The against the dollar and hoveredDecember 2011 upgraded the credit present slowdown could reverse around the 40 mark that India hadrating of the Indian governments some time in 2012-13, as inflation first entered the $1-trillion marketbonds from the speculative to in- cools from the current 9 per cent lev- cap league. However, lately the twinvestment grade. According to a re- els. Moody’s upgrade is expected to effect of rupee’s weakness and thelease issued by the Finance Minis- attract Foreign Institutional Inves- slide of the market combined to dragtry, Moodys unified Indias local and tors (FIIs) to the Indian bond market it below the trillion dollar mark. Ac-foreign currency bond ratings at and boost the gloomy economic out- cording to Bloomberg data, India’sBaa3. The ratings agency initially look. The last time Moodys up- market cap so far in 2011 went downhad separate rating for investors graded any Indian long-term sover- by 38%, making it the worst per-who choose to buy bonds in foreign eign debt instrument from the forming market among the 12 coun-currency and separate rating for speculative to investment grade was tries that were in the trillion dollarthose who have a rupee exposure. in 2004. club.the ratings agency had a Baa3 for-eign currency rating and a Ba1 localcurrency rating till September 2011. India exited from Indias Energy Security $1 trillion Group Under PressureMoodys Investor Service upgradedits local currency rating for Indian Fears of continuing economic slow- As per a joint study by the Federa-government bonds to Baa3 which is down, lack of decision making at the tion of Indian Chambers of Com-investment grade as compared to centre, rising fiscal deficit combined merce and Industry ( FICCI) andthe earlier Ba1 which is junk or with not-so-impressive revenue col- consultancy firm Ernst and Young,speculative grade. Indias Baa3 rat- lections upset Dalal Street investors Indias energy security is under se-ing incorporates credit strengths on 20 December 2011 leading to a vere pressure due to reasons likesuch as a large, diversified economy, 204 points loss in sensex to end at increasing dependence on importedrobust medium term growth pros- 15175. The loss of 204 points repre- oil, regulatory uncertainty and natu-pects and a strong domestic savings sented a 28-month low for the in- ral gas pricing policies. The reportpool that facilitates the financing dex and its fifth consecutive session mentioned that a small pool ofand refinancing of the governments of losses, during which it has lost skilled manpower and poor up-relatively high debt burden. Indias 827 points, or 5.2%. The day’s slide stream infrastructure are also exert-foreign currency bond ceiling is un- was triggered by FII selling which ing pressure.changed at Baa2, and the foreign recorded a net outflow of Rs 526currency bank deposit ceiling is crore, taking the month’s total net ReportBaa3. The local currency bond and outflow to about Rs 1300 crore. The According to the report, there existsbank deposit ceilings are unified at Indian rupee which had weakened a dire need to address the supplyA1. In addition, the governments further to go below 53 to a US dollar issue through a slew of policy re-local currency short-term rating has level again, closed at level of Rs forms, as well as to launch a mas-been changed to P-3 from NP, indi- 52.89 on 19 December 2011. sive awareness campaign on thecating the governments ability to demand side management, and therepay short-term debts. The combined effect of the market’s pricing of products to incentivise in- slide and the depreciation of the ru- vestments for raising domestic pro-Moodys expected Indias growth pee forced India to exit from the se- duction. As per the Integrated Energydownturn to persist for the next two lect group of countries with a $1 tril- Policy of the Government, Indiasquarters, but the GDP growth would lion market capitalization. With requirement of primary commercial WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 39 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 40. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : is projected to increase from production.The DGH gave its approv- tial growth of 25.2% over the previ-551 million tonne of oil equivalent als to commence production from ous quarter(april-June quarter).in 2011-12 to 1823 mt of oil equiva- Bhagyam, along with both the man- However there was a sharp declinelent in 2031-32. agement committee and the opera- in the mobile service subscription tions committee. The management adds during July-Sept 2011.The increase in oil price by $10 a committee comprises Cairn India,barrel is likely to slow the GDP ONGC and representatives of the According to the release, the over-growth by 0.2 per cent and may in- DGH and the petroleum minister all, smartphones shipment for theflate the current account deficit by while the OC is composed of only JV India market showed an impressive0.4 per cent. Also, the recent depre- partners Cairn India and ONGC. growth of 21.4% over the previousciation of the rupee raised the crude The representatives of the oil min- quarter and 51.5% year-on-year. Thisoil imports costs, impacting trade istry also gave their in-principle nod helped the segment grow its contri-deficit and domestic inflation. Con- to commence production. Currently, bution to the mobile phone shipmentsequently the import of crude oil and Mangala, the biggest of the 18 dis- to 6.5% in third quarter from 5.6% inoil products rose from $50.3 billion coveries in the Rajasthan block, is the second quarter. From an operat-in 2005-06 to $115.9 billion in 2010- producing 125000 bpd. Bhagyam is ing system (OS) perspective, Android11. In the current financial year (till targeted to produce a peak output overtook Symbian to emerge as theOctober 2011), oil imports touched of 40000 bpd by the end of 2011, top platform in India for the first$75 billion. The country meets 73 which would help Cairn achieve the time, with a share of 42.4% of thepercent of its fuel needs through oil approved peak output of up to smartphone market. The platformimports. 175000 bpd. The approvals were (Android) saw a growth of 90% over stuck for more than a year as previ- the previous quarter. The Apple iOS Suggestions Made ously, the ministry wanted all prior consolidated further, with a 3.09%The study sugggested the need to entitlement issues related to the share of the smartphone market,introduce reform and favourable Vedanta deal to be resolved before compared to a share of 2.6% in sec-policies for the private sector to se- giving Cairn a go-ahead to start pro- ond quarter (April-June) of 2011.cure foreign oil and gas assets. In- duction from the oil field.dia, though has surplus oil refining Repo Ratecapacity, it still needs major invest- Indian Mobile Phone Unchanged at 8.5 %ments to upgrade the existing pro- Market grew 12%duction infrastructure. It also The Reserve Bank of India on 16stressed on the need to shore up the According to the International Data December 2011 left its policy rateenergy security initiatives in an en- Corporations (IDC) Quarter 3 2011 unchanged at a three-year high ofvironment of unstable geopolitical Mobile Phone Tracker release, the 8.5 per cent. RBI paused the hikesituation in the Middle East and Indian mobile phone market grew after 13 consecutive rate hikes sinceNorth Africa, from where India gets 12% in units shipped in the July-Sep- March 2010. The Reserve Bank of60 percent of its oil imports. tember quarter of 2011 to clock India kept its policy repo rate un- 47.07 million units. Year-on-year too, changed at 8.5 percent at its mid-DGH approved Cairn India’s Proposal there was a shipment growth of quarter review two days after dataThe directorate general of hydrocar- 13.8%. The shipments were pro- showed November wholesale pricebons (DGH), the technical arm of the pelled by the dual-SIM handsets, index inflation at 9.11 percent, faroil ministry approved Cairn India’s which grew by 25.2 per cent over the lower than the 9.73 percent clockedproposal to commence production previous quarter (April-June). The in October. The RBI also left the cashfrom Bhagyam, the second-largest mobile phone shipments witnessed reserve ratio unchanged at 6 percent,oil field in the Rajasthan block. The a spurt, as vendors built channel in- despite market specualtion that itcompany, which currently operates ventories ahead of a long festival might cut the ratio in order to boostthe block with a 70% stake, waited season. Dual-SIM handset ship- market liquidity. The central bankfor a year to obtain approvals to start ments were notable with a sequen- noted that while inflation remained 40 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 41. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : the projected trajectory, down- lio managers. Intermediaries would proposed an alternative slab system,side risks to growth clearly in- be responsible for reporting any sus- which will bring down expense ratiocreased. It reiterated that further picious transactions to the Financial with a proportionate increase in therate hikes might not be warranted Intelligence Unit or other competent asset base of the fund. There willas the growth momentum was mod- authority in respect of activities car-be no change in expense ratios oferating. ried out by the third parties. debt funds. The panel suggested SEBI to come out with wider slabRetaining its option to raise rates Recommendation of limits which bring down expenses onagain if inflationary expectations SEBI’s Committee on MF large funds even further. Expensepersist, the RBI mentioned that the ratio is more than important in debttiming and magnitude of further ac- A committee on mutual funds, con- schemes where the rate of return istion would depend on how things stituted by SEBI in December 2011 not high. In the case of equity funds,panned out on the inflation and ru- recommended to the regulator’s the expense ratio becomes criticalpee fronts. board to break down the bifurcation in times of lacklustre markets. within the fee structure known asRBI’s policy statement stated that expense ratio. According to the com- CIL’s Board approvedinflation risks remain high and infla- mittee the measure will allow mu- Acquisition of Stakestion could quickly recur as a result tual funds to manage their expensesof both supply and demand forces. better and possibly improve their The worlds largest coal miner CoalAlso, the rupee remains under profits. In the absence of bifurca- India Ltd (CILs) board on 14 Decem-stress. The central bank that the tions within the expense ratio, fund ber 2011 approved a proposal toGDP growth declined to 6.9 per cent houses will try to reduce recurring acquire stakes in unlisted firmsin the second quarter (July-Septem- expenses which, in turn, will increase overseas, provided the offers wereber) from 7.7 per cent in the first their profitability. Currently mutual valid. The proposal was approved in(April-June), and key deficit indica- funds are allowed to charge up to the wake of Finance Ministry’s ap-tors worsened mainly due to higher 2.25% as expense ratio. Of the 2.25% proval for the public sector firm toexpenditure and lower revenues. charged as expense ratio, fund proceed with its plan to acquire un-Noting that liquidity conditions were houses are allowed to accept only listed firms overseas. CIL plans totight, consistent with the policy in- 1.25% as asset management take up three offers - in Australia,tent, the RBI mentioned that it would charges. The remaining 1% has to Indonesia and the US. The PSU putconduct open market operations as be mandatorily used to meet recur- together a war-chest of Rs.6,000and when it felt the need for it. ring expenses, which include pay- crore for acquisition of mines. b CIL ment of annual trail fees, auditor & sought clarifications from the Fi- SEBI Directed registrar charges and dealing nance Ministry before entering into Intermediaries charges to empanelled brokers. discussions with owners, having re- Funds with large corpuses currently ceived proposals offering an IRRMarket regulator SEBI on 15 Decem- charge 1.75% as expenses charges. between 9 percent and 12 percent.ber 2011 directed intermediaries not There exists scope for these funds CIL had request for a relaxation into outsource their core business ac- to charge lower expense ratios. The the PSU guidelines stipulating ativities and compliance functions. SEBI panel also suggested that mu- minimum 12 percent internal rate ofAccording to SEBI, core business tual funds, with higher assets under return (IRR) on investments. In re-activities may include execution of management, will have to bring sponse to the request, the Financeorders and monitoring of trading down their expense ratio proportion- Ministry mentioned that CIL couldactivities of clients in case of stock ately. SEBI was suggested to keep proceed with such proposals, if theybrokers, dematerialisation of secu- overall scheme expenses unchanged are of strategic nature, and subjectrities in case of depositary partici- at 2.25% for schemes with assets to government clearance. CIL alsopants, investment-related activities under management not exceeding sought to sidestep the rule that onlyin case of mutual funds and portfo- Rs 400 crore. Panel members aslo the mines of listed companies WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 41 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 42. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : be acquired, which was per- As a result of the revision the ear- the desired effect and could exposemitted by the Finance Ministry. lier 75 per cent facility stands re- the economy to global vulnerability. duced to 25 per cent of the limit as The standing panel pointed out in its RBI announced Non- compounded by above for importers report that the proposal to increase direct Intervention who avail themselves of the past the FDI cap to 49 per cent in insur- performance facility. If importers ance companies appeared to have Measures have already used up in excess of been decided upon without any the revised or reduced facility, they sound and objective analysis of theThe Reserve Bank of India an- will not be allowed further bookings. status of the insurance sector fol-nounced non-direct intervention the RBI also specified that this fa- lowing liberalisation.measures in the wake of steady cility will be available on fully deliv-weakening of the rupee against the erable basis only. The RBI reduced Increased role of foreign capital itdollar. The non-direct intervention the net overnight open position limit was feared would lead to the possi-measures are aimed at curbing (NOOPL) of authorised dealers bility of exposing the economy to thespeculative positions in the foreign across the board with an objective vulnerabilities of the global market,exchange market. Re-booking can- to prevent speculations in the for- flight of capital outside the countrycelled forward contracts, whatever eign exchange market. It asserted and also endanger the interest of thethe type and tenor of the underlying that the intra-day open position/ policy holders. The governmentsexposure, by resident and foreign daylight limit of authorised dealers move was also opposed by both in-institutional investors has been dis- should not exceed the RBI-approved surance regulator IRDA and GIPSAallowed. Forward contracts booked NOOPL. The apex bank indicated on grounds that that foreign insur-to hedge current account transac- that these arrangements would be ers would be at an advantage overtions regardless of the tenor were reviewed periodically in line with the their domestic counterparts in theallowed to be cancelled and evolving market conditions. matter of regulations.rebooked. Such facility was alsoavailable to hedge capital accounttransactions that were falling due 49% FDI in Insurance Health insurancewithin one year. The apex bank Sector rejected Businessthrough the new measures made itclear that forward contracts once A parliamentary committee on 13 The panel also rejected the proposalcancelled cannot be rebooked. The December 2011 rejected almost all to halve the minimum paid up capi-central bank also modified the cur- the key changes proposed in the In- tal required to start exclusive healthrency risk hedging norms for import- surance Laws (Amendment) Bill insurance business to Rs 50 crore.ers and exporters. 2008, including the key reform to The committee mentioned that the allow 49% foreign direct investment amount may be inadequate as anImporters were earlier allowed to in the sector. The the Insurance insurance company needs to be fullyhedge currency risk on the basis of Laws (Amendment) Bill was intro- equipped with modern infrastructurea declaration of an exposure based duced in the Rajya Sabha in Decem- and other facilities. Another proposalon past performance up to the aver- ber 2008 to bring about improvement to empower the insurance compa-age of the previous three financial and revision of laws pertaining to the nies to appoint agents and do awayyears actual import/export turnover insurance sector in the changed sce- with the system of licensing ofor the previous years import/export nario of private sector participation agents by the regulator, IRDA, wasturnover, whichever is higher. Also, and was subsequently referred to rejected. The panel maintained thecontracts booked in excess of 75 per the standing committee. The panel measure is inappropriate andcent of the eligible limit were to be headed by BJP leader and former fraught with the danger of leadingon a deliverable basis and could not Finance Minister (during NDA re- to ineffective regulation of the pro-be cancelled. The apex bank revised gime) Yashwant Sinha maintained fession, particularly in instances ofthese norms. that the move to hike the FDI cap in unscrupulous act on the part of the the insurance sector might not have agents as also insurance companies. 42 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 43. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : of Textile Companies to ness vis-a-vis polyester (a substitute dia increased to 881.4 million byImprove. for cotton) thereby limiting the flex- October 2011 from 873.61 million in ibility of MMF players to pass on the September 2011 registering a growthCRISIL Research released its report hike in the costs of their inputs, of 0.89%. The overall teledensityon profitability of textile companies which are derivatives of crude oil. (telephones per 100 people) in In-on 14 December 2011. According to CRISIL Research covered seven tex- dia reached 76.03%. Telecom opera-the research firm, profitability of tile stocks– Nahar Spinning Mills and tors added 7.79 million mobile sub-cotton yarn and man-made fibre Maharaja Shree Umaid Mills in the scribers in October 2011, taking the(MMF) players are expected to im- cotton yarn segment, JBF Industries total number of telephone users inprove over the next few quarters on , Sangam (India) , Alok Industries and the country to 914.59 million. Theaccount of decline in input costs and Shri Lakshmi Cotsyn in the MMF seg- number of active mobile subscribers,moderate demand growth. During ment, Kewal Kiran in the RMG space. according to the visitor location reg-the first quarter of 2011-12, the tex- Of these, most companies have a ister (VLR) data, during the monthtiles companies witnessed severe valuation grade of 5/5, indicating that of was 626.18 million. VLR numbersprofitability pressures which led to these stocks have a strong upside provide details on active customerssignificant erosion in their market (more than 25%). at any given point of time, exclud-capitalisation. cotton yarn and MMF ing switched-off and out-of-the-cov-players have registered a negative CCEA approved erage area customers.return of 48% and 37%, respectively National Electricity Fundin the past one year. CRISIL Research Performance by theopined that the current valuation of The Cabinet Committee on Economic Telecom Operatorsplayers discounts the current nega- Affairs( CCEA) on 13 December 2011tive sentiments around the sector approvednational electricity fund to The growth in the wireless categoryand offers good scope for upside. provide subsidy of 8466 crore rupees was led by Uninor, which added 2.66Also, stocks of ready-made garment for projects of electricity distribution million new users, taking its sub-(RMG) companies are fairly priced sector for a period of 14 years. The scriber base to 32.31 million by thein spite of being at historical highs, fund will be operational within a end of October 2011. Tataas they offer relatively high and period of six months to one year. The Teleservices on the other hand loststable returns among the textile fund is being set up to provide in- 0.93 million and its subscriber basecompanies during the present uncer- terest subsidy on loans to be dis- stood at 87.83 million. The country’stain times. The stocks of branded bursed to the distribution companies largest private operator Bharti AirtelRMG companies have out-performed both in the private and the public added 0.94 million subscribers, tak-the S&P CNX NIFTY significantly and sector. The objective is to improve ing its user base to 173.73 million.posted 25% return on a one-year the distribution network for areas not Vodafone added 0.92 million newbasis. covered by Rajiv Gandhi Gramin customers to take its user base to Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY) and 145.91 million. Idea Cellular andThe slow-down in demand in both Restructured Accelerated Power Aircel added 1.63 million and 0.48domestic and export markets and Development and Reforms million users, respectively, duringthe anticipation of a spurt in global Programme (R-APDRP) project ar- the period. Ideas subscriber basecotton production resulted in sharp eas. stood at 101.81 million at the endcorrection in cotton and yarn prices of October 2011, while that of Aircelin the first half of 2011-12. This re- Mobile Subscriber Base stood at 60.28 million. RCom (Reli-sulted in cotton yarn players report- ance Communications) added 1.03ing losses in the same period as they in India increased to million new subscribers to take itswere carrying high cost cotton inven- 881.4 million user base to 148.11 million, whiletory from the last season. However, SSTL added 0.74 million new usersthe sharp drop in cotton yarn prices According to the data released by to take its total userbase to 14.01also enhanced its price competitive- the regulator TRAI on 8 December million.State-run telcos BSNL and 2011, mobile subscriber base in In- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 43 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 44. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : added 0.40 million and 31788 decided that blocks will not be given sector undertaking Rural Electrifica-new users in October. The subscriber free to government companies. tion Corporation (REC) bought thebase of BSNL stood at 96.19 million Though competitive bidding route CDS cover for its Rs 5 crore loan fromand 5.61 million, respectively. would not be applicable to centre ICICI Bank. The launch of the CDS and state government projects, PSUs was a landmark transaction for the Mobile Number will have to pay reserve price for domestic corporate debt market and Portability (MNP) coal blocks. Preference would be marked the formal introduction of given to companies setting up end local currency CDS market in India.As per TRAI’s report, about 25.38 use projects in the state that hosts IDBI Bank became the country’s firstlakh subscribers submitted request the coal block and agree to match PSU bank to underwrite a CDS trans-for MNP in October 2011. Since the the highest bid. The blocks lie in the action in the domestic market forintroduction of MNP in November coal belts of seven states of managing credit risks associated2010, about 231.66 lakh subscribers Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, with Indian corporate bonds.across India had submitted re- Maharashtra, West Bengal, Orissa,quests, till October, for changing Madhya Pradesh and Andhra This is the first transaction of itstheir service providers while retain- Pradesh. kind entered by any public sectoring their mobile numbers. In MNP bank with another bank in India onZone-I (Northern and Western India), Blocks with over 18,000 million selling protection in the domesticmaximum number of requests were tonnes of reserves is set to go un- market on corporate bonds. The cen-received in Gujarat (22.39 lakh), fol- der hammer in the first round of com- tral bank, RBI had issued prudentiallowed by Maharashtra (19.10 lakh). petitive bidding. The government guidelines on CDS transactions onIn MNP Zone-II (Southern and East- has not awarded single coal or lig- corporate bonds on 30 Novemberern India), maximum number of re- nite block for captive use to private 2011. The guidelines refered to CDSquests have been received in Andhra companies since October 2008. The transactions underwritten by IndianPradesh (19.46 lakh) followed by coal ministry decided to initiate auc- operations of foreign banks, IndianKarnataka Service area (19.18 lakh). tion by putting the list of blocks on banks and overseas branches/sub-Broadband its website. Information on esti- sidiaries/joint ventures of Indian mated reserves, exploration status banks.Wireline category subscriber base and environmental clearances woulddeclined to 33.19 million in October also be provided. The ministry’s ob- Benefitsfrom 33.31 million in September. jective is to avoid double bidding forThe launch of the CDS market in In-Broadband subscription reached power companies that after January dia will encourage foreign institu-12.98 million in the reported month 2011 have to participate in tariff- tional investors to invest in domes-from 12.84 million in September based bidding to bag power supply tic corporate bonds. The investment2011. contracts from states. in domestic corporate bonds will provide much-needed funding forCoal Ministry decided to ICICI’s & IDBI’s projects, including infrastructure Auction 54 Blocks on Launch of CDS sector projects. Credit default swaps also will investors to transfer andThe coal ministry decided to auction India’s largest private lender by as- manage credit risk in an effective54 blocks on upfront payment basis. sets, ICICI Bank and IDBI Bank, the manner through redistribution ofThe ministry however might not of- seventh largest public sector bank risk. Such products are expected tofer mines to power companies. The in India together launched India’s increase investors’ interest in cor-ministry is currently considering a first credit default swap (CDS) on 7 porate bonds and is likely to proveproposal to earmark blocks to states December 2011. CDS was launched beneficial to the development of thethat can call competitive bids for seven days after the product was corporate bond market in India.power supply. The coal ministry also cleared by the Reserve Bank of In- dia on 30 November 2011. Public 44 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 45. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : What is CDS? textile market is expected to grow (Gigabit per second) downstream to US$ 60 billion and exports to US$ and 1.25 Gbps upstream data capa-A CDS is similar to a traditional in- 50 billion by 2015. By 2015 the sec- bility to customer premise. Apartsurance policy where it obliges tor is expected to create an addi- from urban areas, the large dataseller of the CDS to compensate the tional 12 million jobs, nearly 40 per carrying capability is important forbuyer in the event of a loan default. cent of which will be in the core pro- Indian villages too where prevailingThe agreement is that in the event duction activities. The handicrafts low literacy levels will require bet-of a default, buyer of the CDS re- industry employs 12 million people ter dissemination of informationceives the money which is equiva- in India currently. with greater graphic and audio con-lent to the face value of the loan and tent. Besides, voice telephony, highseller of the CDS receives the de- GPON Technology speed Internet access and IPTV, thefaulted loan and with it the right to transFerred to Telecom C-DOT GPON has provision to carryrecover it at some later time. cable TV signal too.The GPON tech- Equipment Makers nology was tested, validated, field- ISDC for the Textile and evaluated and made operational in The Centre for Development of BSNLs network in Ajmer Apparel Sector Telematics (C-DoT) on 5 December (Rajasthan). The technology will 2011 transferred indigenously-de- help fulfil requirements of majorWith the inauguration of the first veloped Gigabit Passive Optical Net- national programmes like the Na-state-of-the-art ATDC-SMART (Skill work (GPON) technology to seven tional Optical Fibre Network and thefor Manufacturing Apparels through telecom equipment manufacturers, State Wide Area Network.Research and Training) in Egmore, including private players. The GPONChennai, the Integrated Skill Devel- technology was transferred to theopment Scheme (ISDC) for the tex- telecom equipment manufacturerstile and apparel sector was launched to give the much-needed push toby the Ministry of Textiles. The Min- broadband penetration in India. Theistry launched the project in asso- government transferred this tech-ciation with the Apparel Training & nology to seven manufacturers inDesign Centre (ATDC), which was public and private sectors — ITI,selected as a nodal agency for the Bharat Electronics, VMC Systems,project. The project aims to impart United Telecoms, Sai InfoSystem (In-training to a workforce of about dia), SM Creative Electronics. Trans-256000 in the next two years. The fer of technology was also signedATDC-SMART project worth Rs 23 with Tejas Networks for customisedbillion focuses on the core development.workforce requirements of the gar-ment industry located across India. What isThe importance of the Scheme can GPON Technology ?be judged from the fact that the ap-parel industry is the second largest The GPON technology is a pivotalemployment provider in the country component required for broadbandafter agriculture. connectivity over optical fibre.Rural youth and women stand to C-DOT indigenously designed andbenefit the most from the ISDC. The developed GPON technology, whichrural youth would be able to find can be used to provide triple playgainful employment in areas near (voice, video and data) through fi-their domicile with the help of the bre-based networks. The presentimparted training. India’s domestic GPON standards specify 2.5 Gbps WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 45 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 46. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Buy Online at: WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012 Buy Online at:
  • 47. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : India & The World opment of infrastructure in the bor- Ltd., and m.v. J. Shine, owned by the Indian – China der areas opposite China, “to meet Jiangsu Ocean Shipping Company, our strategic and security require- were FOC ships that flew the flag of Indian diamond traders freed ments and also to facilitate the eco- Hong Kong. They departed immedi-Twelve of the 22 Indian diamond nomic development of these areas,” ately after unloading the cargo. Antraders, detained in China for nearly Defence Minister A.K. Antony told FOC ship is one that flies the flag of2 years on charges of smuggling, the Rajya Sabha. Infrastructure de- a nation other than the country ofreached India on 5 January 2012 af- velopment included the Qinghai-Ti- ownership to avail cheaper labour,ter they were let off following de- bet railway line, with proposed ex- evade taxes and pay a low registra-portation orders by a Chinese court. tension up to Xigze and Nyingchi tion fee. The ITF, set up in 1896, hasTwenty-two traders, hailing mostly besides roads and airport facilities. more than six million workers be-from Gujarat and Mumbai, were ar- “The government keeps a constant longing to 600 transport workersrested in southern Chinas Shenzhen watch on all developments having a unions in over 137 in 2010 and were charged with bearing on Indias security and takessmuggling diamonds worth 50 mil- all necessary measures to safeguard Since the launch of the FOC Weeklion yuan or 7.3 million US Dollars. it,” he said. The States, where the of Action 10 years ago, 780 vesselsThey were accused of sourcing dia- government is focussing on include have been inspected and 35 agree-monds illegally from Hong Kong for Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal ments signed with ITF in the Chinese market. The Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Back wages to the tune of $1.02Shenzen Intermediate Peoples Arunachal Pradesh. Among the mea- million have been realised. ACourt which heard the traders case sures was the development of the Croatian ship, which flew a Panamaon 7 December 2011, found 12 of two airbases for the frontline air flag, was “arrested” by the ITF a yearthem innocent and ordered their superiority fighters Su-30-MKI in the ago and was auctioned for Rs. 13deportation. The rest of the traders Northeast, one at Chabua and an- crore through a court order .have been awarded varied prison other at Tezpur.terms ranging from six years to threeand half years. India - Pakistan Chinese-owned Ships Evade Inspection India Rejects Pakistan Proposal India to Develop Facilities Near Two merchant vessels of Chinese to Shift Heavy Guns China Border ownership left anchorage midway India has rejected Pakistans pro-Considering the countrys strategic through an inspection by the Inter- posal to move heavy artillery andand security requirements across national Transport Workers Federa- mortars away from the Line of Con-the China-India border, the Centre tion (ITF), fearing action for not hav- trol citing frequent ceasefire viola-has embarked on works to develop ing given minimum wages to their tions. It asked Islamabad to comeinfrastructure, the government said crew. The incident took place dur- clear on its nuclear policy, includinghere. Conscious of China develop- ing the first day of the Flag of Con- command and control over nuclearing infrastructure in the border re- venience (FOC) Week of Action be- assets. This was conveyed to thegions opposite India in Tibet and ing observed by the ITF and its af- Pakistani officials by India during theXinjiang Autonomous Regions there, filiated unions. M.V. Joyful Spirit, two-day talks on nuclear and con-the government was “giving careful owned by the Golden Ocean Group ventional confidence-building mea-and special attention to the devel- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 47 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 48. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (CBMs) held in Islamabad af- foreign secretaries to extend the cooperation on the global stage.ter a gap of four years, sources said validity of the agreement on reduc- “Global challenges make it impera-here on Friday. India conveyed to ing the risk from accidents relating tive that we further intensify our dia-Pakistan the need to demonstrate to nuclear weapons. Pakistan sug- logue on issues such as the need torestraint and responsibility in the gested to India that heavy artillery revive the world economy, the situ-nuclear field and urged it to facili- should be removed from the Line of ation in West Asia and North Africa,tate talks on the Fissile Material Cut- Control in Jammu and Kashmir.India challenges in neighbouring Afghani-off Treaty (FMCT). External Affairs and Pakistan also reviewed the stan, cooperation within BRICS, asMinister S.M. Krishna is slated to implementation and strengthening well as new threats posed by climatevisit Pakistan to review the progress of CBMs in the framework of Lahore change and piracy.”in talks and both sides are keen to MoU. The nations also agreed tohave the meetings between Home explore possibilities for mutually Indo-Russian Cooperation CanSecretaries, Water Resources Secre- acceptable additional CBMs. India Push Global Changes in The Righttaries, Defence Secretaries and For- and Pakistan discussed a proposal Directioneign Secretaries before the visit. seeking a cooperative mechanism to “Together India and Russia can help deal with a crisis like Fukushima. shape global responses,” he said.On the nuclear CBMs, India made it “The changes under way offer anclear to Pakistan that views on India-Russia opportunity to bring about an inter-nuclear doctrines could be ex- national order that is democratic,changed only when official docu- India-Russia Ties, An Anchor of inclusive, based on the supremacyments enunciating the policies were Peace & Stability of international law and consistentavailable in the public domain. Offi- Global politics will be high on the with the objectives and principlescials pointed out that India had an- agenda of Prime Minister contained in the U.N. Charter.” Dur-nounced its nuclear doctrine of cred- Manmohan Singhs visit to Russia in ing his talks with President Dmitryible minimum deterrence in 2003, the context of shifting power equa- Medvedev and Prime Ministerwhich placed the command and con- tions in the world, said Indias en- Vladimir Putin, the Indian Premier istrol of nuclear devices with the ci- voy to Russia. “The world is witness- expected to discuss bilateral coop-vilian leadership. India stressed the ing a profound transformation and eration in defence, space, atomicneed to have transparency and pre- a shift in the global balance of energy, hydrocarbons, and sciencedictability in nuclear policies and the power,” said Ambassador Ajai and technology, he said. He pointedimportance of demonstrating, in Malhotra. “Our relationship serves out that the ongoing protests thatpractical measure, restraint and re- as an anchor of peace and stability have held up the commissioning ofsponsibility in the nuclear field. In- during this transitions phase.” The the first of two Russian-built nucleardian officials also asked their Paki- international agenda of talks ac- reactors at Kudankulam will not im-stani counterparts to allow discus- quires special relevance in the light pact on collaboration with Russia insion on the Fissile Material Cut-off of India taking the Chair of BRICS in nuclear energy. “We will fulfill ourTreaty at the Conference on Disar- 2012 and hosting the groups next commitments as regards Indo-Rus-mament. “This would be a CBM,” summit in late March, Mr. Malhotra sian cooperation in atomic powersources said. told the media ahead of the summit energy.” It is understood that a con- here on December 15-17. It will be tract for the construction of two more 6th Round of Talks Between the 12th bilateral summit since 2000 reactors of the Russian design at India & Pakistan when the two countries agreed to Kudankulam has been finalised butIndia and Pakistan concluded their hold top-level meetings annually. may not be signed at the MoscowSixth Round of Expert Level Talks on Noting that India and Russia have summit. “Both sides understand thatNuclear Confidence Building Mea- “identical, close or common” per- we need to proceed with due caresures in Islamabad on 27 December spectives on a wide range of inter- and caution” in regard of the2011. In this meeting, both the na- national issues, the Indian envoy Kudankulam protests, he said. Thetions agreed to recommend to their urged the two countries to step up outgoing year has seen an encour- 48 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 49. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : growth in people-to-people built YouthSat for space science BRICS, with the Indian embassy in studies; and expressed satisfaction » India and the Russian Federation,Russia issuing 25 per cent more on the progress in implementation as responsible states, possessingtourist, business and conference- of the joint lunar exploration project. advanced nuclear technologies,linked visas compared with last year, » The nations welcomed the out- share the objective of preventivesaid the Indian envoy. India has come of the eleventh meeting of the proliferation of weapons of massliberalised visa rules for Russian India-Russia Inter Governmental destruction and their means of de-visitors since June, and Russia re- Commission on Military-Technical livery, including preventing their pos-ciprocated the move on December Cooperation in addressing issues of sible acquisition by terrorist groups.1. mutual concern. » The sides recalled the bilateral » As an important element of their Moscow Declaration between India 5 Agreements Signed Between Strategic Partnership, both sides re- and the Russian Federation on Inter- India & Russia affirmed their commitment to work national Terrorism signed on Novem-The Prime Minister of India visited together to strengthen the central ber 6, 2001 in Moscow.Russia on 15-17 December 2011 to coordinating role of the United Na- » Both sides reaffirmed the need forparticipate in the 12th Indo-Russian tions in international affairs as well all states to combine efforts to van-annual summit. India and Russia as the crucial role of its Security quish terrorism.signed five major agreements dur- Council in the maintenance of inter-ing this summit, which includes li- » The sides emphasized the impor- national peace and security. tance of joint bilateral and multilat-censed production of an additional » The sides expressed concern over eral efforts in the fight against illicit42 Sukhoi combat planes and to negative trends in the global drug trafficking which poses a grow-manage fly ash residue at thermal economy. ing threat to international peace andplants in Siberia. A MoU was signedon increasing cooperation and ex- » The nations identified successful stability.changes between anti-monopolies completion of the IMF reform under » India and the Russian Federationagencies and another MoU was the terms and conditions agreed in expressed concern over the situa-signed to oversee the safety and the framework of the G-20 as a key tion emerging around Iran’s nuclearquality issues by the drug standards element of the general reform of the programme. Both sides support aand safety organisations to increase international financial architecture. comprehensive and long-termtrade in the pharma sector. India and » In the context of the situation in settlement of the situation throughRussia also signed an educational the Middle East and North Africa, the exclusively political and diplomaticexchange programme to share ex- sides reaffirmed their commitment means by promoting dialogue.periences in the field of pedagogy to the principles of: searching theand to form a joint working group to way to overcome crises in the region India, Russia to Focus on Strate-monitor the agreements implemen- in compliance with law, exclusively gic Communicationstation. During this visit, India and through peaceful means, avoiding India and Russia will focus onRussia also issued a joint declara- violence and outside intervention, deliverables in defence and strate-tion. through broad, inclusive national gic communications besides takingThe main features of this joint dec- dialogue on democratic reforms, tak- forward talks on partnerships inlaration are as following: ing into account the legitimate rights nuclear energy and hydrocarbons» India and Russia decided to com- and aspirations of the peoples of the spheres during Prime Ministermemorate the 65th anniversary of region. Manmohan Singhs visit to Moscow.establishment of diplomatic rela- » The sides agreed that the Shang- As is the tradition during summitstions between India and Russia in hai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in Moscow, Dr. Singh will also meet2012 in both the countries in a fit- had become an important factor for Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, archi-ting manner. regional security and cooperation. tect of restoring India-Russia ties » The sides attached importance to that were in disarray during the» The sides commended the suc- strengthening cooperation among Yeltsin era. Briefing newspersons,cessful launch, by India, of the jointly WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 49 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 50. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Secretary Ranjan Mathai Ministers, said Mr. Mathai. On the Wednesday expressed keenness topainted a wide canvas of issues that next two units of Kudankulam, Mr. expand ties in the sector after tak-would be taken up during the Prime Mathai said discussions “are in ad- ing into consideration the safetyMinisters two substantial interac- vanced stages and there were pros- aspects. Seeking to expand coopera-tions with Mr. Medvedev and Mr. pects for taking them forward very tion in the 60th year of establishingPutin scheduled on Friday. This is the soon”. diplomatic ties, India and Japan de-twelfth time the two countries will cided to expedite work on infrastruc-maintain the ritual of holding India and Nepal ture projects and agreed to enhancestandalone annual summits every the currency swap arrangementyear besides meeting regularly on India and Nepal on 27 November from $3 billion to $ 15 billion. Thisthe sidelines of international meets. 2011 signed a revised Double Taxa- was finalised during the talks be-Having expressed disinterest in gas tion Avoidance Agreement (DTAA). tween Prime Minister Manmohandeposits in Yamal Peninsula on ac- This will help prevent tax evasion Singh and his visiting Japanesecount of extreme weather condi- and facilitate exchange of informa- counterpart Yoshihiko Noda. “Wetions, given its energy woes, India tion on banking between the two shall proceed with the negotiationsis now keen on discussing modali- countries. DTAA, will allow Indian on the [civil nuclear] agreement af-ties for teaming up with Novatech traders and investors to enjoy tax ter giving due consideration tofor exploration. Talks will also be relaxation in India once they pay nuclear safety, nuclear disarmamentheld on other opportunities as Rus- taxes in Nepal. The agreement is and non-proliferation,” Mr. Nodasia opens up its strategic deposits also likely to increase confidence of said at a joint press conference withthough there are stiff terms. The two investors and help Nepal attract Dr. Singh after the talks.sides will try sorting out the taxa- more investment from India. The re-tion problems facing Imperial En- vised DTAA between India and Nepal Combating Terrorismergy, bought in haste by ONGC and will replace an earlier agreement The two leaders resolved to developan important vehicle for taking for- signed between India and Nepal in greater cooperation in combatingward Indias quest for fossil fuels in 1987. terrorism through sharing informa-Russia. Important Information: tion and utilising the India-Japan » Indian firms are the biggest inves- Joint Working Group on Counter-Ter-An important event taking place on tors in Nepal. They account for rorism, as well as multilateral foraa day Russia joins the World Trade about 47.5 per cent of total approved such as the Financial Action TaskOrganisation, will be an important FDIs (Foreign Direct Investments). Force and the Global Counter-Terror-event taking place on that day will ism Forum. Reaffirming the impor- » India is the biggest source of for-be an India-Russia CEOs meet with tance of counter-terrorism coopera- eign investments in Nepal and itsTata Motors MD Ravi Kant and tion at the UN, they recognised the largest trading partner. However,Sistema chief V.P. Evtushenkov in the urgent need to finalise and adopt the Nepal accounts for only 0.44 per centchair. Dr. Singh and Mr. Medvedev Comprehensive Convention on Inter- of Indias total trade.will have a brief interaction with 20 national Terrorism and called uponCEOs and ask them to prepare the » The bilateral trade between India all states to cooperate in resolvingground for a Comprehensive Eco- and Nepal increased from USD 1.98 the outstanding issues expedi-nomic Partnership Agreement. “En- billion US dollars in 2009-10 to tiously.ergetic efforts have been under way around 2.70 billion US dollars into not only maintain the momentum 2010-11, which is an increase of 37 Nuclear Testsbut also infuse greater content in our per cent. He said Japan attached importancebilateral ties. In the last few months, to the voluntary commitments andbilateral visits and talks have taken India - Japan actions India had expressed withplace at the levels of Home, Exter- regard to testing of nuclear devices.nal Affairs, Defence, Commerce, Allaying apprehensions regarding At the same time, Mr. Noda said itHealth, Tourism, Steel and Power nuclear cooperation in the wake of was Japans duty to share the expe- the Fukushima accident, Japan on 50 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 51. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : and the lessons learnt from India and Australia proximately 40 percent of thethe nuclear power accident at world’s known uranium reserves.Fukushima and continue to contrib- India and Australia on 16 Decemberute to nuclear safety around the 2011 signed an agreement to amendworld. Mr. Nodas comments as- DTAA (Double Taxation Avoidancesume significance as there have Agreement) with the objective ofbeen questions on the fate of the ensuring more effective exchange ofproposed deal, which is under ne- financial information between thegotiation, after the radiation scare two countries. DTAA was signed be-in Fukushima when tsunami hit a tween India and Australia in 1991.nuclear plant there on March 11. The revised tax agreement will fa- cilitate the exchange of information Maritime Security on banking related information andDr. Singh and Mr. Noda agreed to taxation policies. The revised agree-expand cooperation in maritime se- ment also has a provision that Indiacurity including safety and freedom and Australia can assist each otherof navigation and anti-piracy activi- in the collection of revenue claims.ties, by promoting bilateral and mul-tilateral exercises, and through in- The agreement states that nation-formation sharing, as well as dia- als of one country will not be dis-logues. They also welcomed the criminated against the nationals ofjoint exercises between the Coast the other country, a feature absentGuards of the two countries pro- in the earlier agreement. Moreover,posed to be held in January 2012, a there was no threshold limit for de-joint statement issued after the talks termining permanent establishment.said. In the revised agreement, the threshold limit has been rationlised More Investment Sought to avail the exemption for serviceNoting that FDI from Japan ac- and exploration to boost cross bor-counted for just over one per cent der movement of capital and ser-of its total outward FDI flows, Dr. vices.Singh said “we would like to seemuch more Japanese investment and Uranium Exports to Indiatechnology transfer in India, which Approvedwe will facilitate.” Mr. Noda said Australia’s ruling Labour Party on 4cooperation regarding peaceful uses December 2011 in its annual policyof nuclear energy was conducive to conference approved plans to openJapans efforts to address climate up uranium sales to India. Thischange and to strengthen the glo- cleared the way for talks on a bilat-bal partnership with India. eral nuclear agreement between In- dia and Australia. The conference Rail Technology held in Sydney overturned its ownDr. Singh welcomed the interest ban, which prohibits Australia to sellshown by Japan in sharing high uranium to nations such as India thatspeed rail technology for passenger have not signed Nuclear Non-Prolif-networks in India. eration treaty. The policy change does not need to be approved by Parliament. Australia possesses ap- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 51 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 52. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 53. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Science & TechnologyTop 10 Breakthroughs of asteroids. that formed much later. The discov- Unraveling Human Origins: Study- eries show that pockets of matter The year 2011 persisted unscathed amid eons of ing the genetic code of both ancient and modern human beings, research- cosmic violence.HPTN 052: The journal Science has Getting to Know the Microbiome: ers discovered that many humanslauded an eye-opening HIV study, Research into the countless mi- still carry DNA variants inheritedknown as HPTN 052, as the most crobes that dwell in the human gut from archaic humans, such as theimportant scientific breakthrough of demonstrated that everyone has a mysterious Denisovans in Asia and2011. This clinical trial demon- dominant bacterium leading the still-unidentified ancestors in Africa.strated that people infected with HIV gang in their digestive One study this year revealed how ar-are 96 per cent less likely to trans- tract: Bacteroides , Prevotella or chaic humans likely shaped our mod-mit the virus to their partners if they Ruminococcus . Follow-up studies ern immune systems, and an analy-take antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). revealed that one of these bacteria sis of Australopithecus sediba fossilsSome researchers consider HPTN thrives on a high-protein diet while in South Africa showed that the an-052 a "game-changer" because of its another prefers vegetarian fare. cient hominin possessed both primi-near-100 percent efficacy in reduc- These findings and more helped to tive and Homo -like HIV transmission rates. And, in- clarify the interplay between diet Capturing a Photosynthetic rotein:deed, it has already sprung many and microbes in nutrition and dis- In vivid detail, researchers in Japanclinicians and policy-makers into ease. have mapped the structure of theaction. For all these A Promising Malaria Vaccine: Early Photosystem II, or PSII, protein thatreasons, Science spotlights the results of the clinical trial of a ma- plants use to split water into hydro-HPTN 052 study as the 2011 Break- laria vaccine, known as RTS,S, pro- gen and oxygen atoms. The crystal-through of the Year. Sciences and its vided a shot in the arm to malaria clear image shows off the proteinspublisher, AAAS, the non-profit sci- vaccine research. The ongoing trial, catalytic core and reveals the spe-ence society, have identified nine which has enrolled more than 15,000 cific orientation of atoms within.other groundbreaking scientific ac- children from seven African coun- Now, scientists have access to thiscomplishments during 2011. tries, reassured malaria researchers, catalytic structure that is essential for life on Earth — one that may also who are used to bitter disappoint-The Hayabusa Mission: After some ment, that discovering a malaria hold the key to a powerful source ofnear-disastrous technical difficulties vaccine remains possible. clean energy.and a stunningly successful recov- Strange Solar Systems: This year, Pristine Gas in Space: Astronomersery, Japans Hayabusa spacecraft astronomers got their first good using the Keck telescope in Hawaiireturned to Earth with dust from the views of several distant planetary to probe the faraway universesurface of a large, S-type asteroid. systems and discovered that things wound up discovering two clouds ofThis asteroid dust represented the are pretty weird out there. First, hydrogen gas that seem to havefirst direct sampling of a planetary NASAs Kepler observatory helped maintained their original chemistrybody in 35 years, and analysis of the identify a star system with planets for two billion years after the biggrains confirmed that the most com- orbiting in ways that todays mod- bang. Other researchers identifiedmon meteorites found on Earth, els cannot explain. Then, research- a star that is almost completely de-known as ordinary chondrules, are ers discovered a gas giant caught in void of metals, just as the universesborn from these much larger, S-type a rare "retrograde" orbit, a planet earliest stars must have been, but WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 53 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 54. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : a binary star system and 10 is responsible for nine out of ten well as legumes and whole grains.planets that seem to be freely float- deaths from malaria. Vaccinating She said that vitamin C and organicing in space — all unlike anything against malaria is likely to be the acids enhanced the absorption offound in our own solar system. most cost-effective way of protect- iron from plant foods and so she rec-Designer Zeolites: Zeolites are po- ing populations against disease; ommends drinking a glass of orangerous minerals that are used as cata- however, no licensed vaccine is cur- juice at meals or having fruit saladlysts and molecular sieves to con- rently available. for dessert. Iron deficiency, which avert oil into gasoline, purify water, Dr Sandy Douglas, a Wellcome Trust doctor can detect with a blood test,filter air and produce laundry deter- Clinical Research Training Fellow is caused by an unbalanced diet or,gents (to name a few uses). This from the University of Oxford and in women, heavy menstrual periods,year, chemists really showed off first author on the new study, adds: Renner-Weber said. Symptoms in-their creativity by designing a range “We have created a vaccine that cluded tiredness, weakness, in-of new zeolites that are cheaper, confirms the recent discovery relat- creased susceptibility to infections,thinner and better equipped to pro- ing to the biology of RH5 antigen, problems with hair and nail growth,cess larger organic molecules. given it can generate an immune and dry, chapped skin. Men requireClearing Senescent Cells: Experi- response in animal models capable about 10 mg of iron daily, andments have revealed that clearing of neutralising many — and poten- women 15.senescent cells (those that have tially all — strains of the P.stopped dividing) from the bodies of falciparum parasite, the deadliest Supernova of amice can delay the onset of age-re- species of malaria parasite.” Our Generationlated symptoms. Mice whose bod- next step will be to begin safetyies were cleared of these loitering tests of this vaccine. If these prove It was the brightest and closest stel-cells didnt live longer than their successful, clinical trials in patients lar explosion seen from Earth in 25untreated cage-mates — but they may begin within the next two to years, dazzling professional anddid seem to live better, which pro- three years. backyard astronomers alike. Now,vided researchers with some hope thanks to this rare discovery—whichthat banishing senescent cells might Fighting Iron Deficiency some have called the “supernova ofalso prolong our golden years. a generation” — astronomers have Someone with an iron deficiency the most detailed picture yet of how A new Candidate should substantially reduce con- this kind of explosion happens. Malaria Vaccine sumption of coffee and black tea. Known as a Type I a supernova, this This is according to Petra Renner- type of blast is an essential tool thatA new candidate malaria vaccine Weber, a member of Germanys allows scientists to measure thewith the potential to neutralise all Home Economics and Nutrition Sci- expansion of the universe and un-strains of the most deadly species ence Association. She says that tan- derstand the very nature of the cos-of malaria parasite has been devel- nin in the drinks inhibits the absorp- mos. On August 24, the Palomaroped by a team led by scientists at tion of iron. “About two hours should Transient Factory (PTF) team discov-the University of Oxford. The results pass after a meal before drinking ered the supernova in one of theof this new vaccine independently coffee or tea,” she added. Renner- arms of the Pinwheel Galaxy (alsoconfirm the utility of a key discovery Weber said the body absorbed iron called M101), 21 million light yearsreported last month from scientists from animal products such as meat away. They caught the supernovaat the Wellcome Trust Sanger Insti- and sausage best. When its iron just 11 hours after it exploded.tute who had identified this target stores are depleted, the body ab-within the parasite as a potential sorbs a lot of iron from food. When 27 Club Hypothesis is‘Achilles heel that could hold sig- stores are well supplied, it takes in Incorrectnificant promise for vaccine devel- little of the mineral.opment. The most deadly form of She advises vegetarians to eat iron- The list of well known musiciansmosquito, Plasmodium falciparum , rich vegetables such as beets as who have died at age 27 may look 54 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 55. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : more than a coincidence — Amy 200 million people are estimated to ments this year and touch 295 mil-Winehouse, Jim Morrison, Jimi have caught in 2010, some 655,000 lion courses in 2012. Ten of the 28Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Kurt Cobain, of whom died of it, protecting the manufacturers of monotherapiesand Brian Jones to name a few — effectiveness of artemisinin-based were in India, according to a spokes-but their age is unlikely to have been drugs has become vitally important. person for the WHO Global Malariathe cause of their demise, accord- A number of Indian pharmaceutical Programme. “Oral artemisinining to research published in companies have been among those monotherapy is banned in India,”the British Medical Journal. While manufacturing and marketing drugs according to the ‘Guidelines for Di-fame may increase the risk of death that are likely to foster resistance to agnosis and Treatment of Malaria infor musicians, probably due to their artemisinin in the malaria parasite, India published in 2010 by the Na-rock and roll lifestyle, this risk is not according to the latest World Ma- tional Institute of Malaria Researchlimited to age 27, say the authors laria Report that was recently re- in Delhi and the Union Healthled by Adrian Barnett from leased. Artemisin and its derivatives Ministrys National Vector Borne Dis-Queensland University of Technol- have saved countless lives after the ease Control Programme.ogy in Australia. To test the “27 club” single-celled parasite, Plasmodiumhypothesis, the authors compared falciparum , that causes the most Nuclear Disasterthe mortality of famous musicians dangerous forms of the disease be- Response Failed Duringwith that of the UK population. They came resistant to the drug chloro- Tsunamiincluded 1,046 musicians (solo art- quine. However, strains that are re-ists and band members) who had a sistant to even artemisinin have Japans response to the nuclear cri-number one album in the UK charts emerged in parts of South-East Asia sis that followed the March 11 tsu-between 1956 and 2007. and could potentially spread, as has nami was confused and riddled with happened with earlier antimalarial problems, including an erroneousDuring this period (1956-2007) it was drugs. assumption an emergency coolingfound that 71 (7 per cent) of the system was working and a delay inmusicians died. The authors used To prevent that from happening, the disclosing dangerous radiationmathematical analysis to determine global health agency recommends leaks, an interim report revealed onthe significance of age 27. They that artemisinin be given in combi- December 26. The disturbing picturefound no peak in the risk of death at nation with another drug. Such of harried and bumbling workers andthis age, however musicians in their artemisinin-based combination government officials scrambling to20s and 30s were two to three times therapy (ACT) should, it says, be respond to the problems atmore likely to die prematurely than first-line treatment for uncompli- Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear powerthe general UK population. The re- cated malaria caused by P. plant was depicted in the report de-search team found some evidence falciparum . The two-drug combina- tailing a government investigation.of a cluster of deaths in those aged tion reduced the chances of the The 507-page interim report, com-20 to 40 in the 1970s and early parasite developing resistance. piled by interviewing more than 4001980s. But there were no deaths in Moreover, a three-day course of a people, including utility workers andthis age group in the late 80s. The recommended ACT generally cleared government officials, found authori-authors conclude that the “27 club” the parasites from the body. The use ties had grossly underestimated tsu-is based on myth, but warn that of ACT has grown rapidly. Globally, nami risks, assuming the highestmusicians have a generally in- the number of ACT courses procured wave would be 6 meters (20 feet).creased risk of dying throughout by the public sector jumped nearly The tsunami hit at more than doubletheir 20s and 30s. seven-fold between 2005 and 2006, those levels. The report criticized theProtecting an anti-malarial drug and then more than doubled, reach- use of the term “soteigai,” meaningfrom developing resistance: It is a ing 181 million, in 2010, according “outside our imagination,” which itdrug that has its roots in ancient to the World Malaria Report. The said implied authorities were shirk-Chinese medicine. In the fight demand for these drugs was ex- ing responsibility for what had hap-against malaria, a disease that over pected to reach 287 million treat- pened. It said by labeling the events WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 55 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 56. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : beyond what could have been planet, exclaimed Ji-Won Yang of Ordinary Tissueexpected, officials had invited pub- the Department of Chemical and TransFormed into Heartlic distrust. Biomolecular Engineering at the Ko- Muscle Cells rea Advanced Institute of ScienceThe report, set to be finished by mid- and Technology in South Korea. Scientists discovered a way to trans-2012, found workers at Tokyo Elec- Microalgae, like plants, are capable form ordinary tissue into beatingtric Power Co., the utility that ran of photosynthesis, using the energy heart muscle cells. It could pave theFukushima Dai-ichi, were untrained from sunlight to turn carbon dioxide way for new therapeutic approachesto handle emergencies like the and water into sugar. Prof. Yang for making a damaged heart to re-power shutdown that struck when spoke of his teams efforts at treat- pair itself. Scientists used a zebrafishthe tsunami destroyed backup gen- ing municipal wastewater using the system to develop a small and ro-erators setting off the worlds worst single-celled green alga,Chlorella bust molecule, which can transformnuclear disaster since Chernobyl. A vulgaris. Such wastewater contained stem cells into beating heart musclebetter response might have reduced plenty of organic compounds and cells. The scientists in their experi-the core damage, radiation leaks and nutrients to sustain the organism. ment found that cardionogen treat-the hydrogen explosions that fol- The oils that then accumulated in the ment enlarged the zebrafish heart bylowed at two reactors and sent cells could be harvested and turned stimulating production of new car-plumes of radiation into the air, ac- into biodiesel. It was found that un- diac muscle cells from stem cells.cording to the report. The govern- treated wastewater gave the best The scientists discovered threement also delayed disclosure of ra- algal growth. Nitrogen-fixing bacte- structurally related moleculesdiation data in the area, unneces- ria found in the wastewater could be (Cardiongen-1, 2 and3) after screen-sarily exposing entire towns to ra- acting as growth enhancers, he ing 4000 compounds. It could pro-diation when they could have evacu- noted. mote or inhibit heart formation de-ated, the report found. The govern- pending on when they were admin-ment recommended changes so A pilot plant based on the alga had istered during development.utilities will respond properly to se- been established at a plant of therious accidents. It recommended China Steel Corporation. To meetseparating the nuclear regulators pollution control norms, the effluent New theoryfrom the unit that promotes atomic was earlier being neutralised with Explains How Fishesenergy, echoing frequent criticism sodium hydroxide. The large quan- Grew into Amphibianssince the disaster. Japans nuclear tities of sludge that resulted hadregulators were in the same minis- then to be disposed in a secured A small fish crawling out of a dryingtry that promotes the industry, but landfill. It had been possible to en- desert pond underlines a theory thatthey are being moved to the envi- gineer a treatment process to effi- ties up the fishes with the amphib-ronment ministry next year to ensure ciently carry out the neutralisation ians, reveals a study. “Such a pluckymore independence. by providing suitable conditions for hypothetical ancestor of ours prob- a blue green alga, Chroococcus ably could not have survived the Microalgae turgidus, to grow in the effluent. As overwhelming odds of perishing in the alga grew, it reduced the acidity a trek to another shrinking pond,”To its votaries, tiny organisms of the effluent. This algal strain had said Gregory J Retallack, professorknown as microalgae could hold an- been isolated from the effluent it- of geological sciences at Universityswers to some intractable problems. self. The remediation plant had been of Oregon, who led the study. ThisThat includes curbing carbon diox- working well for over five years, pro- scenario comes from the late Devo-ide emissions that are contributing ducing negligible quantities of nian period, roughly 390 million toto global warming and reducing the sludge and saving money that had 360 million years ago, which lateburden of industrial effluents. “We earlier been spent on sodium hy- Harvard palaeontologist Alfredcan change trash into gold” and droxide. Romer propounded, the Journal ofsafeguard human existence on the Geology reported. Challenging 56 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 57. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : theory on fish survival, of the mealybug. As the young lar- CSR Corp. Ltd. The six-car train hasRetallack said that the transitional vae are similar in appearance to a maximum tractive power of 22800fossils were not associated with dry- mealybugs, it is difficult to recognize kilowatts, compared with 9600 kilo-ing ponds or deserts, but were found them amidst the host population. watts for the CRH380 trains. Theconsistently with humid woodland Adult is a small butterfly with upper train is made from plastic materialssoils, according to a university state- side of the wings dark brown in reinforced with carbon fibre. It isment. colour and ash coloured lower sides designed to resemble an ancient with dark striations. Krishi Vigyan Chinese sword. CRH 380 trains are Papaya Mealy Bug Kendra at Karur has mass multiplied currently in service on the Beijing- the parasitoids successfully in the Shanghai High-speed Railway. ItIn India mealybug infests a whole laboratory as well as field condi- holds the world speed record of 300range of crops nd numerous weeds. tions. kilometres per hour.China has theInfested growing points become largest network of bullet-train trackstunted and swollen which may vary Solar-Powered Sprayer in the world, with 8000 miles ofdepending upon the susceptibility of That Solves Many track.each host. Heavy clustering of mea- Problemslybugs can be seen under leaf sur- Memory Gene Npas4face giving the appearance of a thick One need not be a genius to developmat with waxy secretion. Severe in- any commonly used devices. Take A team of neuroscientists found afestations resemble patches of cot- the case of the humble yet impor- gene that turns on when memorieston all over the plant. They excrete tant knapsack manual sprayer (hung are stored in the brain. This discov-copius amount of honey dew that on the shoulders). Though many ery could help trace the exact loca-attracts ants that leads to the de- models are available on the shelves, tions of memories in the brain. Itvelopment of black sooty mould, priced at different rates, most of could help in creating and alteringwhich inhibits the plants ability to them last for only a few years. memory. The gene is called Npas4 ,manufacture food. Both nymphs and “Regularly filling them with water, which is very active in the hippoc-adults suck the sap from leaves pesticides and fuel (in case of fuel ampus. The animal is known to havecausing withering and yellowing of operated ones) makes it difficult to a brain structure critical in formingleaves. Fruit may drop prematurely lift and hang them on the shoulder. long-term memories. During miceon crop plants. Heavy infestation After an hour of spraying, the weight studies Scientists found that by tak-can cause defoliation and even of the machine creates a backache ing out Npas4 from test subjects,death of the plant. When fruits are and shoulder pain for farmers,” says neuroscientists were able to preventinfested, they may be entirely cov- Mr. David Raja Beleau, Assistant new memories from forming.ered with the white, waxy coating Director of Horticulture Kadayam,of the mealy bug. Infestation can Tamil Nadu, who developed a solar Tube Light Flickerlead to fruit drop, or fruit may remain powered battery operated sprayeron the host in dried and shrivelled for farmers. Both conventional fluorescent lampcondition. and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) High-Speed produce white light by the processBiological control by release of natu- of fluorescence underlying the con-ral enemies has proved to be very Bullet Train in China version of invisible ultra-violet (UV)successful. The National bureau of generated from the electrical dis-agriculturally important insects China on 23 December 2011 charge (passage of electricity) along(NBAII) has successfully imported launched a high-speed bullet train the column of the tube to visible lightthree parasitoids to suppress the in Quingdao, Shandong province. Its occurring on the white coating mademealybugs effectively. The larvae speed can reach up to 500 kilometre of powdery luminescent materialof Spalgius apius commonly called per hour. The train was launched by coating inside the walls of the blue butterflies feed on all stage China’s largest rail vehicle maker, The process of generating white WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 57 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 58. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : from these lamps is the same ficient data that is consistent with ing and closing of the molluscs inalthough chemical composition of the possible appearance of the God response to changes in seawater,the luminescent materials (phos- particle. According to theorists such as reduced oxygen or red tide,phors) used in these lamps are dif- some subatomic particles gain mass a suffocating algal bloom, that canferent which eventually determine by interacting with the Higgs boson. lead to mass die-offs. Using a de-the light output produced. There is The Higgs boson is the only undis- vice they have nicknamed the ‘kai-slight difference in the process of covered part of the Standard Model lingual, scientists from Kagawainitiating the electrical discharge of physics, which describes the ba- University want to see if they canbetween CFL and conventional fluo- sic building blocks of matter and decode oyster movements that mightrescent lamp. their interactions. warn of possible problems. The kai- lingual uses a series of sensors andIn a conventional fluorescent lamp, The combined results presented last magnets to send information on thethe electrical discharge along the month by the two teams provided no opening and closing of shells in re-lengthy column of the tube (usually room for the Higgs boson to hide in. sponse to environmental changes.4 feet long) is struck through a high The results had narrowed down the The technique has never before beenvoltage with the help of a choke mass region where the Higgs par- used on oysters farmed for food, but(voltage converter) and bi-metallic ticle is most likely to be — between has been employed by pearl oysterstrip starter combination. Upon 114 GeV and 141 GeV (gigaelectoron farmers.switching on, the lamp circuit is volt). The latest results have furtherclosed due to the deflection of bi- narrowed the mass range — 115-130 Kepler-20e andmetallic strips establishing contact. GeV range in the case of ATLAS, and Kepler-20fAlso the electrical discharge is ini- 117-127 GeV by CMC. “We have nottially built along the medium argon/ collected enough evidence for a dis- NASAs Kepler mission on 20 Decem-neon-mercury mixture followed by covery. There is an excess of events ber 2011 discovered the first Earth-regular discharge through mercury compatible with the hypothesis that size planets orbiting a sun-like starvapours to yield stabilized genera- it could be a Higgs,” Guido Tonelli, outside our solar system. The plan-tion of UV light. These two pro- spokesman for CMC was quoted as ets, calledKepler-20e and Kepler-cesses take some time to stabilize. saying in Nature . But more confir- 20f, are too close to their star to beOn the other hand in the case of CFL matory data is required before its in the so-called habitable zonehaving built-in integrated electronic presence can be proved. According where liquid water could exist on aballast comprising array of AC-DC- to the journal, if supported by fur- planets surface, but they are theAC converters and oscillators, with ther data, the results suggest a smallest exoplanets ever confirmedthe instant generation of high fre- Higgs particle with a mass of about around a star like our sun. The dis-quency (50 kHz) in the CFL column, 125 GeV. This is because the ATLAS covery marks the next importantthe electric discharge is struck in- results are “consistent with a 125- milestone in the ultimate search forstantly without any delay and starts 126 GeV Higgs at a statistical level planets like Earth. The new planetsfluorescing facilitating a quick start of at most 3.6 standard deviation, are thought to be rocky. Kepler-20eas high frequency helps to strike while the CMC team found 124 GeV is slightly smaller than Venus, mea-electrical discharge faster. signal of at most 2.6 standard suring 0.87 times the radius of Earth. deviation,” Nature states. Kepler-20f is a bit larger than Earth, Higgs Boson measuring 1.03 times its radius. Oyster ‘language Both planets reside in a five-planetThe results announced from CERN system called Kepler-20, approxi-on December 13 by the two teams Scientists in Japan have begun mately 1000 light-years away in the— ATLAS and CMC — do not provide studying the ‘language of oysters in constellation Lyra.definite and conclusive evidence of an effort to find out what they are To validate Kepler-20e and Kepler-the presence of the elusive Higgs saying about their environment. Re- 20f, astronomers used a computerboson, but they have collected suf- searchers are monitoring the open- program called Blender, which runs 58 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 59. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : to help rule out other RTG, or radioisotope thermoelectric India Successfully Test-astrophysical phenomena masquer- generator, used to power the rover. Fired N-capableading as a planet. Kepler-20e orbits Its very exciting to begin the science Agni-I Missileits parent star every 6.1 days and mission.” RAD will measure the rel-Kepler-20f every 19.6 days. These evant energetic particle species India successfully test-fired itsshort orbital periods mean very hot, originating from galactic cosmic nuclear capable Agni-I strategic bal-inhospitable worlds. Kepler-20f, at rays, the Sun and other sources. Of listic missile on 1 December 2011800 degrees Fahrenheit, is similar to particular interest are the particles from the test range at Wheeler Is-an average day on the planet Mer- accelerated by coronal mass ejec- land off Odisha coast, as part of thecury. The surface temperature of tions on the surface of the Sun, Indian Armys user trial. It was test-Kepler-20e, at more than 1400 de- which spew fast-moving clouds of fired from a mobile launcher, fromgrees Fahrenheit, would melt glass. radiation across the solar system. launch pad-4 of the Integrated TestThe Kepler-20 system includes three RAD was designed to characterize Range (ITR). The Strategic Forceother planets that are larger than radiation levels on the surface of Command (SFC) of the Army, as partEarth but smaller than Neptune. Mars, but an important secondary of their training exercise, executedKepler-20b, the closest planet, objective is measuring the radiation the trial with logistic support pro-Kepler-20c, the third planet, and on the almost nine-month journey vided by Defence Research Devel-Kepler-20d, the fifth planet, orbit through interplanetary space, to pre- opment Organisation (DRDO) at thetheir star every 3.7, 10.9 and 77.6 pare for future human exploration. ITR. The trajectory of the missile,days. All five planets have orbits ly- which had an operational strikeing roughly within Mercurys orbit in NASA Developed range of 700 km, was tracked by so-our solar system. The host star be- Space Harpoon phisticated radars and electro-opticlongs to the same G-type class as telemetry stations located along theour sun, although it is slightly NASA(National Aeronautics and sea coast and ships positioned nearsmaller and cooler. Space Administration) built a proto- the impact point in the downrange type capable of launching test har- area.Measuring Radiation on poon tips across a distance of a mile Journey to Mars (1.6km). It would be safer to collect Agni-I missile is equipped with a comet material using the space har- specialised navigation system whichThe Radiation Assessment Detector, poon before landing on the celestial ensures it reaches the target with athe first instrument on NASAs next bodies. The samples thus collected high degree of accuracy. Agni-I wasrover mission to Mars to begin sci- will help reveal the origins of the developed by Advanced Systemsence operations, was powered up planets and how life was created on Laboratory (ASL), the premier mis-and began collecting data Decem- Earth. NASA’s Stardust mission had sile development laboratory of theber 6, almost two weeks ahead of recovered particle samples in 2002. DRDO in collaboration with Defenceschedule. RAD is the only instrument Research Development Laboratoryscheduled to collect science data on These samples included an amino (DRDL) and Research Centre Imaratthe journey to Mars.The instrument acid, glycine, which is used by liv- (RCI) and integrated by Bharat Dy-is measuring the energetic particles ing organisms to create proteins. It namics Limited (BDL), Hyderabad.inside the spacecraft to character- endorsed the fact that some of life’s The last trial of the Agni-I missileize the radiation environment an ingredients had formed in space and was successfully carried out on 25astronaut would experience on a were delivered to Earth by meteor- November 2010 from the samefuture human mission to the Red ite and comet impacts. A comet is base.Planet. “We are seeing a strong flux an icy small Solar System body that, Details of Agni-I:in space, even inside the spacecraft, when close enough to the Sun, dis- » Agni-I strategic ballistic missile isabout four times higher doses of ra- plays a visible coma and sometimes an indigenously developed surface-diation than the baseline we mea- a tail. to-surface missilesured on the launch pad from the WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 59 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 60. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs :» It is a single-stage missile the cabin of the flight in ‘ on mode novative farmer from» It is powered by solid propellants during takeoff, flight and landing, the Sathyamangalam, Erode, Tamil» Agni-I can carry payloads up to microwave transmission between Nadu. A member of the scientific the mobile phone towers and the advisory committee of MYRADA-KVK1000 kg mobile phones might interfere with and Erode district organic farmers» It Weighed 12 tonnes the communications the flights are federation, Mr. Sakthivel developed» It was 15-metre-long busily engaged in (between the a simple yet effective mechanism to cockpit and the control towers). filter cattle waste and use the same Why Mobile Phones in sugarcane cultivation. The four Switched When YETI Demystifies compartment system includes the Travel in a Flight? Mathematical Modeling filtration technique, ensuring that an enriched solution gets collected atAirplanes, soon after takeoff and Young Ecologists Talk and Interact the end, mixed with water, and sentmuch before landing, fly at an alti- (YETI) 2011, at the Indian Institute by drip irrigation system to the field.tude of higher than a kilometre dur- of Techonlogy-Guwahati, witnessed The first section is meant for collec-ing their flight. They have to ascend a unique activity on the second day. tion of cow dung and urine these high altitudes for the aerial Instead of interaction on ecology or After thorough mixing, the solutionflight to avoid turbulence due to conservation, participants in one of is sent to the second compartmentclouds and the clear air turbulence the workshops were asked to do an for first filtration. The solid matter(CAT) present at low and normal al- arithmetic exercise using calcula- is used for biogas production and thetitudes. At such high altitudes, the tors. They were amazed at the re- upper part of the solution is thenpilots have to largely depend on the sults they got as they had no idea allowed to flow into a third compart-avionics and computer-assisted that these could be related to stud- ment where jaggery is added for fer-coded signal communications. The ies in ecological sciences. It was mentation. The clear enriched fil-pilots know the flight location and Vishwesha Guttal, assistant profes- trated medium is collected and useddestination besides other geo- sor at the Centre for Ecological Sci- for irrigation. By adopting this tech-graphical details by guided com- ences (CES), Indian Institute of Sci- nology the farmer can savemands from the Global Positioning ences (IISc), Bangalore, who Rs.27,000 per acre as it reducesSystem (GPS) which links the control demystified mathematical modelling labour and fertilizer cost, accordingtower, airplane cockpit and geosta- of ecology for the young ecologists. to Mr. Sakthivel. This technologytionary satellites. Further, they can Mr. Guttal helped them understand aids water holding capacity in theknow the weather and other meteo- that through proper application of soil and presence of earth worms isrological conditions and directions simple mathematical modelling, in- considerably increased in the fields.of landing and takeoff at the air- teresting results of ecological stud-ports, only through wireless commu- ies could be found. Land Minenications from the control towers at Technology to Helpthe airports. In poor weather, the Innovative Technique Detect Breast Cancerpilots use instrument landing system Showcased at(ILS) to find the runway. Most of Scientists claimed that now a simple National Conferencethese avionics are remote opera- test could diagnose breast cancer intions and all the communications women in eight seconds. They claim “A single person combines in him-are in wireless radio and microwave to have developed it from a technol- self the work of a weatherman, ansemionics. All the wireless signal ogy that is used to detect land engineer, a marketing executive, atrafficking is accomplished by modu- mines. The new screening tool, veterinarian, and above all a states-lated radio and microwave transmis- called MARIA, is safer and more man endowed with the responsibil-sions which type the cell phones comfortable than traditional mam- ity of feeding his people, says Mr G.also owe their functioning to. If there mogram X-rays. It can be used on R. Sakthivel an enterprising and in-are any mobile phones on board in 60 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 61. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : of any age, unlike current harder to push an empty mug upside mugs brim to detach itself from thetechnology. Scientists already car- down into water.The latter difficulty surface of the water. Say, the mugried out three successful trials with is mainly due to the buoyancy, the has a perimeter (brim) of about 12300 women at Frenchay and air sac, captured inside the mug, inches (i.e., about 30 cms) and aSouthmead hospitals. They also experiences during such operation. mass of about half kilogram withclaimed that results from the trials However, when we try to pull out the negligible thickness. Then, it is heldshowed a diagnostic success rate of same empty mug or the mug already on its brim by the water surface by80 per cent. MARIA stands for drowned, in an upside manner, we a surface force of about 0.02 new-Multistatic Array processing for Ra- experience certain difficulty of pull- tons when the mug is about to de-dio wave Image Acquisition, is made ing it out. This difficulty stems from tach from the surface. This means,from 60 antennas, which create a a different cause and owes to the we have to apply this much addi-complete scan of the breast in eight surface tension phenomenon of liq- tional force (besides the force re-seconds. uids. The atoms or molecules of a quired against gravity) when the liquid in its bulk regions have their mugs brim is pulling out from the Genetic Tests to chemical valences fully satisfied in liquids surface besides the usual Detect Breast Cancer all the six directions (front and rear, force of about 5 newtons against the left and right and up and down or gravity. The 5 newtons against theScientists recently developed a ge- mathematically, x and x, y and y gravity would have been the onlynetic test to detect breast cancer. It and z and z directions of space) force required had there been nowill help those women who are in whereas those present on the sur- surface tension phenomenon.the early stages of breast cancer. It face of the liquid have only five of Hence, we feel it hard to pull out anwill save them the trouble of under- their directions (front and rear, left empty mug, upside down, from wa-going chemotherapy. Scientists in- and right and down) chemically sat- ter.vented the Oncotype DX test, which isfied while leaving the upward con-can help doctors determine the like- nectivity missing (say, z direction). Technology to Producelihood of breast cancer returning and This deficiency has the effect of Pocket TVif further intervention is needed. keeping all the atoms or moleculesThe test uses a small sample of of the liquids, on their surface, more British scientists recently developedbreast tumour tissue and focuses on firmly coherent on their lateral sides a technology, which could be usedgroups of genes, which can influence enabling the surface of such liquid to produce pocket TV. Scinetists de-how a cancer is likely to grow and act like an elastic skin. Hence, it veloped a new form of light-emittingrespond to treatment. At present, would demand certain amount of crystals, known as quantum dots.the test is available in the US and force to tear of the surface of the These dots can be used to produceAmerican Society for Clinical Oncol- liquids. ultra-thin televisions. The tiny crys-ogy and the National. Comprehen- tals are 100000 times smaller thansive Cancer Network include it in The amount of force required to open the width of human hair. This can betheir treatment guidelines for the apart one unit length of the liquids printed onto flexible plastic sheetsearly stage of breast cancer. surface is defined as the surface (which can be rolled up) to produce tension of the liquid. Its value is a paper-thin display. unique to the liquid and is highly Why is it Hard sensitive to the temperature, pres- to Pull an Empty Mug Blue Brain Project sure and purity of the liquid. For Completely Immersed water, its value is about 72 dynes Science has advanced in the Second Upside Down in Water? per cm (or 72 milli newtons per Millennium in ways that we now meter). When a mug is pulled out challenge ourselves into doing whatNot only is it hard to pull out any upside down, its brim has to tear we could not have earlier. We haveempty mug completely immersed open the surface of water layer by a embarked on an experiment to de-upside down in water but also it is length (perimeter) equal to the termine the ultimate particle of WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 61 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 62. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : all nuclei, atoms, molecules has put together what he calls the cell responsible for the productionand materials are made anywhere Blue Brain Project (the blue here of antibodies.on earth or in the vast sky. We look symbolizing supercomputers).for the “God particle”. We have sent The approach of Blue Brain is binary. More Potent Ways toman-made crafts to other planets, It uses the information available Design HIV Drugs foundand have made machines and tools from the hundreds of thousands ofthat enquire whether life exists else- publications of neuroscientists on In perhaps the most comprehensivewhere in the sky, and whether there one hand, and ability of computer survey of the inner workings of HIV,are other planets similar to ours that programmers to create an international team of scientistsmay supports life- “second earths”. connectivities between the millions led by researchers at the UniversityWe have read the “book of human of “neurons” in silico on the other. of California, San Francisco haslife”, the 3.2 billion- letter-long code Combining the two, he expects to mapped every apparent physical in-of DNA that makes us what we are. build a facility that would aim at teraction the virus makes with com-There are two ways to approach this data integration and help build brain ponents of the human cells it infects.grand challenge. One is to try and models.Gesture-based communica- This work may reveal new ways tounderstand the neurons (nerve cells) tions are quite common in other pri- design future HIV/AIDS drugs. Inof “lower” organisms – worms, flies, mates such as orangutans and chim- back-to-back papers published infish, rats and such, and build on this panzees, which cannot speak but the journal Nature , the survey re-knowledge. This involves experi- use a variety of hand, feet and limb veals a pathogenic landscape inments on the “normal” organism and gestures to communicate among which HIVs handful of proteinson its “mutants” – its cousins who themselves and also with their hu- makes hundreds of physical connec-are born (or tampered with in the lab) man care-takers. Dr. Amy Follick of tions with human proteins and otherwith one or more neural problem. Emory University, Atlanta has been components inside the cell. In oneMany biologists are involved in such able to distinguish 31 manual ges- paper, the team details 497 suchexperiments, and several more di- tures and is 18 facial/vocal gestures. connections, only a handful of whichrectly study humans with neurologi- had been previously recognized bycal problems and try to make sense Bone Marrow Cancer scientists.out of the basis behind such errors Genes Identifiedin the brain. Disrupting these connections may Scientists identified genes that can interfere with HIVs lifecycle, and theBy the mid-1970s, information tech- increase a person’s risk of develop- existence of so many new connec-nology had advanced to such a level ing multiple myeloma by 30 percent. tions suggests there may be severalthat companies, notably IBM, had Multiple myeloma is an aggressive novel ways to target the virus. In athought of modelling the “thought” form of bone marrow. A team at the companion paper, Krogan and col-behind chess games that we humans Institute of Cancer Research used a laborating labs investigated oneplay. The advanced computers pro- technique known as genome wide such connection in detail. They dis-gramming that they did at that time association study to scan the DNA covered that an HIV protein calledwas christened “Deep Thought” (a of 1675 patients with multiple my- Vif makes a physical connection withterm coined by researchers at eloma. When results were com- a human protein called CBF-â, hi-Carnegie Mellon University, includ- pared, scientists found that two re- jacking its function. The UCSF-leding Dr. Thomas Anantharaman). It is gions of the DNA that were more study has provided the most com-these advances in computers that common in people with multiple prehensive and detailed picture toled Dr. Henry Markram of Ecole myeloma and were therefore linked date of all the interactions HIV hasPolytechnique Federal de Lausanne, to a higher chance of developing the with the human cells it infects, andSwitzerland, to think of creating disease. Multiple myeloma is also identifying these interactions maysupercomputer models of the brain known as plasma cell myeloma or lead to the development of newthat would be accurate to the last Kahlers disease. It is a cancer of drugs to treat the disease. Interfer-biological details. To this end, he plasma cells, a type of white blood ing with this association may be a 62 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 63. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : to block the virus. Ultimately, if ets in other solar systems, and be available at farm level. He alsoscientists can design compounds to whether solar systems that are rich recalled the past initiatives ofdo this safely and effectively, those in carbon could produce planets that SABRC in convening two such na-compounds could form the basis for are mostly made of diamond. Wendy tional seminars earlier in the last fivea new type of HIV/AIDS treatment. Panero, researcher in the School of years, with focus on organic and Earth Sciences at Ohio State along eco-friendly pest management tech- Mechanism Controlling with doctoral student Cayman nologies. He explained that this suc- the Fat in Human Body Unterborn used what they learned cessful campaign for mass produc- from the experiments to construct tion and field release of the importedScientists made a key discovery computer models of the minerals bioagent was an outstanding suc-about the mechanism controlling the that form in planets composed with cess story in biological pest controlfat in human body. It sheds new light more carbon than earth. “It is pos- at national level. About 60 expertson how proteins regulate appetite sible for planets that are as big as from several ICAR institutes andcontrol and insulin secretion.This is 15 times the mass of the Earth to be other Universities participated.the first time such a mechanism was half made of diamond,” saiddescribed and its unique, showing Unterborn, according to a university Adult Stem Cellsthe importance of this protein to statement. Our results suggest car- in the Heartcellular function. bon-rich planets can form with aCPT1 is the protein responsible for core and a mantle, just as Earth did,” An international team of scientistsregulating fatty acid oxidation in the said Panero. “However, the cores led by Prof Richard Harvey of theliver and is critical for metabolism. would likely be very carbon-rich University of New South Wales andIts activity determines whether a much like steel and the mantle would colleagues at Victor Chang Cardiacperson suffers from fatty liver in one also be dominated by carbon, much Research Institute discovered a newcase or ketosis in the other. The dis- in the form of diamond,” he added. population of adult stem cells in thecovery will help in better under- heart. The findings were piblishedstanding of why some people has a National Seminar on following recent reports that stemspeedy metabolism and others Eco-Friendly cells harvested from human heartsstruggle to control their appetite.This Crop Protection during surgery show promise for re-would be a major breakthrough in versing heart attack damage. Scien-tackling the obesity crisis faced by In recent years, there has been re- tists claimed in their findings, pub-humans. newed interest in popularizing or- lished in the latest edition of the Cell ganic and consumer-safe pest man- Stem Cell journal that the adult Diamond-Studded agement technologies, to cater to stem cells can augment the devel- Planets organic and export-focus cultivation opment of new regeneration and of crops in India. A national seminar repair therapies for people who haveRecent findings have revealed that on Biotechnological approaches in suffered cardiac failure. This is thesome stars in the Milky Way could organic and eco-friendly crop pro- first time this new population ofbe harbouring carbon super earths tection towards promoting knowl- stem cells was formally described,— gigantic planets completely be- edge transfer and technology aware- and its origins clearly defined. Areft of life but potentially holding ness was organised recently by the mouse was used as a model system.billions of tonnes of diamond. The Sun Agro biotech research centre The first part of the study includedfinding comes from a lab experiment (SABRC) and the Department of Zo- the discovery and characterisationat Ohio State University, where sci- ology, University of Madras in of a new population of multi-potent,entists recreated the temperatures Chennai. He also emphasized the adult stem cells that live in the heartand pressures of earths lower need to adequately support the or- . The stem cells were found to bemantle to study how diamonds form ganic farming communities with ap- powerful in dividing, and respond-there. The goal was to understand propriate technologies, especially ing to their native environment towhat happens to carbon inside plan- eco-friendly pest control options to form whatever tissue is needed for WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 63 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 64. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : The new group of cells are Oxidative Stress New horned dinosaur announcedmulti-potent, and highly specific to Damages DNA A new species of horned dinosaurthe heart. These cells when trans- was just announced by scientists,lated into the human setting is ex- Researchers have now decoded the nearly 100 years after the initial dis-pected to work well at regenerating mechanism that repairs DNA dam- covery of the fossil.and repairing a broken heart or a aged in this way. This repair mecha-heart that has suffered injury nism could lead to less invasive ap- Stradivarius Violinthrough heart attack or heart proaches in cancer therapy.failure. The scientists are of the Using computed tomography imag-opinion that population of cells are ing and advanced manufacturing Pattern of Hydrogenvery high up in the stem cell hierar- techniques, a team of experts haschy, and can generate a number of Bonds created a reproduction of a 1704progenitor cells that would exist in Stradivarius violin.a healthy heart, ready for action. A pattern of hydrogen bonds be- tween odorant and receptor, ac- counting for the specificity of the Fire & Wind Hydro Gel Developed olfactory sensors has been found. by Researchers Computer simulations helped pre- Firstly, consider the presence of a dict if odorants activate a certain low velocity wind. ( say, virtually, stillScientists developed a hydro gel that receptor or not. air). At any moment of time, thisregenerated healthy and scar-free wind is just sufficient to sustain thetissue on skin damaged by severe fire. That is, it functions just as an Bees, Flowering Plantsburns. The hydro gel helps in for- ‘element. Obviously, it cannot pro-matting of new blood vessels and Adjust to Earlier Spring vide any motive force (kinetic en-skin including hair follicles. The in- ergy) for the fire (flame). Hence, thejured soldiers, fire victims and An analysis of bee collection data fire cannot spread. Ultimately, itpeople with third degree burns can over the past 130 years shows that blows out. Secondly, consider theavail of the gel. Third-degree burns spring arrives about 10 days earlier presence of a high velocity wind. Attypically destroy the top layers of than in the 1880s, and bees and any moment of time, there is not onlyskin down to the muscle. The treat- flowering plants have kept pace by sufficient supply of air to sustain thement involves, dressing up the arriving earlier. fire but also there is adequate air towound, which includes hydro gel provide motive force. Thus, its func-and 3D framework of polymers. Maturation Clock tion is two-fold: as an element and as a motive force. Hence, the fire Saguna Baugh An increase in fruit yield might be spreads. achieved by manipulating a molecu-Saguna Baug is a farming outfit at lar timer that determines the num- Bacteria Live Inside CellsMalegaon-Neral of Raigad District. ber of branches that make flowers.It was set up as a role model to in- Bacteria build camouflaged homesspire those who move away from Small Spider’s Brains for themselves inside healthy cells,farming. Started by a Gandhian free- Overflow into Their Legs and cause disease, by manipulatingdom fighter, popularly known as a natural cellular process.Harikaka Bhadsavle it is presently Smithsonian researchers report thatbeing taken care by his son. After the brains of tiny spiders are so large Vanishing Elephants,twenty years of tedious and persis- that they fill their body cavities and Rise of Modern Humanstent efforts this beautiful agricul- overflow into their legs. As the spi-tural project is wide-open for visi- ders get smaller, their brains get pro- With the disappearance of el-tors. portionally bigger. ephants in the Middle East, new hominids who had to be more agile 64 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 65. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : skillfull to hunt smaller and Genes of Thyroid in maintaining clarity of the corneafaster prey took over the Middle Cancer Found in humans.Eastern landscape and eventuallyreplaced Homo erectus. Three genes that increase the risk Elderly as Fast as Young of thyroid cancer, which has the larg- in Some Brain Tasks 300 Year Old est incidence increase in cancers JACK Tree among both men and women, have Healthy older people can be trained been discovered, raising important to respond faster in some decision-The tree is presently in the field of details relevant to diagnosis and making tasks without hurting theirfarmer Mr. K. Narasimhaiah and is treatment. accuracy — meaning their cognitivenearly 300 years old and the tree skills in this area arent so differentbears nearly 300 fruits annually, Why Alcohol Makes from younger adults.which the farmer sells for Rs 20,000- Some AggressiveRs.30,000. Sauropoda Dinosaur If people who focus on the here and Evolution & Skull Shape now, without thinking about the im- For the first time, the fossil remains pact on the future, tend to be ag- of sauropoda has been recorded inSkull shape did not occur indepen- gressive even when sober, the ag- Antarctica. Until now, remains of thedently through separate evolution- gressive effect generally gets herbivorous dinosaurs had been re-ary events, but by actually precipi- greatly magnified when they are covered from all other continentaltating each other. drunk. landmasses. Cassini Delivers Foetal Arsenic Exposure Prehistoric Wood Found Holiday Treats A study advances our understanding Under the cold clear waters of LakeRadio signals flying clear across the of the sources of exposure to ar- Huron, researchers have found asolar system from NASAs Cassini senic and the potential for consum- five-and-a-half-foot-long, pole-spacecraft have delivered a holiday ing harmful levels of arsenic via rice. shaped piece of wood that is 8,900package of glorious images , includ- Arsenic exposure during pregnancy years those of Saturns moon Titan and has health risks to the foetus.other icy baubles orbiting Saturn. Brighter Future For Steroids to Retina Solar Energy New Kind of Metal Steroids hitching a ride into the The efficiency of conventional solarNew experiments and computations retina on nanoparticles called cells can be increased up to 66 perhave revealed that iron oxide under- dendrimers offer a new way to treat cent by using an organic plasticgoes a new kind of transition under age-related macular degeneration semiconductor material. It is baseddeep-Earth conditions due to high and retinitis pigmentosa. The ste- on harvesting double the number ofpressures and temperatures (as at- roids target damage-causing cells. electrons from one photon.oms, electrons are squeezed to-gether). Cornea Gene Left-Handedness is a Discovered Normal Variant Darwin About Emotions Since a transparent cornea is essen- Most of the time, left-handednessContrary to what many psychologi- tial for vision, the eye has evolved is simply a naturally occurring, nor-cal scientists think, people do not all to nourish the cornea without blood mal variant. In some cases, however,have the same set of biologically vessels. A gene plays a major role it is disadvantageous and may well‘basic emotions. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 65 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 66. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : a genetic defect or early de- Record Massive Blackvelopmental disturbance. Holes Discovered Microbes in Astronomers have discovered the Mars-like Conditions largest black holes to date — two monsters with masses equivalent toMicrobes from ice within a lava tube 10 billion suns that are threateninghave been found to thrive in cold, to consume anything, even light,Mars-like conditions. They can tol- within a region five times the sizeerate temperatures near freezing, of our solar system.low oxygen levels, and can grow inthe absence of organic food. Solar Storms Could Sandblast the Moon New Vaccine Attacks Breast Cancer in Mice Solar storms and associated Coro- nal Mass Ejections (CMEs) can sig-A new vaccine developed at the Uni- nificantly erode the lunar surface ac-versity of Georgia and the Mayo cording to a new set of computerClinic in Arizona dramatically re- simulations by NASA scientists. Thisduces tumours in a mouse model could also cause atmospheric lossthat mimics 90 per cent of human for Mars.breast and pancreatic cancer cases. Comet Lovejoy Frogs Find Mates With SnappedMatching Chromosomes The recently discovered CometWhen it comes to love songs, female Lovejoy has been captured in stun-tree frogs are pretty picky. Certain ning photos and time-lapse videofemale tree frogs may be remarkably taken from the European Southernattuned to the songs of mates who Observatorys Paranal Observatoryshare the same number of chromo- in Chile.somes as they do, says a new study. Global CO {-2} Double Destruction Due Emissions to ‘Double Tsunami Global carbon dioxide emissionsThe destructive tsunami generated from burning fossil fuels have in-by the March 2011 Japan earthquake creased by 49 per cent in the lastwas a ‘merging tsunami that two decades, according to the lat-doubled in intensity over rugged est figures by an international team.ocean ridges, amplifying its destruc-tive power before reaching shore. 66 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 67. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Science & Technology in the competition in 2004. Nadal Pakistan - Bangladesh caught Del Potro out with one of 35 Test Series winners to take the second set and Pakistan defeated Bangladesh by cruise through the third set. However seven wickets in the second and fi- Potro’s late fightback broke Nadal nal cricket Test in Dhaka on 21 De- four times in the fourth set to send cember 2011. Pakistan by defeating it to a tiebreaker, where Nadal raced Bangladesh in the second test was ahead without losing a point before able to to sweep the series 2-0. Pa- securing victory with a forehand win- Cricket kistan was set 103 to win after bowl- ner. Argentina remained the only ing Bangladesh out for 234 in its nation to play in four Davis Cup fi- India - West Indies second innings and achieved the nals and never win one. One Day Series target in the final session. PakistanIndia beat West Indies by 34 runs to captain Misbah-ul-Haq secured the Barclay’s ATPwin the fifth and final cricket one- victory by hitting a six after World Tour Finalsday match and recorded an emphatic Mohammad Hafeez made 47 and Swiss tennis star Roger Federer de-4-1 series triumph in Chennai on 11 Azhar Ali chipped in with 34. Earlier, feated Jo-Wilfried Tsonga of FranceDecember 2011. Electing to bat, In- left-arm spinner Abdur Rehman took in their singles final tennis match atdia scored 267 runs with the loss of 4-51 to restrict Bangladesh. the Barclay’s ATP World Tour Finals,six wickets in the stipulated overs. in the O2 arena in London on 27Manoj Tiwary 104 and Virat Kohli 80 November 2011. The victory earnedwere the top scorers for India. In re- him a record sixth ATP World Tourply, West Indies reached as close as Finals title.233 in 44.1 overs. K. Pollard 119 andA Russel 53 were top scorers for The victory also helped him moveWest Indies. Darren Sammy was the ahead of Pete Sampras and Ivancaptain of West Indies while Lendl on the list of Tour Finals cham-Virender Sehwag was the captain of Tennis pions in the 100th final of his career.Indian side for this series. GautamGambhir was the stand–in captain Davis Cup Federer has won 70 trophies in hisfor the last one–dayer. India’s Manoj Spain won its fifth Davis Cup title career and has also equalled LendlsTiwary was declared Man of The after Rafael Nadal defeated record of 39 match wins in the end-Match and Indian batsman Rohit Argentina’s Juan Martin del Potro 1- of-season event.Sharma got Man of the Series Award. 6 6-4 6-1 7-6 (0) on 4 DecemberManoj Tiwary and K. Pollard scored 2011. The victory earned Nadal his Federer received the winnerstheir international one day career’s first title since winning his sixth cheque worth $770,000. For the firstfirst centuries in this match. India French Open in June 2011. Nadal time since 2002 he ended the sea-and West Indies played this five- with the victory stretched his record son without a Grand Slam title.oneday match series from 29 No- on clay to 16-0. Nadal earned hisvember 2011 to 11 December 2011. 20th straight victory since debuting WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 67 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 68. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : world rankings. Hidayat who ended 22 points ahead of teammate R. his title drought of 2011 with a 21- Deepak, who came fifth in the race. 15, 21-18 triumph over Saurabh re- Sarosh Hataria of Meco Motorsports ceived $9,000 as the prize money. stood second. Karthik Krishna fin- In the first set of this final battle, ished third but was penalised for Taufik played with precision and won overtaking when the yellow flag was it with a comfortable score. in the being waved and thus conceded his second game, Sourabh elevated his podium place to Chitesh Mandody. Badminton level of play and matched the speed Rahil Noorani, a championship con- of Taufik but lost the set with a de- tender in the Polo R Cup series was BWF World Super Series cent margin. Ranked 72 in the world excluded from the competition after Badminton Championship and on his debut season on the se- a post-race incident in the pits afterIndian ace badminton player and nior international circuit, Sourabh he vent his frustration at Ajay Kini.World No. 4 Saina Nehwal of India had won the Bahrain Internationalwas defeated by World No. 1 Wang Challenge in 2011 and had alsoYihan 18-21, 21-13, 21-13 in the reached the quarterfinals of TATAwomen’s singles final of the Open India International Challenge,$500000 BWF World Super Series Thailand Grand Prix Gold and Indianbadminton championship in China Super series.on 18 December 2011. In 2011 Sainawon only the Swiss Open Super Se- The womens singles final was wonries title. Wang proved to be too good by third seed Inthanon Ratchanok offor the Indian shuttler in the crucial Golf Thailand. Naoki Kawamae & Shojiphases of the 72-minute final. The Sato (Jpn) emerged winners in Mensscores were levelled twice, four-all Goodricke East India Amateur doubles while in womens doubles,and 11-all, before the Chinese picked Golf Championship Shinta Mulia Sari & Lei Yao ofseven points in a row to take a huge Delhis Honey Baisoya became the Singapore defeated Miyuki Maeda &18-11 lead. With this win, Yihan kept youngest winner of the 22nd Satako Suetsuna of Japan to emergeher 100 per cent record against Saina Goodricke East India amateur golf champions.intact, having now beaten her in all championship at RCGC on 25 De-their four faceoffs so far. Saina cember 2011. The 15-year-old de-Nehwal had created history by be- feated the countrys No.1 amateur,coming the first ever Indian to enter S. Chikkarangappa to win 3 and 2.the singles final of the World Super Both had to play two rounds of 36Series. Gutta Jwala and V. Diju were holes on the final day. Baisoya se-the only other Indians who made it cured a winning start after makingto the final in mixed doubles in the birdies on first, fourth, fifth, ninth,2009 edition. Motor Racing/F1 12th and 15th in the first round of 18 holes where both Baisoya and JK Tyre-FMSCI National Racing Chikka halved 11 holes. Though, India Open Grand Prix Championship Chikka won on seventh, 11th andIndonesia’s experienced shuttler, Ameya Walavalkar of Mars Racing 14th, Baisoya was 2-up after the firstTaufik Hidayat, won his first Men’s registered his sixth win of 2011 in round. In the second round, BaisoyaSingles title of 2011 at the 2011 the Formula LGB Swift class, thereby again took an early lead after mak-$120,000 Syed Modi India Open clinching his maiden drivers cham- ing a birdie on the first to go 3-upGrand Prix Gold badminton champi- pionship title in the JK Tyre-FMSCI though Chikka kept giving a toughonship when he defeated Sourabh National Racing Championship at the competition. Baisoya in total had sixVerma of India. Taufik is currently MMRT in Irungattukottai on 27 No- birdies in the first round of 18 andWorld Number 12 in Men’s Singles vember 2011. Walavalkar finished three more in 16 holes in the sec- 68 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 69. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : round while Chikka had three tion Championship (SAFF) were Af- tina in December 2011. Both thebirdies in both rounds. Baisoya also ghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, teams were locked 1-1 at half-timedropped fewer bogeys. Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal and but India came back strongly in the Pakistan. Winner India received a second session to score three goals. prize purse of USD 50,000 while Af- Jaspreet Kaur, Anuradha Thokchom, ghanistan took home USD 25,000. In Vandana Katariya and Preety Sunila addition, All India Football Federa- Kiro 69thscored for India India thus tion announced a cash award of Rs. won bronze medals at both the four- 1 lakh for each player for winning nation tournaments held at Buenos the tournament. Aires and Parana on the current tour. In the final World champion Argen- tina defeted South Africa 2-0 to win the tournament. Football Indian Player of the YearIndia striker Sunil Chhetri was on 20December 2011 voted Player of theYear by the All India Football Fed-eration. He was chosen by I-League Hockeycoaches from a five-player shortlist.He will receive a cash award of Rs 2 Champions Challenge Hockey Tournament Archery/Shootinglakh and a silver plaque. The crite-ria of selection were Performance for Belgium defeated India 4-3 in the final of the Champions Challenge 32nd Sahara Senior NationalIndia and general conduct on and off hockey tournament in Johannesburg, Archery Championshipthe field. Chhetri scored 13 goals in South Africa on 4 December 2011. The Archery Association of India17 internationals in 2011, which The victory enabled Belgium, who (AAI) announced in late Decemberwas the highest the by an Indian. are already through to the 2012 Lon- 2011 that the 32nd Sahara seniorChettri has also scored 11 goals in don Games, to qualify for the next National archery championship20 appearances for I-League club Champions Trophy in Australia. The (recurve and compound) will be heldMohun Bagan. He won the man of Belgium sise was coached by Colin at the JRD Tata Sports Complex,the championship in the SAFF Cham- Jamshedpur from 24 to 29 Januarypionship in New Delhi in 2011. He Batch. Tom Boon scored the winning goal for Belgium and in the process 2012. The meet is to serve as thehas also been awarded the presti- selection trials for aspirants of agious Arjuna Award in the past. became the joint top scorer of the tournament along with Justin Reid place in the Indian archery team forI.M.Vijayan was the first recipient of Ross of South Africa with eight goals. the first Asian Grand Prix at Bangkokthe award in 1992. In 2010 the award scheduled to be held 14 to 20 Feb-was bestowed on Gouramangi Singh VR Raghunath, Sandeep Singh and ruary 2012. The best five finishers Shivender Singh scored for India. in the mens recurve section will vie 6th SAFF Championship Sandeep Singh finished the tourna- for three places in the Indian team,India won its 6th SAFF Championship ment with seven goals, all through and the best five women will vie fortitle against the newcomer, Afghani- penalty corners, and won the Player one spot in the womens recurvestan on 11 December 2011. Indias of the Tournament award. team at a selection trials to be heldstar striker Sunil Chhetri won all the Four-nation Tournament at SAI, Eastern Centre, from 3 to 6individual awards in the tournament. February 2012. The AAI retainedIndia was a five time SAFF champion The Indian womens hockey team Jayanta Talukdar and the threebefore it won the 2011 SAFF. The defeated Ireland 4-1 win to clinch women archers, Chekrovolu Swuro,other participating nations in the the bronze medal in the four-nation Deepika Kumari and L. Bombayla2011 South Asian Football Federa- tournament held in Parana, Argen- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 69 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 70. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs :, in the Indian team for all in- ship at Mardin,Turkey on 27 Decem-ternational competition till the Lon- ber 2011. Indias chances of winningdon Olympics since they earned the a medal was blown away followingcountry four Olympic quota places. a loss to Georgia and then China. The losses by Tania Sachdev and Soumya Swaminathan of India paved the way for an easy Georgian vic- tory in the end. Volleyball China won the gold medal with 16 Vajpayee Cup points while the silver was claimed Kerala defeated Andhra Pradesh in by the Russians who finished with Athletics straight sets to lift the mens title in 13 points in all. Georgia ended with the 10th All-India Invitational volley- the bronze while India and Ukraine ball tournament for the Vajpayee Fukuoka Mens Marathon were tied for the fourth spot. Ukraine Cup on 25 December 2011. KeralaJosphat Ndambiri of Kenya won the caused the biggest surprise of the won the game 25-20, 25-18, 25-18.Fukuoka mens marathon in Japan championship with a sensational Karnataka outdid Tamil Nadu to oc-winning the 42.195km race in 2hrs 2.5-1.5 victory over leaders China. cupy the third position in the men’s7mins and 36secs on 4 December Though China was not much af- category.2011. Mwangi stood second. Both fected, the helped the UkrainianNdambiri and Mwangi currently re- eves come into reckoning after a The Kerala on the other hand de-side in Japan. Mwangi crossed the rather subdued performance in the feated Central Railway (Mumbai)line one minute and two seconds first half. and to claim the titlee. Tiji Raju andafter Ndambiri who had opened up N. Bijina led the turnaround as it wona sizeable lead following the 35km London Chess Classic’s Open 20-25, 18-25, 25-23, 26-24, 15-13.mark. Yuki Kawauchi of Japan fin- Indian Grandmaster Abhijeet Gupta The women had to come back fromished in third place with a time of won the London Chess Classics two sets down to take the title. Thetwo hours, nine minutes and 57 sec- open section, with a hard-earned Kerala women lost the first set 20-onds. The Fukuoka marathon, now victory over Grandmaster Keith 25 before finding themselves inin its 64th year, is widely regarded Arkell of England. Abhijeet, a former deep trouble after losing the secondas a prestigious title. In 2011 the world junior champion and reigning set 18-25. In the deciding set Keralaocassion was treated as valuable national champion, scored eight outdid Central Railway 15-13 topreparation for next years Olympics points in all. The chess tournament clinch the title. Southern Railwayin London. was held from 3 December 2011 to (Chennai) finished third in the 12 December 2011. womens sections. Another Indian, International Mas- ter Sahaj Grover pulled himself to the second spot after defeating English Grandmaster Peter Wells in the fi- nal round of the event. Sahaj, who scored 7.5 points in all. Chess World Womens Team Chess ChampionshipThe Indian team finished at thefourth position in the WorldWomens Team Chess Champion- 70 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 71. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : UPSCPORTAL UPSCPORTAL BANK PO PRACTICE SET GENERAL UPSCPORTAL’S STUDIES IAS (MAINS) fgUnh lkfgR; Solved Paper izSfDVl lsV (eq[; ijh{kk)Buy Online at: vkbZ- ,- ,l@ih- ,l lh ijh{kkvksa ds fy, mi;ksxh UPSCPORTAL’S CSAT PAPER-1 GENERAL STUDIES QUESTION BANK WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 71 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 72. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Award & Prizes Sahitya Akademi Tamil novelist Su Venkatesans , de- manuscript Corporate, Loktantra aur Awards but novel Kaval Kottam earned him Paid News. Kumud Sharma’s the coveted Sahitya Akademi Award book Samachar Bazar ki in Tamil section. The book is about Naitikta bagged the second prize.Twenty-two writers selected on 21 the 600-year old history of the city The third prize went jointly toDecember for the prestigious Sahitya of Madurai and a security system Shivananda Kamde for his book Car-Akademi awards for2011. Eight that prevailed there toon Patrakarita and Dr. Akela Bhaibooks of poetry, seven novels, three for his book Radio Sahitya auressays and one each short stories, Awardees in Essays Category Patrakarita. In the Women’s issuesnarrative history, biography and playwere selected for the awards. Writ- Lalit Magotra (Dogri), Grace category, the first prize for 2009 wasers in 23 languages are recongised (Marathi) and Samala Sadasiva given to Lata Kot for herevery year by the Akademi.The books (Telugu) received the award for their manuscript Adha Asmaan Hamara. books on essays. The first prize in Children’s Litera-were selected on the basis of rec- ture category for 2009 was given toommendations made by a jury of Awardees in Other Sections Ghamandi Lal Agrawal for his bookthree members in each language.The awards that are given every year Historian Ramachandra Guha was ‘Geet Gyan Vigyan Ke’ and the sec-and contain an engraved cooper chosen for the award for his book of ond prize to Renu Saini for her manu-plaque, a shawl and a cheque of Rs narrative history - India After script ‘Bachpan ka Safar’.1 lakh. Gandhi. Mohan Parmar (Gujarati) was chosen for his short stories, M.K. 2010 WinnersSahitya Akademi awards for Po- Sanu (Malayalam) for his biography For 2010 the second prize in Jour-etry Poets chosen for the award and Mohan Gehani (Sindhi) for his nalism and Mass Communication book on plays. category was awarded to Pranjalincludes: Late Kabin Phukan Dhar’s manuscript Samkaleen(Assamese), Manindra Gupta Bharatendu Harish Vaishwik Patrakarita Mei Akhbaar.(Bengali), Premananda Mosahari Chandra Awards No one was awarded first prize for(Bodo), Naseem Shafaie (Kashmiri), 2010 in this category. In Women’sMelvyn Rodrigues (Konkani), issues category for 2010, SumanHarekrishna Satapathy (Sanskrit), Fourteen persons (Leading writers Rai’s book Gharelu Hinsa meinAditya Kumar Mandi (Santali) and and journalists) were given Mahila Sanrakshan Adhiniyam 2005,Khaleel Mamoon (Urdu). Bharatendu Harish Chandra Awards 2006 got the first prize. Sanjeev for 2009 and 2010 by Minister of Jaiswal Sanjay’s book Dooba HuaSahitya Akademi awards for Nov- State for Information and Broadcast- Qila and the book Cycle Par Thaaels Novelists who won the award ing, S Jagathrakshakan on 28 De- Kavva by Prabhat received the firstinclude: Kashinath Singh (Hindi), cember 2011. and second prize respectively in theKshetri Bira (Manipuri), Children’s Literature category. In theKalpanakumari Devi (Odia), Baldev 2009 Winners National Integration category forSingh (Punjabi) and Atul Kanakk The first prize in the Journalism and 2010, Shiv Kumar Rai’s manuscript(Rajasthani). Mass Communication category for ‘Meri Jati Bhartiya’ was given the the year 2009 was awarded to Dilip first prize. Chandra Mandal for his 72 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 73. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Bharatendu Harish Chandra tuted in 2003, to the Dalai Lama at the Founding Chancellor of the O.P.Awards: The Bhartendu the Kalachakra ground. Ila Gandhi, Jindal Global University. He is alsoHarishchandra Awards are given to who is based in South Africa, is a Member of Parliament, the Chair-published or unpublished books in chairman of the Gandhi Develop- man and Managing Director offour categories- Journalism and ment Trust that gives the award. Ti- Jindal Steel and Power Ltd (JSPL),Mass Communication, Women’s Is- betan Nobel Peace Laureate on the and a sports enthusiast. The O.P.sues, Children’s Literature and Na- occasion encouraged everyone to Jindal Global University has fourtional Integration. The awards were use human intelligence in challeng- schools: Jindal Global Law Schoolinstituted in 1983 to encourage origi- ing and overcoming negative emo- (JGLS), Jindal Global Business Schoolnal Hindi writings on topics related tions with positive emotions. He (JGBS), Jindal School of Interna-to journalism and mass communica- mentioned in his speech that disar- tional Affairs (JSIA) and Jindal Schooltion. Awards for writings on women’s mament is needed to attain com- of Government and Public Policyissues, children’s literature and na- plete non-violence. He also men- (JGSP). The Bhagwati Award wastional integration were included in tioned that mental peace results in also given to Arun Mohan, a seniorfrom 1992-93. The Awards scheme non-violent actions and mental un- advocate in the Supreme Court, inis coordinated by Publications Divi- rest causest he opposite. He con- recognition of his outstanding con-sion, Ministry of Information and cluded by stating that the real path tribution to access to justice. HumanBroadcasting, Government of India. to a happy life is not through money Resource Development MinisterThe Ministry of Information & Broad- n power but through honesty and Kapil Sibal and Law and Justice Min-casting, increased the Bhartendu compassion. The Dalai Lama was ister Salman Khurshid were con-Harishchandra award money from supposed to have received the ferred the Justice V.R. Krishna Iyerthe year 2009. award in October 2011 as part of a Award on the occassion. much anticipated visit to South Af-For journalism and mass communi- rica. The visit however had to be Life Time Achievementcation categories, the first prize now called off following a five-week wait Awardcarries an award of Rs 75000, up for a visa to be issued. Former re-from Rs 35000 earlier. The amount cipients of the Mahatma Gandhi In- Lord Swraj Paul, leading NRI indus-for the second prize was increased ternational Award include Burmese trialist was conferred with the Lifefrom Rs 25000 to Rs.50000 and the pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Time Achievement award for histhird from Rs.20000 to Rs.40000. For Kyi, South African leader Nelson outstanding contributions in variousbooks in category of Women’s Issues, Mandela and Tanzania’s Julius fields. The award, instituted by anChildren’s Literature and National Nyerere. Indian company Powerbrands, wasIntegration, the first prize carries an presented to Lord Paul on 12 De-award of Rs 40000 instead of Justice P.N. Bhagwati cember 2011 by Subrata Roy, chiefRs.15000 and the second prize Award of the Sahara Group.Rs.20000 instead of Rs.10000. Former president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Lord Paul, Chairman of the Caparo Mahatma Gandhi presented the Justice P.N. Bhagwati Group, dedicated the award to the International Award Award to O.P. Jindal Global Univer- ordinary people of India who he fells sity chancellor and managing direc- have little, but never complains. Phi-Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai tor of Jindal Steel and Power Ltd, lanthropist and Labour politician,Lama was presented the Mahatma Naveen Jindal on 6 December 2011. Lord Paul is the chancellor of theGandhi International Award for The award was conferred upon Jindal University of Wolverhampton andPeace and Reconciliation on 4 Janu- for his outstanding contribution to the University of Westminster. Paulary 2011, the fourth day of the ten- legal education and corporate phi- was awarded the Padma Bhushan byday Kalachakra initiations. The grand lanthropy. Justice P.N. Bhagwati the Government of India in 1983. Hedaughter of Mahatma Gandhi, Ila Award has been instituted by the was elevated to the British PeerageGandhi, presented the award, insti- Capital Foundation. Naveen Jindal is in 1996. Raghupati Singhania of J K WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 73 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 74. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : was earlier given the Nadezhda Markina for her role in the Clean DevelopmentPowerbrands Hall of Fame Award. Russian film Elena. Whereas, the Mechanism Project Silver Peacock Award for Best Actor Award 42nd International Film (Male) category was won by Sasson Festival of India (IFFI) Gabey for his role in an Israeli film Delhi Metro Rail Corporation(DMRC) Restoration. The Special Jury Award won a green award for reducingThe 42nd edition of International was presented to Salim Ahamed for emissions of polluting gases in theFilm Festival of India (IFFI) was held directing Malayalam film Adaminte national capital by 6.3 lakh tons ev-in Panaji, Goa from 23 November to Makan Abu meaning Abu, Son of ery year. The best Clean Develop-3 December 2011. Film star Shah Adam. The Special Jury Award car- ment Mechanism (CDM) projectRukh Khan inaugurated the 42nd ries a Silver Peacock Trophy, a cer- award was presented at Urban Mo-edition of IFFI. The inaugural cer- tificate and Rs. 15 lakh. The five bility Conference, 2011 which con-emony was marked by presentation members Jury under the chairman- cluded in New Delhi on 7 Decemberof Life Time Achievement award, ship of Adoor Gopalakrishnan had 2011. The best CDM award waswhich was revived after almost 10 screened 14 films from as many given to Delhi Metro for for its Modalyears to French film maker Bertrand countries and unanimously decided Shift Project under which it becameTavernier by Shah Rukh Khan. The the awards. the first Metro rail and rail-basedopening film of the festival was The system in the world to be certifiedConsul of Bordeaux, directed by Gomant Vibhushan by United Nations for getting carbonFrancisco Manso and Joao Correa. credits for reducing green houseThe 42nd IFFI came to an end with World renowned architect and Goas gas(GHG) emissions. Delhi Metro,the Asia premiere of the film The son-of-the-soil Charles Correa was which ferries around 18 lakh peopleLady directed by Luc Besson. For the bestowed with Goas highest civil- daily, helped to reduce pollution lev-first time, the inauguration ceremony ian honour, the Gomant Vibhushan, els in the city by 6.3 lakh tonnes ev-was held 30 km away from the main on the eve of the Golden Jubiliee of ery year, thus helping in reducingaction point. There was a first-ever Goas Liberation on 18 December global warming. DMRC directoropen screen on a football ground for 2011. The award was presented to (Works) Mangu Singh received thefree display of soccer films. The fes- him by Goa governor K award on the organisations behalf.tival was the first to feature the new Shankaranarayanan. Goa governor This is the second CDM project fromsections like 3D, Animation presented Correa with the over half- DMRC to be registered with the UN(Sketches on Screen) and Festival metre high, glass-encased brass rep- in the last three years. DMRCs firstKaleidoscope films. lica of Goas state symbol along with CDM project on regenerative brak- a cash award of Rs 5 lakh and a ci- ing had also achieved many inter-Awards presented during the Fes- tation in one of Correas own archi- national firsts apart from earningtival: The 42nd International Film tectural creations, the Kala Academy valuable foreign exchange for theFestival of India come to an end at at Panaji. Correas architectural ge- country.the Kala Academy in Panaji with the nius and projects dotsnot only Indianpresentation of awards in five dif- cities but also cities around the Grammy Awardferent segments. The Golden Pea- world, including Boston and Lisbon.cock Award for the Best Film was Correa is the second recipient of the The Academy of Recording Arts andgiven to a Columbian Film Porfirio. Gomant Vibhushan, the first being Sciences on 21 December 2011The Chief Guest of the closing cer- eminent nuclear scientist Anil chose Apple co-founder Steve Jobsemony, Southern Superstar, Suriya Kakodkar, who was awarded the to be posthumously honoured withpresented the award to the Director Gomant Vibhushan in 2010. Correa a Grammy award for his contributionAlejandro Landes and Producer, has earlier been conferred with to music technology. Jobs is to beFrancisco Aljure. The Silver Peacock Indias Padma Shri and Padma honoured as a creative visionary. HeAward for Best Actor (Female) cat- Vibhushan. is one of 11 people who will beegory was given to the actor 74 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 75. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : with special awards. Jobs, Shakti Bhatt Vittal. The winner was chosen by awho died on 5 October 2011 of pan- First Book Prize jury comprising graphic novelist andcreatic cancer, will receive a Trust- illustrator Sarnath Bannerjee, writerees Award on 13 February 2012 for Jamil Ahmad was declared the win- and blogger Jai Arjun Singh, and nov-helping create products that trans- ner of the Shakti Bhatt First Book elist Palash Krishna Mehrotra.formed the way music, TV, movies Prize for his book The Wanderingand books are consumed. Apple Com- Falcon at the British Council in New Sangita Kalanidhi M.S.puter Inc first received a Technical Delhi on 21 December 2011. The Subbulakshmi AwardGrammy Award in 2002 for contri- Wandering Falcon, is a narrativebutions of outstanding technical sig- about the lives of tribal people along S.R. Nathan, former President of thenificance to the recording field. the borders of Afghanistan, Pakistan Republic of Singaporepresented theBandleader and composer Dave and Iran. The book contained per- Sangita Kalanidhi M.S.Bartholomew, recording engineer sonal sights, sounds, actual faces Subbulakshmi Award to SangitaRudy Van Gelder will also receive the and conversations. The book that Kalanidhi-elect Trichy Sankaran ataward along with Jobs. The academy has won critical acclaim worldwide the inauguration of the 85th annualalso picked the Allman Brothers, was written decades ago and then conference of the Music Academy inGlen Campbell, Diana Ross and Bra- went into hibernation for 40 years. Chennai on 15 December 2011. S.R.zilian pianist/singer/guitarist Anto- He started writing the book in 1971, Nathan also inaugurated the 85thnio Carlos Jobim as recipients of Life- it was completed by 1973 and then annual conference of the Musictime Achievement Awards. Jobim it hibernated for 40 years. Academy. On the occassion the sec-was known for composing The Girl ond volume of the Sangitafrom Ipanema, a worldwide hit in the Born in Jalandhar in 1933, Jamil Sampradaya Pradarsini wasmid-1960s which won a Grammy for Ahmad is a Pakistani national. He launched. The Music Academy andRecord of the Year in 1965. had not agreed to the demands of the Singapore Indian Fine Arts Soci- the publishers, which eventually led ety (SIFAS) exchanged a memoran-Trumpeter Wayne Jackson, saxo- to the book being locked away for dum of understanding on educationphonist Andrew Love of the Mem- four decades. The book was pub- and training in Carnatic music, draft-phis Horns, country legend George lished by Hamish Hamilton — an ing of syllabus and training of teach-Jones, and the late Gil Scott-Heron imprint of Penguin earlier in 2011. ers during the inaugral ceremony.were also named as recipients. Ger- Ahmad was posted in Quetta in 1959 The Music Academy pioneered theman sound-technology firm where he first came into contact Margazhi music festival in Chennai,Celemony and the late audio engi- with tribals and was fascinated by which had evolved into a wondrousneer Roger Nichols, who worked with their lives and their stories. phenomenon that greatly enrichedartists including Ross, Placido The former civil servant from Paki- the cultural underpinning of the cityDomingo, James Taylor and Stevie stan, Ahmad gave away the prize over the last eight decades. The fes-Wonder, were also recognised with money of Rs. 1 lakh to St. Columbas tival remains unparalleled for itsGrammy Technical Awards. The School, where he was enrolled from sheer size, aesthetics, quality andTrustees Awards are given to people 1941 to 1944. The prize is set up in undiluted classicism.who make a contribution to music memory of writer and editor Shaktibeyond performance. The Academy Bhatt. A shortlist of six books was Trichy Sankaran:Trichy Sankaran isof Recording Arts and Sciences also announced ahead of the prize cer- the mridangam maestro and flag-chose seven performers to receive emony. The shortlist included The bearer of the Pudukottai percussiveLifetime Achievement Awards: The Collaborator by Mirza Waheed, The tradition. Trichy is 2011’s designateAllman Brothers Band, Glen Truth About Me by A. Revathi, for the Academys Sangita Kalanidhi.Campbell, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Chinaman by Shehan Karunatilaka, Trichy Sankaran, who is based inGeorge Jones, The Memphis Horns, A Free Man by Aman Sethi and R.D. Toronto became the first recipient ofDiana Ross, Gil Scott-Heron. Burman: The Man, The Music by the Sangita Kalanidhi title in the Anirudha Bhattacharjee and Balaji Pudukkottai parampara of his guru WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 75 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 76. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Subramania Pillai. SangitaKalanidhi M.S. Subbulakshmi Awardhas been instituted by The Hindu.The award carries a cash prize of Rs.1 lakh. 76 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 77. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : In The News Appointed songun, or "military-first," policy, cific topics of interest to be taken which has raised tensions with up for audit. Washington and Seoul. The accounts and management op- erations of the UN, the specialized agencies (WHO, WFP, WIPO etc.) and the IAEA are required to be au- dited and reported periodically by independent external auditors, who are supreme audit institutions of various countries selected by the Vinod Rai UN. Rai will give direction to the Kim Jong-unNorth Korea declared the young un- The Comptroller and Auditor General external auditors and will have a fi-tested heir Kim Jong-un as supreme (CAG) of India, Vinod Rai was on 8 nal say in preparation of the reportshead of the country, as tens of thou- December 2011 elected chairman of before they are placed to the UNsands of people rallied in Pyongyang the United Nations panel of exter- General Assembly. The findings andone day after the funeral of his fa- nal auditors. Rai succeeded Norbert recommendations of United Nationsther, Kim Jong-il, to swear their alle- Hauser, vice-president of Germanys panel of external auditors are takengiance to the dynastic transfer of Federal Court of Auditors as chair- seriously, and the reports are closelypower. Kim Jongun, believed to be man of the United Nations panel of monitored for effective implementa-in his late 20s, was unveiled as suc- external auditors. As head of the tion.cessor in September last year, fol- panel, Rai will shoulder the respon-lowing his fathers 2008 stroke. Af- sibility of overseeing the externalter his fathers sudden death Dec. audit works and periodical reports17, he was rapidly elevated to the on accounts and management of thetop military and party posts, al- UN and its specialised agencies. Asthough he has yet to assume those chairman Rai will oversee the auditofficial titles. How much he has con- of the International Atomic Energysolidated his grip on power before Agency (IAEA), besides setting au-his fathers death and whether he dit agenda for all UN specialized Ajit Singhwould have to depend on caretak- agencies such as the World Health Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD) leader Ajiters or even regents remain topics of Organization (WHO), World Food Singh was inducted into the Unionintense speculation and contention Programme and the World Intellec- Cabinet as civil aviation minister onamong outside analysts. All indica- tual Property Organization. Jagbans 18 December 2011. Presidenttions from the North, however, sug- Singh, director general in the office Pratibha Patil administered the oathgest that at least in the public eye, of the CAG, was elected chairman of office and secrecy to Singh at ahe will not share power with anyone. of the Technical Group of the UN ceremony in Rashtrapati Bhavan.North Korea said the "great succes- panel. Much of the external auditors The Jat leader will face the challengesor" will faithfully follow his fathers work is determined by the technical of reviving the aviation sector in group that is mandated to set spe- general and the government-owned WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 77 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 78. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : India in particular as the new Civil (ANC) of Tunisia elected the leader 2011. ITPO, among other fairs, isAviation minister. The Civil Aviation of the party, Council for the Repub- known for its annual flagship eventMinistry was held by Overseas In- lic (CPR), Moncef Marzouki as the India International Trade Fair.dian Affairs Minister Vayalar Ravi new President of Tunisia on 12 De-after the elevation of Praful Patel as cember 2011. He became Tunisias M.P. MuralidharanCabinet Minister. first elected president since the The Union government on 5 January North African countrys revolution 2012 cleared two key military ap- sparked the Arab Spring. He was a pointments. Vice Admiral M.P. leader of the centre-left ‘Congress Muralidharan took charge as the for the Republic’ party. Marzouki 19th Director-General of the Indian became interim president with 153 Coast Guard. The position of Coast out of 217 votes in the assembly, with Guard Chief lay vacant since Vice- three voting against, two absten- Admiral Anil Chopra was promoted tions and 44 blank ballots cast as aas the Eastern Naval Command chief protest vote by some members. in October 2011. Lt-General Sanjeev Prof. Parvin Sinclair Marzouki’s appointment followed an Chachra was appointed the nextNoted mathematician and the Pro- animated debate within the Con- Army military secretary. Prior to tak-Vice Chancellor, IGNOU Prof. Parvin stituent Assembly focused on the ing over as the Director-General, ViceSinclair was appointed the Director formation of Tunisia’s provisional Admiral Muralidharan was the Chiefof National Council of Educational constitution. He had the support of of Personnel at the Integrated Head-Research & Training (NCERT) on 25 his group and the other two major quarters (IHQ), Ministry of Defence.December 2011. Parvin will hold the forces in the Tunisian Assembly, theEarlier he had served as the firstpost for five years or until further Nahda Islamic Movement and the Commandant of the Indian Navalorders, whichever is earlier. A Ph. .D Atakatol party. Academy at Ezhimala. An alumnusin Mathematics from the University of the National Defence Academy,of Mumbai , Prof. Parvin Sinclair has he was commissioned into the Navyworked in the field the Educational in 1975. During the last three andResearch and Training since 1979. half decades, he held several signifi-Parvin Sinclair is currently a Profes- cant operational and staff appoint-sor with the Indira Gandhi National ments. The Admiral is an alumnusOpen University. Prof parvin Sinclair of National Defence Academy andis known for her work in the field of was commissioned into the Indianmathematics and designing of Navy on 1 Jan 1975. A Navigationcourse material to suit learners of Rita Menon and Direction Specialist, he is alsothe subject on the distance mode. Former Textiles Secretary, Rita a graduate of Defence Services StaffWith a MSc in Mathematics from IIT- Menon on 3 January 2011 took over College, Willington.Delhi, Sinclair worked with the TIFR, as the Chairman-cum-Managing Di-Mumbai, till 1987 after which she rector of the India Trade Promotion Lt-General Sanjeev Chachrajoined the IGNOU. She has been en- Organisation (ITPO), whichgaged in research work on ways of organises exhibitions and trade Lt-Gen Chachra is to take over as thecommunicating mathematics to chil- fairs. She succeeded Rajeev Kher, new military secretary when Lt-Gendren of all age groups. Sinclair was Additional Secretary in the Com- G M Nair retires on 31 January 2012.also Chief Advisor, Mathematics Syl- merce Ministry, who was officiating The military secretarys post gainedlabus Design Committee, NCERT, in as the CMD of the organisation some prominence after a previous2005 and 2006. since August 2011. Rita Menon is a incumbent Avadhesh Prakash faced 1975 batch IAS officer of Uttar a court martial in the infamous Moncef Marzouki Pradesh cadre who retired as Tex- Sukna land scam case as also dueThe National Constituent Assembly tiles Secretary on 31 December to the ongoing controversy over 78 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 79. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : chief General V K Singhs ac- in Kala Pani (1958), as the son who ment Award (1991). Lifetimetual date of birth. is willing to go to any lengths to clear Achievement Award for Outstanding his framed fathers name won him Achievement in Indian Cinema was Death his first Filmfare award for Best Ac- bestowed on him at IIFA Award in tor for the film. He attempted films Johannesburg, South Africa in 2003. of tragic genre occasionally In 2004, he was given the Living Leg- like Pocketmaar (1956), Kala Pani end Award by the Federation of In- (1958), Bombai Ka Baboo (1960) dian Chamber of Commerce and In- and Sharabi (1964) and tasted suc- dustry (FICCI) in recognition of his cess in them as well. Dev also contribution to the Indian entertain- played a few characters with a nega- ment industry. tive shade, like in Jaal(1952). His He received several international first colour film, Guide with award as well: He was honoured by Waheeda Rehman was based on the an Award at the hands of the then Dev Anand novel of the same name by R. K. First Lady of the United States ofAn icon of Indian cinema and ever- Narayan. Guide, directed by younger America, Hillary Rodham Clinton ingreen star Dev Anand died at the age brother Vijay Anand, was an ac- July 2000. He was also awarded theof 88 in London on 3 December 2011 claimed movie. His directorial debut, Indo-American Association Star of(4 December according to IST) after the espionage drama Prem Pujari, the Millennium Award. Donna Ferrar,suffering a massive cardiac arrest. was a flop. He however tasted suc- Member New York State Assembly,Dharam Dev Anand was born on 26 cess with his 1971 directorial honoured him with a New York StateSeptember 1923 and is more popu- effort, Hare Rama Hare Assembly Citation for his Outstand-larly known as Dev Anand. Dev Krishna which talked about the ing Contribution to the CinematicAnand was an Indian film actor, di- prevalent hippie culture. Hare Rama Arts Worthy of the Esteem and Grati-rector and producer known for his Hare Krishna that launched Zeenat tude of the Great State of New Yorkwork in Hindi cinema. Anand came Aman became a cult movie. Dev also on 1 May 2001.Bombay in the early 1940s and be- became known as a filmmaker ofgan his career in the military trenchantly topical themes. He was honoured with a Specialcensors office at Churchgate. He Political activity: Dev Anand had National Film Award by the Govern-joined his older brother, Chetan, as been politically active. He led a ment of Nepal at Nepal’s firsta member of the Indian Peoples group of film personalities who NationIndian film festival inTheatre Association (IPTA). stood up against the Internal Emer- Stockholm in 2005.Film Career: He was offered a star- gency imposed by the then Primering role in Prabhat Films Hum Ek Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. He Kim Jong-ilHain (1946) soon after he joined actively campaigned against her The enigmatic leader of North Ko-IPTA. Anand was offered his first big with his supporters in Indian parlia- rea Kim Jong-il passed away on 17break by Ashok Kumar. He was picked mentary elections in 1977. He also December 2011 after he suffered aas the hero for the Bombay Talkies formed a party called the National massive heart attack on a train. Theproduction, Ziddi (1948), co-starring Party of India, which he later dis- news of his death was announcedKamini Kaushal. Ziddi went on to banded. by the state television from thebecome a huge success. Anand Awards: The Government of India North Korean capital, Pyongyang onstarted producing films after the honoured him with the Padma 19 December 2011. An autopsy con-success of Ziddi. he launched his Bhushan in 2001 and the Dadasaheb ducted mentioned that the deathown company Navketan in 1949 Phalke Award in 2002 for his contri- was caused by physical and mentalwhich, by 2011, had produced 31 bution to Indian cinema. He won the over-work. Kim Jong-il led his nationfilms. Dev chose Guru Dutt as direc- filmfare award thrice- Best actor for for 17 years and through a devas-tor for the crime kalapani (1958), Best Film for Guide tating famine while frustrating thethriller, Baazi (1951). His acting (1966), Filmfare Lifetime Achieve- United States and other global pow- WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 79 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 80. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : with approach to talks on giving goslavia without a war. Gligorov Revolution that won his people theirup nuclear arms in return for food served two consecutive presidential freedom. The peaceful resistanceand other assistance. Kim took over terms, leading the nation from Janu- pursued by him exposed the empti-after his father and founding Presi- ary 1991 to November 1999. ness of a repressive ideology. Hedent Kim Il-sung died in 1994, com- was his countrys first democrati-ing to power with a reputation as a S.Bangarappa cally elected president after the Vel-playboy. In the mid- to late-1990s he Veteran politician and former Chief vet Revolution. The non-violent Vel-presided over a famine which killed Minister of Karnataka S.Bangarappa vet Revolution ended four decadeshundreds of thousands of his people. who was the Chief Minister of of repression by a regime whichKim Jong-il was born as Yuri Karnataka from 1990-92 died on 26 Havel ridiculed as Absurdistan.Irsenovich Kim on 16 February 1941/ December 2011. He was born on 26 Vaclav Havel, the dissident play-2. He was the General Secretary of October 1932 in Kubatur village of wright wove theatre into politics tothe Workers Party of Korea, the rul- Shimoga District, he was a highly peacefully bring down communisming party since 1948, Chairman of the respected leader among backward in Czechoslovakia and thus becameNational Defence Commission of classes. He represented Shimoga a hero of the epic struggle thatNorth Korea, and the supreme com- constituency in the 14th Lok Sabha. ended the Cold War.mander of the Korean Peoples Army, S Bangarappa changed parties andthe fourth-largest standing army in constructed parties but finally Vaclav Havel was born on 5 Octoberthe world. In April 2009, North landed in Janata Dal S Party. 1936 in Prague. His family’s assetsKoreas constitution was amended Bangarappa, who had tested his were confiscated by the communiststo refer to him implicitly as the su- political fortunes in the Bharatiya in 1948. Havel who was denied apreme leader. On 24 December 1991, Janata Party (BJP) after a long stint formal education had to earn a de-Kim was also named supreme com- in Congress, had recently joined the gree at night school.mander of the North Korean armed H D Devegowda-led Janata Dalforces. (Secular). The three time Lok Sabha His political activism began in Janu- member represented Shimoga con- ary 1977, when he co-authored the stituency and has been a legislator human rights manifesto Charter 77, several times. S Bangarappa was a which drew wide attention in the keen enthusiast in culture of the West. Havel first made a name for state. Bangarappa was in to stage himself after the 1968 Soviet-led in- plays, singing and was part of one vasion that crushed the Prague or two films in Kannada. S Spring reforms of Alexander Dubcek. Bangarappa was instrumental in He wrote a series of underground holding the first Indian international essays that stand with the work of Kiro Gligorov film festival in Bengaluru in 1993. Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov.Kiro Gligorov, the first democratically Havel first came to internationalelected president of Macedonia Vaclav Havel fame as a dissident playwright in thedied in Skopje on 1 January 2012. He Former Czech president Vaclav 1970s. The playwright turned politi-had led his nation through a blood- Havel who had been suffering from cal activist spent four-and-a-halfless secession from the former Yu- chronic respiratory problems died on years in prison for opposinggoslavia. Gligorov had became 18 December 2011 at the age of 75. Czechslovakias Communist govern-president of Macedonia in January He was one of the leading anti-Com- ment before emerging as a leader1991 when it was still a Yugoslav munist dissidents of the 1970s and of the non-violent Velvet Revolutionrepublic. He led his countrymen 1980s. He was the tenth and last in 1989. During his presidency,through a referendum in which they president of Czechoslovakia (1989– Czechoslovakia broke up into Czechvoted for independence, and the ter- 92) and the first President of the Republic and Slovakia in 1993. Heritory of 2.1 million people became Czech Republic (1993–2003). He was credited with laying the ground-the only republic to secede from Yu- played a seminal role in the Velvet work that brought his Czech Repub- 80 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 81. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : into the 27-nation European ics and built an internationally Amichand RajbansiUnion. Czech Republic became a recognised team in that field in the Charismatic and controversial Southmamber of the European Union in BARC. He led a team that indig- African Indian politician Amichand2004. During his regime his country enously designed and developed the Rajbansi, 69, died in a hospital herealso joined NATO in 1999. Havel left PURNIMA reactor, which was com- on Thursday. He was admitted twooffice in 2003. missioned in 1972. He made a sig- months ago for a bronchial condi- nificant contribution to the indig- tion. He died just a fortnight short enous building of the Dhruva reac- of his 70th birthday. Nicknamed tor, which attained criticality when “The Bengal Tiger” because of his he was Director, BARC. Dhruva con- fiery nature, Rajbansi courted politi- tinues to be a world-class facility cal controversy throughout his ca- even today, and Dr. Iyengars contri- reer but remained popular with a bution during the final stages of its section of the Indian community, commissioning was significant. which repeatedly voted him back Starting his research in nuclear phys- into positions through his Minority ics in the TIFR in 1952, Dr. Iyengar Front party. Rajbansi and his wife, P. K. Iyengar foresaw the advent of nuclear reac- pharmacist Shameen Thakur, wereThe former Chairman of the Atomic tors and the opportunities they of- the only two representatives of theEnergy Commission (AEC), P.K. fered in both basic research and party in the KwaZulu-Natal provin-Iyengar, 80, who passed away in nuclear technology. He started cial legislature. Rajbansi claimed toMumbai on Wednesday, was a great building neutron spectrometers in have honed his political skillsscientist and a role model to many 1958 around Apsara, Asias first through working with leaders of thepeople, according to AEC Chairman nuclear reactor, even before the high African National Congress (ANC)Srikumar Banerjee. He excited the flux reactor CIRUS was operational, such as Albert Luthuli, Mosesminds of youngsters in several and gave India an early start in neu- Mabhida and Nelson Mandela. Infields. Dr. Iyengar was Chairman, tron beam research. He encouraged January 2009, Rajbansi received aAEC, and Secretary, Department of research and development in mate- Lifetime Achievement Award fromAtomic Energy (DAE) from 1990-93. rial science, radiation physics, mo- the India International FriendshipHe was Director, Bhabha Atomic lecular biology, lasers and accelera- Society in New Delhi.Research Centre (BARC), from 1984 tors. He was primarily responsibleto 1990. Prior to this, he headed the for the establishment of the Raja Ram Nath SinghPhysics group in BARC. Dr. Iyengar, Ramanna Centre for Advanced Tech- Poet Ram Nath Singh, popularlywho belonged to Tirunelveli district nology in Indore. known as Adam Gondvi, breathed hisin Tamil Nadu, did his last in Lucknow on 18 Decemberpostgraduation in physics in 1952 As AEC Chairman, Dr. Iyengar vigor- 2011. Gondvi lived like a villagerfrom the University of Travancore ously pursued the nuclear power throughout his life and wrote revo-and obtained his Ph.D. from the Uni- programme with the commissioning lutionary poetry focusing on the pa-versity of Bombay in 1963. He joined of reactors at Narora in Uttar thetic state of dalits and the poor.the Tata Institute of Fundamental Pradesh and Kakrapara in Gujarat. He himself died in poor financialResearch (TIFR) of the DAE in 1952. He emphasised the importance of condition and cultural and socialHe was deputed to Chalk River Labo- the development of the Fast Breeder activists had to appeal for donationsratories of the Canadian Atomic En- Test Reactor at the After his retire- for his treatment. Adam Gondvi wasergy Establishment. He was trained ment from the DAE, Dr. Iyengar held born on 22 October 1947 in Aataain Canada under Dr. B.N. several positions. He received sev- Paraspur village of Gonda district inBrockhouse, a Nobel Laureate in eral awards, including Shanti Uttar Pradesh. His couplet, KaajuPhysics. Swarup Bhatnagar award and bhuni plate mein, whisky bhariAfter he returned to India, Dr. Iyengar Padma Bhushan. He is survived by gilaas mein, utra hai raamraajpioneered research in neutron phys- his wife, a son and a daughter. vidhayak niwas mein was a great hit WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 81 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 82. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : the masses. Gondvi also (2002) and Padma Shri (1988)criticised politicians who sought awards. He started his career as avotes on caste and communal basis cartoonist for the Times of Indiain his gazal collections. His collec- Group in 1953 and later moved intotion Dharti ki satah par and Samay illustration and fine art. His cre-se Muthbhed made him an ac- ations such as Miss Nimbupani andclaimed gazal writer. He was felici- Miss Fonseca which appeared on atated with Dushyant Kumar prize in regular basis in Femina, Economic1998 by Madhya Pradesh govern- Times, and The Illustrated Weeklyment. Jacob E. Goldman of India brought him fame. In his stint Jacob E. Goldman, a founder of the with the Times of India, Miranda Socrates Brasileiro de Souza Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) worked with the noted cartoonist, Viera de Oliveira that developed breakthrough com- R.K. Laxman. Miranda’s own booksBrazils former football captain, puting innovations died on 20 De- are Goa with Love, A little World ofSocrates who led Brazil in two World cember 2011. The Palo Alto Re- Humor, Sketch book, Germany inCups died of septic shock on 4 De- search Center developed computing Wintertime, Impression of Paris andcember 2011 in Sao Paulo. Socrates innovations such as the graphical Mario de Miranda.was also known as the Golden Hee user interface and ethernet net-and the Big Thin One. He was re- works. Physicist Jacob E. Goldman, Vasant Ranjanenowned as one of the great as Xeroxs chief scientist founded Former Indian Test (medium-pace)playmakers of his generation. Born the companys vaunted Palo Alto cricketer Vasant Ranjane passedon 19 February 1954, Socrates was Research Center, which invented the away in Pune on 22 Decemberpart of a golden Brazilian generation modern personal computer. In 1970s, 2011. Born in Pune on 22 July 1937,who included midfielder Zico, Jun- the laboratory created a string of Ranjane grabbed 19 wickets in Testsior, Falcao and Eder. innovations from laser printing to at 34.15 per innings and 175 wick- object-oriented programming to the ets from 64 first class ties. RanjaneSocrates Brasileiro de Souza Viera de worlds first WYSIWYG (What-You- thus made a successful first-classOliveira made his international de- See-Is-What-You-Get) editor. debut in 1956-57, when he took 9but in 1979 and captained Brazil at Goldman played an important role for 35 and 4 for 36 for Maharashtrathe 1982 and 1986 World Cups. How- both at the Ford Motor Co., during against Saurashtra. Ranjane playedever Brazil did not manage to win the 1950s, and later at Xerox in the seven Tests for India between 1958the cup under the captaincy of the 1960s and 1970s, in financing basic and 1964 and representedformer attacking midfielder. Socrates scientific research in an effort to Maharashtra and Railways in first-won 60 caps and scored 21 goals in spark corporate innovation. He be- class cricket from 1956 to 1971. Hehis seven-year Brazil career. He had came a private investor after retire- made his Test debut against Westscored 25 goals in 63 games for Bra- ment, according to the book Deal- Indies in 1958-59. Next he was cho-zil. Socrates was a also a cultural ers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the sen for his second game in1961-62,icon and a political activist who used Dawn of the Computer Age by when England toured India. Hehis celebrity to fight for the end of Michael Hiltzik. played two more Tests in that seriesBrazils 1964-1984 military govern- and was taken on the 1962 tour ofment. Socrates was a physician and Mario Miranda West Indies, where he played onehad practiced medicine after retir- The world renowned cartoonist, game, the final Test at Kingston. Heing as a player in 1989. Mario Miranda died in Goa on 11 played two more Tests, against En- December 2011. He was 85. He fa- gland in Madras in 1963-64 and mously captured vignettes of Goan against Australia at the same venue life on canvas in his trademark style a year later and finished with 19 Test for over two decades. Miranda was wickets at an average of 34. Ranjane the recipient of the Padma Bhushan worked for Indian Railways as a fit- 82 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 83. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : and retired in 1994. December 2011. Dubey was a mav- at the 1951 inaugural Asian Games erick who went on to become a the- in New Delhi as he helped India keep George Whitman atre guru. Born in Bilaspur, a clean slate in all the matches,George Whitman, the American-born Chhattisgarh, in 1936, Dubeys first beating Iran 1-0 in the final. Laterowner of Shakespeare & Company, ambition was to become a cricketer. he also worked a coach for thea fabled English-language bookstore However after coming to Mumbai, HMT.on the Left Bank in Paris died in Paris he gave up the idea of becoming a Varadaraj was one among the sev-on 14 December 2011. His bookstore cricketer. Dubey came into promi- eral Olympians to have emergedserved as a magnet for writers , po- nence with Dharamvir Bharati’s ra- from Karnataka, then known asets and tourists for close to 60 years. dio-play Andha Yug that brought to Mysore. Among his illustrious con-Born in East Orange, New Jersey, the fore the pervasive criminal and temporaries were T Shanmugam, BNUnited States he was awarded the homicidal tendencies during the Vajravelu, Ahmed Khan, SA BasheerOfficier des Arts et Lettres medal by times of war. He penned down the and S Raman.the French government for his con- screenplay for Shyam Benegal’s filmtribution to the arts over the previ- Bhumika as well. He penned screen- Accused/Resignedous fifty years. plays/dialogue of some acclaimed films in the 1970s, including Shyam Jacques Chirac Hamilton Bobby Benegals Nishant, Ankur, Kalyug A French court sentenced formerFormer Indian footballer Hamilton and Bhumika, and also acquired a French President Jacques Chirac toBobby passed away following a car- distinct identity as theatre director- a two-year suspended jail term fol-diac arreston 17 December 2011. teacher. He won the Filmfare Award lowing his conviction on graftBobby, an assistant manager of In- for Best Dialogue in 1980 for the film charges. He was held guilty for mis-dian Bank who fell unconscious at Junoon. He also won the Silver Lo- appropriation of public funds andhis place of work could not be saved tus Award in 1978 for Best Screen- embezzlement. This is the first timethough he was immediately rushed play for the fim Bhimika. He shared a French Head of State has beento the hospital. He had twice this award with Shyam Benegal and convicted since the trial in 1945 ofcaptained Tamil Nadu in the Santosh Girish Karnad Marshal Philippe Petain who col-Trophy and also represented the laborated with the Nazis. He is thestate for seven years from 1993 to KV Varadaraj first former or serving president of2000. The footballer had also played KV Varadaraj, one of the few Indian modern France to be tried, althoughin the under-16 and under-23 na- footballers who played in two Olym- Nazi-era collaborationist leadertional teams and was a member of pics in 1948 and 1952, passed away Philippe Petain was convicted ofthe senior India national team at in Bangalore on 20 December 2011. treason and king Louis XVI was sentPresidents Cup in Colombo. Varadaraj was nicknamed 6-footer to the guillotine by revolutionaries by the English. Born on 7 May 1924, in 1793. Chirac who suffers from Varadaraj came up quickly through neurological problems and is in poor the ranks representing Challenge health was not present in the court- Union Mysore, Mysore Railways and room. served two consecutive terms Bangalore Blues. as President from 1995 to 2007. Chiracs crimes date back to the Varadaraj was the goalkeeper of the 1990s when, as Mayor of Paris, he Indian team led by Mohun Bagan placed several of his party men and defender Talimeren Ao that took the women on the public payroll in what field in the 1948 London Games. has been described as phantom jobs. Satyadev Dubey Despite Varadaraj also known as Chiracs criminal conduct had costTheatre director, screenplay writer Mysore Wall guarding the goal, In- Paris taxpayers the equivalent of 1.4and actor Satyadev Dubey, credited dia lost to France 1-2 in the first million euros ($1.8 million). Hewith introducing existential and ab- round. Varadaraj won the gold medal breached the duty of trust thatsurd theatre, passed away on 25 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 83 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 84. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : on public officials charged auction off President Barack US Special Operations Commandwith caring for public funds or prop- Obamas vacated Senate seat. and overall commander of the secreterty, in contempt of the general in- Blagojevich, a onetime rising star in US mission into Pakistan in Mayterest of Parisians. the Democratic Party whose public 2011 that killed Osama bin Laden, defense strategy included stints on came in at second place on the Time reality TV, a media tour and a book. list. Chinese dissident artist Ai He was convicted over the course Weiwei came in at No 3. Rep. Paul of two trials on 18 counts of corrup- Ryan, who put forth a plan to tackle tion. His crimes included lying to the America’s burgeoning national debt FBI, attempting to shake down a stoof fourth. Britain’s Duchess of childrens hospital for campaign con- Cambridge, Kate Middleton, who tributions and seeking to secure married Prince William finshed fifth. campaign funds, a cabinet post or In 2010, Facebook founder and CEO Ogyen Trinley Dorje an endowment for a new foundation Mark Zuckerberg got wa named theThe 17th Karmapa Ogyen Trinley in exchange for the Senate seat va- Person of the Year.Dorje was named in a chargesheet cated by Obama. Under federal Time Magazine mentioned that Turk-filed by the police in a Himachal guidelines, he is to serve 85% of his ish Prime Minister Recep TayyipPradesh court on the seizure of for- sentence, or around 12 years. Erdogan was the Peoples Choice foreign currency worth Rs.70 million the Person of the Year. In an onlinefrom a monastery in January. Honour poll, Erdogan received 123000 votes nominating him as the most influ- Ilker Basbug ential person of the year significantlyTurkeys former Army chief Ilker more than any other nominee.Basbug was arrested on 6 January2012 over an alleged attempt on partof the chief to topple the Islamist-rooted government in the country.Ilker Basbug, the 26th chief of staffof the Turkish republic was placedin preventive detention for settingup and leading a terrorist group and ‘Time’ Person of the Yearof attempting to overthrow the gov- The Protester was named Timeernment. General Basbug, who magazine’s 2011 Person of the Year Hema Maliniserved as Army chief from 2008 to on 14 December 2011. Time defines Veteran Bollywood actress Hema2010, was sent to a prison at the Person of the Year as someone Malini was named the person of theIstanbuls Silivri prison. Basbug is the who, for better or for worse, year by People for the Ethical Treat-first such high-ranking military com- influenthat individual action can ment of Animals (PETA). PETA namedmander to be arrested as a suspect bring collective, colossal change. her the Person of the Year for rais-since a former chief of staff in the 2011 witnessed unprecedented rise ing her voice to oppose cruelty to1960s. in both peaceful and sometimes vio- animals and her staunch commit- lent unrest and dissent from the Arab ment to a vegetarian diet. The Rod Blagojevich Spring to the Occupy Wall Street Dream Girl on behalf of PETA hadFormer Illinois Governor Rod movement. People across the globe recently appealed to the minister ofBlagojevich was sentenced to 14 in Tunisia, in Egypt, in Libya dis- Environment and Forests to take im-years in federal prison on 7 Decem- sented and demanded even when mediate steps to end the cruel tra-ber 2011. He was arrested and they were answered with tear gas dition of jallikattu. Jallikattu is acharged with a wide-ranging corrup- or a hail of bullets. The Mideast was sport event in Tamil Nadu in whichtion spree that included trying to the centerpiece of the year’s pro- terrified bulls are kicked, punched, tests. 84 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 85. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : on, dragged to the ground helped propel England to the top of Facebooks Mark Zuckerberg, humanand otherwise tormented. In re- the Test rankings. Cook began his rights activist Ronan Farrow and popsponse to her plea, the Ministry is- Test career with a second-innings stars Lady Gaga and Justin Biebersued a notification in The Gazette century in Nagpur, India, in March are also included in Forbesof India stating that bulls could no 2006. He has till date made 19 Test magazines list of top-achievinglonger be used as performing ani- tons in all. In the second innings of people under age 30. The list re-mals. the first Ashes Test in November leased in December 2011 included 2010, Cook made 235 not out. He 10 people of Indian origin. then scored 148 in the second Test, 82 in the fourth and 189 in the fifth Among the Indian-origin people on and final Ashes encounter in Sydney. the list is 17 year old Param Jaggi, a student and inventor at Austin Col- Dam999 lege. Jaggi created algae-filled de- Controversial film, Dam999 directed vice that fits over a cars tailpipe and Udaipur by Sohan Roy made it to a shortlist turns carbon dioxide into oxygen.Readers of international travel for the Oscars under the Best Pic- Vivek Nair, Chief Executive of Dam-magazine Condé Nast Traveller ture category. The film, based on a ascus Fortune, who is developing avoted the lake city of Udaipur in catastrophe caused by a 100-year- technology that transforms indus-Rajasthan as the best leisure desti- old dam in India giving way, is among trial carbon emissions into carbonnation in India. Rajasthan State Tour- the 265 films in contention for the nanotubes was also named in theism Minister Bina Kak received the Best Picture. Tamil Nadu government list. Manvir Nijhar, Co-Head of Eu-Condé Nast Traveller India Award- imposed a ban citing that it may ropean Equity Derivatives Sales at2011 from Union Tourism Minister cause animosity between Kerala and Citigroup was named as well. KunalSubodh Kant Sahay in New Delhi on TN people as the film was dealing Shah, the youngest Managing Direc-3-4 December 2011 weekend. The with the subject of the 116-year-old tor at Goldman Sachs was also in-award opened up Rajasthan’s tour- Mullaperiyar dam on the Kerala-TN cluded in the list. Making a mark inism sector to the globetrotters and border. The film also fulfilled other the field of science was Raj Krishnan,package tour operators in a big way. criteria of being exhibited theatri- Chief Executive of Biological Dynam-Condé Nast Traveller is one of the cally on 35 mm, 70 mm or in digital ics who is developing blood testsworlds most renowned travel maga- format and having a running time of that use electric fields to detect keyzines. Its readers vote for various over 40 minutes. Three of the songs signals that a patient has cancercategories of destinations, accom- from Dam999, The film`s songs - from the blood. Sidhant Gupta, amodations and transport every year. Dam 999 (Theme song ), Dakkanga graduate student at the University Dugu Dugu and Mujhe Chodke were of Washington who has been listed Alastair Cook among the 39 songs shortlisted un- as well, is developing new sensorsEngland batsman Alastair Cook on der the Best Original Song category. and software for the home that con-6 December 2011 received Member All three songs were written by Roy serve electricity, heat and gas.of the Order of the British Empire himself, and set to tune by(MBE) medal from Britains Queen Ousephachan. National award win- AccidentsElizabeth II at Buckingham Palace. ner Hariharan lent his voice to theThe left-handed openers prolific Hindi song Mujhe Chod Ke. Sukhoi Su-30 MKI Fighter Air-form in Australia during the 2010/ craft Crashed11 Ashes series helped England to Under 30 Achievers A Sukhoi Su-30 MKI fighter aircrafta 3-1 series win - their first Test cam- The Forbes 30 under 30 list was pre- from the Lohegaon Air Force Stationpaign triumph Down Under in 24 pared by selecting young turks from crashed on 13 December 2011 at ayears. Cook scored a mammoth 766 12 diverse fields including energy, place near Wadebholai, 25 km awayruns in the series to play a major part finance, media, law, entertainment, from the Pune city. The accident wasin that series win. Then series win science, design and technology. explained as a mechanical failure. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 85 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 86. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : plane lost contact with its The Bonn Conference Committee to increase thebases Air Traffic Control. A Court of The Global Conference on Productivity of AgricultureInquiry was ordered into the inci- Afghanistan’s future concluded here. Sectordent. However, no casualties took Bonn is the capital of Germany. The President Pratibha Devisingh Patilplace due to the accident. It was a one-day global conference in Bonn constituted a 12-member committeeroutine training sortie. The Sukhoi on Afghanistan’s future ended on 5 to study and recommend measuresbelonged to the No 20 Lightening December 2011. During the summit, for increasing productivity, profitabil-squadron and was the 8th IAF plane Afghanistan pledged to intensify the ity and sustainability of the agricul-to crash in 2011. The IAF lost 30 drive against corruption in exchange ture sector in India. The committeefighter aircrafts, of which 10 were for international support after NATO will work under the Chairmanship oflost from 2009 to 2011. forces withdraw in 2014. About Governor of Punjab and Rajasthan, 1000 delegates from 100 countries Shivraj Patil. The committee will de- Commity/Commission/ and international organisations par- liberate on the need for formulating Conference ticipated in the organisation. Paki- requisite policy initiatives and leg- stan didn’t attend the Bonn summit. islative measures and prospects for Conference on Autism F irst Bonn summit was held in investment in the agriculture andNon-government organisation Asso- 2001. allied sectors among others. Theciation for Behaviour Analysis (ABA- Committee will also discuss on mea-India) organised the 2nd ABA-India Meeting on Citizen Engagement sures for transfer of innovations andconference Autism: From Early Child- through Social Media cutting- edge technologies to thehood to Adulthood Successful Data Communications and IT Minister farm and allied sectors.Based Intervention at India Habitat Kapil Sibal on 15 December 2011Centre, New Delhi on 17 and 18 De- sought help from social networking Variouscember 2011. Association for websites and Internet companies inBehaviour Analysis is working on propagating governments various People’s National Party won inincreasing the limited resource pool e-governance initiatives. The objec- Jamaicaof behaviour analysts and educating tive is to make people more aware Jamaicas main opposition party hasparents of children with autism.The of the online environment. Sibal won the countrys parliamentaryconference is focussed on the child chaired a meeting Citizen engage- elections, while the ruling Jamaicawith autism and successful evidence ment and use of social media at- Labour Party concededbased interventions for these chil- tended by functionaries of all lead- defeat.Jamaica is an island nation.dren. Besides the keynote speakers ing Internet companies including It is situated in the Caribbean Sea.and presentations, papers were also Google, Facebook and Twitter be- Preliminary results showed that withbe presented by parents teaching sides other stakeholders. The meet- 50 percent of the votes counted, thetheir children using ABA principles. ing was organised on 15 December opposition Peoples National PartyThe conference offered a first one to discuss how the social media is expected to win 42 out of the to-of a kind learning opportunity.ABA- could empower the government, tal 63 parliamentary seats.India is an affiliate chapter of ABA since under the normal processes ofInternational, U.S., and is pioneer- governance only limited dialogue ECU to deal with Black Moneying the introduction of ABA in India. with the representatives of society issue in IBSA CountriesABA is a subject dealing with the is possible. The Internet companies The Indian government in Decemberscientific study of human behaviour were asked to give their opinions on 2011 set up an electronic centre unitand its applications in various fields, how to use social media and e-gov- in the Finance Ministry to deal withincluding mental health, develop- ernance to empower citizens. The the unaccounted money issue inmental disabilities, child develop- objective of using the internet to IBSA countries- India, Brazil andment and education. ABA methods improve citizen engagement in South Africa. The new unit is to dealare used to shape behaviour for policy formulation and implementa- with governments in exchanging in-bringing positive changes in society. tion of its projects and programmes formation on tax-evaders and black was highlighted. 86 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 87. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : in IBSA nations. The govern- and certified from ANAC, Interna- cooperative management and trainment received information from 10 tional FAR Certification Agency. The existing manpower in both the gov-countries on the issue. The IBSA indigenous system, AEW&C esti- ernment and the private sectors, toelectronic centre unit is aimed at mated to cost around Rs 1800 crore manage the cooperative sector.tackling the black money menace in would detect, identify and classifythe IBSA nations. The information is threats present in the surveillance Deadline for Social Networkingcurrently being disseminated by vari- area and act as a command and con- A Delhi court set 6 February as aous government agencies. Prosecu- trol centre to support air operations, deadline for 22 social networkingtion has also been launched in 17 according to DRDO officials. The sites including the Facebook, thecases pertaining to LTG bank in Ger- systems for the EMB-145I aircraft is Google, the Yahoo and the Microsoftmany. The unit, in close association currently being developed by Ban- to remove all anti-religious or anti-with the revenue intelligence agen- galore-based Centre for Air Borne social content.The court directed thecies of other countries, will identify Systems (CABS), a Defence Re- social networking sites to file com-and share information on tax evad- search and Development pliance reports by 6 February 2012.ers, abusive tax schemes as well as Organisation (DRDO) facility. The Additional Civil Judge Mukesh Kumarof the people who are involved in inclusion of this aircraft will enable had on 20 December in a ex-partepromotion of such activities. Abu- India to join the league of countries order issued summons to the socialsive tax schemes are transactions capable of developing and deliver- networking websites, granteddesigned to reduce or defer taxation. ing such complex Airborne System around one and half month for com-India has Double Taxation Avoidance of Systems to its user. pliance of his order. The court afterAgreements (DTAAs) is currently in going through the several printoutsplace with Brazil and South Africa. Worlds First Test Tube Elds Deer of the objectionable contents, CDRepresentatives of all the countries The first Eld’s deer was born via in and other documents had foundare to have an exchange of informa- vitro fertilization in Thailand. The them defamatory and derogatorytion and hold regular meetings in the researchers at the Smithsonian Con- and ordered to take them off fromthree countries by rotation to work servation Biology Institute (SCBI) the sites. The social networking sitesout a joint strategy on how to tackle collected eggs, inseminated in vitro were issued summons by the court,this growing menace of stashing with thawed semen to produce em- on grounds of carrying objectionablefunds abroad and prevent ways of bryos and transferred the embryos content. The companies weretax evasion. to a surrogate mother. As a result, a charged with section 292 (sale of fawn was born on 17 October 2011 obscene books etc), 293 (sale of EMB-145I Aircraft at the Khao Kheow Open Zoo in obscene objects to young personThe first fully modified aircraft, EMB- Thailand. The Smithsonian Conser- etc) and 120-B (criminal conspiracy)145I for the indigenously developed vation Biology Institute plays a key of the IPC.Indian Airborne Early Warning and role in the Smithsonian’s global ef-Control System (AEW&C) undertook forts to conserve species and train Ahmedabadits maiden flight from Sao Jose dos future generations of conservation- In an exclusive opinion poll con-Campos in Brazil on 6 December ists. Elds Deer is also known as the ducted for The Times of India,2011. The modified Embraer aircraft Thamin or Brow-antlered Deer. It is Ahmedabad emerged as the bestundertook its maiden flight with an endangered species of deer in- among India’s mega-cities, edgingabout 1000 Mission System Compo- digenous to southeastern Asia. out Pune, Mumbai and Delhi. Thisnents provided by the Centre for Air- finding was done by an exclusiveborne Systems (CABS) of the De- Sibsagar opinion poll conducted for Thefence Research Development The countrys first cooperative uni- Times of India by leading marketOrganisation (DRDO). The compo- versity will be set up at Sibsagar in research firm, IMRB. The survey wasnents include the critical item – AESA Assam. To be known as the Rajiv on quality of life in India. Ahmedabad(Active Electronic Scanning Antenna) Gandhi University of Cooperative bagged the national award on 13Radar Antenna developed by DRDO Management, it will offer courses on December 2011, in the category of WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 87 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 88. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : City in the Implementation of The Left Front government later de- (IAF), India was listed as the thirdBasic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP) cided to allot Indira Bhavan for Basu largest purchaser of US armsunder the Jawaharlal Nehru National to live in and he had moved into the through the government to govern-Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) bungalow in August 1989. Since ment channel Foreign Military Salesscheme. then, he continued to live there till (FMS). American arms sales to India his death in 2010. include Naval Reconnaissance planes, giant transporters, sea- Malappuram (Kerala) Off-campus skimming missiles and other of the AMU weapon systems. According to the Union Minister for Human Resource report government-to-government Development Kapil Sibal dedicated foreign military sales totalled $28.3 the Malappuram (Kerala) off-campus billion in fiscal 2011, while other Indira Bhavan of the Aligarh Muslim University sales managed by various govern-The West Bengal Government on 28 (AMU) to the nation at a function ment agencies reached $6.5 billion.December 2011 declared its decision held in Perinthalmanna on 24 De- The Pentagon had projected govern-to take over Indira Bhavan, which cember 2011. ment-to-government sales wouldwas the official residence of former The Aligarh Muslim University spe- reach $36.3 billion for the year end-Chief Minister Jyoti Basu at Salt Lake. cial centre in Malappuram is one of ing 30 September 2011. Topping theWest Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee the five such centres being set up in list for the fiscal year 2011 endingdeclared that Indira Bhavan would the country. The new campus will 30 September 2011 were- the Af-be turned into a museum and a re- house five hostels for men and three ghan Security Forces ($5.4 billion);search centre devoted to Kavi Nazrul women hostels. The construction Taiwan (US $4.9 billion); India ($4.5Islam, a contemporary of also includes an administrative billion); Australia ($3.9 billion); SaudiRabindranath Tagore. After the block, two academic blocks and 20- Arabia ($3.5 billion); Iraq ($2.0 bil-death of Jyoti Basu in 2010, the pre- odd staff quarters. The Union gov- lion); the United Arab Emirates ($1.5vious government (CPIM) had mulled ernment sanctioned Rs 200cr for the billion); Israel ($1.4 billion); Japanmany options including converting it AMU campus which is expected to ($0.5 billion); and Sweden ($0.5 bil-into a government guest house. The be ready in five years. It will have lion).decision to convert Indira Bhavan facilities from pre-school to a full-into Nazrul Bhavan was taken in pub- fledged medical college. The state Green Film Festivallic interest and to promote research government will spend Rs 100cr on Green Film Festival was held in Delhiwork on the great rebel poet. The the development of the campus. from 6 December to 10 DecemberNazrul Bhavan would house a re- 2011. Leading environment and wild-search centre and museum on the India 3rd Amongst the Largest life films from across the world weregreat rebel poet who made a memo- Purchasers of US Arms screened as part of the CMSrable contribution to the countrys According to the Defence Security Vatavaran film festival. Biodiversityfreedom movement. The building Cooperation Agency (DSCA) report, Conservation was the theme of thewill house primarily the poets India emerged as the third largest festival. A total of 114 films werememorabilia, his books and re- purchaser of US arms with contracts screened, taking viewers into thesearch on the poets works. The bun- worth $4.5 billion in the year ended diverse geographical realms ofgalow was named Indira Bhavan 30 September 2011 as US weapons planet Earth through the lens of theduring the Congress Session in 1972 sales rose to $34.8 billion in fiscal finest environment and wildlife film-when the then Prime Minister Indira 2011. Defence Security Cooperation makers. It was a summit for AsianGandhi stayed there for the duration Agency is the Pentagon agency that film-makers, special programmes forof the session. Indira Bhavan was oversees foreign arms sales. Even children throughout the event andbuilt in 1972 primarily to serve as a though the US firms lost the bid for discussions on the environment withguest house for then Prime Minister an estimated USD 10 billion contract more than 50 speakers and 300 del-Indira Gandhi for her visits to the city. for sale of 126 jets to Indian Air Force egates from 15 different countries. 88 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 89. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : held an award ceremony for young Books wrote the foreword to the Englishenvironment journalists and film- version of the book, while Hazratmakers also. Nahjul Balagha Maulana Rabe Hasan Nadwi Sahab Irans former Foreign Minister Ali has written for the Urdu version. On Six Agrochemical Multinational Akbar Wilayati on 21 December the occasion,the Vice President Corporations 2011 released a 1000-year-old highlighted Khan’s seminal contribu-A panel of jurors of the Permanent manuscript, Nahjul Balagha believed tion to the field of education andPeoples Tribunal, an international to be a collection of letters, minority uplifting especially mattersopinion tribunal, presented its find- speeches and aphorisms of the pertaining to Wakf. The Wakf Com-ings following three days of deposi- fourth Caliphate of Islam Hazrat Ali mittee Report presented under histions by citizens from around the at Aligarh Muslim University. The Chairmanship was a remarkableworld. The findings of the panel in- manuscript was released for publi- piece of diligent work.dicted parent states of six agro- cation at Aligarh Muslim University.chemical multinational corporations, The Urdu, Hindi and English versionshost countries such as India, and of this rare manuscript is to be pub-international bodies (such as the lished by the AMU with financialUnited National, Food and Agricul- support of the Iran Government.tural Organisation and the World Bahr-e-Zakhkhar, another book be-Trade Organisation). The panel high- lieved to contain a rare collection oflighted that the failure of states to Tazkira (a sort of biography mostlyregulate, monitor and discipline the in the form of poetry) in Persian wasactivities of the companies made also released. AMUs Maulana Azadculpable along with the host states. Library was also gifted 3000 Persian Non-Stop IndiaWitnesses from around the world manuscripts and CDs by the Iran The book Non-Stop India by journal-had testified in the four-day Perma- Cultural House. ist-author Mark Tully was launchednent Peoples Tribunal regarding the in Chennai by Editor-in-Chief of Thehealth impact, human rights viola- Izhar-e-Khayal Hindu, N Ram on 13 December 2011.tions and unethical practices by six Vice President and Rajya Sabha The book was published jointly bytransnational corporations — Bayer, Chairman M Hamid Ansari released Penguin Books India and MadrasBASF, Dupont, Monsanto, Syngenta two booksExpression of Book Club. Tully, who also authoredand Dow Chemical. Thoughts (English) and Izhar-e- No Full Stops in India mentioned on Khayal (Urdu) authored by K.Rahman the occasion of the launch that heGerman economist Elmar Altvater Khan, Deputy Chairman of Rajya had extensively covered India overpresented the facets of the findings Sabha in New Delhi on 19 Decem- the last 20 years. The book talked ofand also mentioned on the occassion ber 2011. The books in English and the visit of the writer who has trav-that economic liberalisation, deregu- Urdu are compilation of his selected elled across the length and breadthlation and privatisation of formerly speeches on various subjects like of the counrty which include visit-public goods have led to human Parliament, democracy and gover- ing Maoists-hit areas, problemsrights violations and unethical prac- nance, economy and business, be- faced by Dalits. The book had alsotices by six transnational corpora- sides issues of equity, justice and mentioned about the growth of Tatations. The conclusion drawn main- secularism, women empowerment Group and its Chairman Ratan Tata.tained that transnational have not and development. The books - Ex- Mark Tully cautioned in his book thatbeen responsible in their pursuit of pression of Thoughts and Izhar-e- excessive secularism was a dangerhigher profits, and for this people Khayal were released in the pres- to a country like India and added thathave had to pay a hefty price. ence of Lok Sabha Speaker Meira both secularism and communalism Kumar and Leader of Opposition in were used as political weapons. Rajya Sabha Arun Jaitley. Former Lok The Official Journey to Makkah Opus Sabha Speaker Somnath Chatterjee A book titled The Official Journey to WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 89 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 90. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : Opus was unveiled on 14 December 2011 by Prince Turki Bin Faisal Al Saud of Saudi Arab at pre-launchfunction in New Delhi. The book is scheduled to be formally launched in 2012. Prince Turki Bin Faisal Al Saud isa member of the Saudi royal family and founder of the King Faisal Centre for Research and Islamic Studies, whichhas provided active support and advice for the publication of the Makkah Opus. The book is bound by hand in thefinest leather and contained in a silk covered clamshell case.The book is being published by the Opus Media Group, luxury publisher of premium large format books. The Indiaedition, priced at a whopiing $40000-50000, would be limited to 100 copies and will be exhibited in differentcities of the country in March 2012.The book has been described as a compendium of finest scholarly writing, and both historical and speciallycommissioned art and photography. It is believed to faithfully represent the incredible journey of Hajj pilgrimageworld-over. The book is a limited edition volume which contains 100000 words both in Arabic and English withthe support of 2000 photographs, most of which have been specially commissioned. A striking feature of thebook is the two meters long gatefold pictures. The book has also been compiled with a view to make it aneducational tool for those who follow and are interested in the Islamic faith. The book includes interviews,profile, photography and features, including contributions from eminent Islamic scholars and Islamic VVIPs acrossthe world. Useful Links UPSC Papers: UPSC Tips: FREE CHAT: UPSC Toppers: UPSC Interviews: UPSC QUIZ: Current Affairs: Online Forum: UPSC Books: Free NCERT Books: UPSC Syllabus: UPSC Results: UPSC Coaching: GOVT Jobs: Notification: Civil Services IAS: IES: IPS: IFS: CDS: SSC: SCRA: RRB: 90 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 91. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 91 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 92. SCRASpecial Class Railway Apprentices Practice Paper
  • 93. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : SCRA Special Class Railway Apprentices Practice Paper GENERAL ABILITY TEST SYNONYMS 7. ZANY (a) Magician (b) Pet Directions (Q. No. 1 to 15): Each of the (c) Thief (d) Clown following 15 items consists of a word in 8. REGALE capital letters, followed by four words. (a) Harass (b) Entertain Select the word that is most similar in meaning to the word written in capital (c) Express (d) Suppress letters. 9. APPURTENANCE (a) Privilege (b) Journey 1. INSPIRE (c) Concept (d) Necessity (a) Compel (b) Persuade 10. SYCOPHANT (c) Infuse (d) Encourage (a) Suppliant (b) Follower 2. PROSCRIBE (c) Flatterer (d) Admirer (a) Recommend (b) Allow (c) Advance (d) Banish 11. PERNICKETY (a) Spiteful (b) Careless 3. ABBREVIATE (c) Fussy (d) Ignorant (a) Shorten (b) Enlarge (c) Decrease (d) Change 12. QUAINT (a) Old (b) Quiet 4. MULL (a) Recommend (b) Think (c) Haunted (d) Unusual (c) Punish (d) Provoke 13. INVIDIOUS 5. VINDICTIVE (a) Irritable (b) Harsh (a) Strategic (b) Triumphant (c) Sinful (d) Unpopular (c) Revengeful (d) Demonstrative 14. PUNCTILIOUS 6. SURFEIT (a) Stupid (b) Wasteful (a) Satiate (b) Pass (c) Meticulous (d) Timid (c) Confiscate (d) Delegate 15. IMPOSTURE WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 93 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 94. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (a) Claim (b) Status 27. TANGIBLE (c) Destruction (d) Deception (a) Gentle (b) Eluive ANTONYMS (c) Refined (d) Pabable 28. REPRIMAND Directions (Q. No. 16 to 30) Each of the (a) Reward (b) Appreciate following 15 items consists of a won in (c) Encourage (d) Praise capital letters, followed by four words. 29. SMOTHER Select the word which is closest to the (a) Repress (b) Cheer opposite in meaning of the word written in (c) Nurture (d) Irritate capital letters. 30. BOISTEROUS 16. BRIDGE (a) Serene (b) Tumultous (a) Divide (b) Blind (c) Brazen (d) Opaque (c) Release (d) Open COMPREHENSION 17. PLATONIC (a) Lunatic (b) Sublime Directions: This section you have four (c) Major (d) Sensual short passages. After each passage you will 18. NADIR find several quest ions based on the (a) Progress (b) Liberty passage.-First, read passage-I and answer (c) Zenith (d) Modernity the questions based on it. Then go on to the other passages. 19. AVOIDANCE (a) Possession (b) Passion Examples ‘I’ and ‘J’ have been solved for (c) Pursuit (d) Power you. 20. COMPLY Passage (a) Refuse (b) Agree I our approach to life, be it pragmatic (c) Disobey (d) Deny or other wise, a basic fact that 21. STRINGENT confronts us squarely and unmatch- (a) Magnanimous (b) Lenient able is the desire for peace, security (c) Vehement (d) General and happiess. Different forms of life 22. MITIGATE at different levels of existence make (a) Stagnate (b) Suffer up the teeming denizens of this earth (c) Aggravate (d) Instigate of out And, no matter whether they 23. GOBLIN belong to the higher groups such as (a) Angel (b) Hermit human beings or to the lower group (c) Traveller (d) Pilot such as animals, all beings primarily seek peace, comfort and security. Life 24. LISSOME is as dear to a mute craturas it is to (a) Ungainly (b) Huge a man. Even the lowliest insect strives (c) Pungent (d) Crud 4 protection against dangers that 25. SPURIOUS threaten its life. Justs each one of us (a) False (b) Genuine wants to live and not to die, so do all (c) Simple (d) Systematic other creatures. 26. ZOOM I. The author’s main point is that (a) Soothe (b) Plurmet (a) different forms of life are found on (c) Subjugate (d) Recite earth94 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 95. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (b) differed levels of existence are researchers-having the last laugh. For, possible in nature though all the boastful Tokyo talk a (c) peace ad security are the chief decade ago to build 1,000 processor goals of all living beings computers to process knowledge-and (d) even th e weakest creatu re not merely numbers which is all the struggles to preserve its life Silicon Valley Chips supposedly do-has J. Which one f the following assumptions remained just talk, the 180 young or steps is essential in eveloping the scientists in the 10-year venture have author’s position ? nevertheless made the big brains at (a) All form of life have a single Silicon Valley look rather silly with their overriding goal product which has a yen for logical (b) The will survive of a creature is programming. The jubilation in the identified with a desire for peace Valley may turn to depression when (c) All being, are divided into higher t h e i n exorabl e l ogi c of t h i s and lower groups development pulls down Washington (d) A paral l el; drawn bet ween from its pedestal of supercomputer happiness and life, and pain a3 supremacy. death 31. Asian Tiger Cubs are Explanation (a) young Japanese researchers (b) mechanical minds I. The i dea whi ch represent s th e author’s main point is ‘peace and (c) the big brains at Silicon Valley seccurity are the chief goals of all (d) fifth generation computers living beings’, which is response (c). 32. Uncle Sam reacts to their failure with So (c) is the correct answer. (a) sorrow (b) depression J. The best assurtion underlying the (c) jubilation (d) insincere sorrow passage is ‘The will to survive of a 33. What have the cubs failed to produce creature is-identified with a desire for ? peace, which is response (b). So (b) (a) Numbers processing computer is the correct answer. (b) Grey cells Passage – I (c) The fifth generation computer That artificial intelligence quotient (d) A plastic society should seek to replace the time-tested 34. W h at h ave t h ey su cceeded i n I.Q. as a measure of mental ability is producing ? perfectly in consonance with the (a) Grey cells present day standards in a plastic (b) A fifth generation computer society. However, the battle over grey (c) A knowledge processing computer cells whether in human or mechanical (d) A product which has a yen for minds, whose latest round has found logical programming Uncle Sam shedding crocodile tears 35. How is their success likely to affect over Japan’s failure to deliver on its Washington’s supremacy ? promise to produce a fifth generation (a) It is likely to make it look silly computer, may find the Asian Tiger (b) It is likely to dislodge it Cu bs-Th e u n der-3 5 Japan ese WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 95 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 96. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (c) It is likely to have the last laugh 37. To carve out a bright future a man (d) It is likely to produce jubilation in should the Valley (a) try to avoid dangers Passage – II (b) overcome fears and dangers (c) cultivate a positive outlook It is to progress in the human sciences (d) analyse dangers that lie ahead that we must look to undo the evils 38. If man’s bestial yearning is controlled which have resulted from a knowledge (a) the present will be brighter than of the physical world hastily and the future superficially acquired by populations (b) the present will become tolerant u nconsci ous of th e chan ges i n (c) the future will be brighter than the themselves that the new knowledge present has made imperative. The road to a (d) the future will be tolerant happier world than any known in the 39. Pears and hopes, according to the past lies open before us if atavistic author destructive passions can be kept in (a) can yield good results leash while the necessary adaptations (b) can bear fruit are made. Fears are inevitable in our (c) are irrational time, but hopes are equally rational (d) are closely linked with the life of and for more likely to bear good fruit. modem man We must learn to think rather less of the dangers to be avoided. than of 40. Should human sciences be developed the good that will lie within our grasp because they will : if we can believe in it and let it (a) eliminate the destruction caused by a superficial knowledge of the dominate our thoughts. Science, physical world whatever unpleasant consequences it (b) make us conscious of the changes may have by the way, is in its very in ourselves nature a liberator, a liberator of (c) make us conscious of the changing bondage to physical nature and en to world come, a liberator from the weight of (d) provide more knowledge of the destructive passions. We are on the physical world t h resh ol d of u tt er di sast er or u n preceden t edl y gl ori ou s Passage – III achievement. No. previous age has As heart disease continues to be the been f rau ght wit h probl ems so number one killer in the United States, momentous; and it is to science that researchers have become increasingly we must look to for a happy future. interested in identifying the potential 36. What does science liberate us from ? risk factors that trigger heart attacks. It liberates us from High-fat diets and “life in the fast lane” (a) bondage to physical nature have long been known to contribute (b) fears and destructive passions to the high incidence of heart failure. (c) idealistic hopes of a glorious future But according to new studies, the list (d) slavery to physical nature and from of risk factors may be significantly passions longer and quite surprising. Heart failure, for example, appears to96 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 97. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : have seasonal and temporal patterns. replace by which of the following ? A higher percentage of heart attacks (a) harmful (b) possible occurs in cold weather and more (c) unknown (d) primary people experience heart failure on 43. According to the passage, which of Monday than on any other day of the the following is not a possible cause week. In addition, people are more of many heart attars ? susceptible to heart attacks in the (a) decreased blood flow to the heart first few hour after waking. (b) increased blood pressure Cardiologists first observed the (c) lower heart rate morning phenomenon in the mid-1980 (d) increase in hormones and have sinc discovered a number 44. Which of the following is cited as of possible causes. A earlymorning rise possible risk factor? in blood pressure, heart rate ail (a) getting married concentrating of heart stimulating (b) rainy wather hormones, plug reduction of blood flow (c) eating fatty foods to the heart, may all contribute to (d) driven fast the higher incidence of heart attacks 45. Which of the following does the page between the hours of 8.00 A.M. and infer? 10.00 A.M. (a) We now fully understand how he In other studies, both birthday and risk factors trigger heart attacks bachelorhood have been implicated as (b) We do not. fully understand he the risk factors. Statistics Veal that heart risk factors trigger heart attacks attack rates increase significantly for (c) We have not identified risk facts both females and males in the few associated with heart attacks days immedetely preceding and (d) We have recently begun to stuff following their birthdays. how risk factorswork And unmarried men are more at risk Passage – IV for heart attack than their married I do not suggest that the cultural side counterparts. Though stress is fought of education should be ignored. On to be linked in some way to all of the the contrary, I think, it is essential to aforemecioned risk factors, intense the production of the sort of adult research continues in the hope of who best fits the modern world. But I future comprehending why and how think that what is important in cultural heart ilure is triggered. education should be conveyed, at any 41. Wh at does the passage main ly rate, in the early stages, by methods discuss? far more attractive than those now (a) cardiology used. History and Geography should (b) diet and stress as factors in heart be taught at first by means of the attack cinema. When taught this way, they (c) seasonal and temporal patterns of will give pleasure; attention will be hear attacks spont aneou s and theref ore t he (d) risk factors in heart attacks impression will be less temporary. In 42. The word ‘potential’ could best be spite of reforming movements, there WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 97 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 98. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : is still among educators a feeling that 50. One of the goals of education should what is enjoyed without effort cannot be to make children realise that have much educational value. I would (a) there is a unified system of human have children made aware of the valu es u n dern eat h cu l t ural manners and customs of tribes and diversity nations utterly remore from their own. (b) they must respect values of alien Education conducted on these lines culture would do more than many books to (c) regional cultures should not be cure provincialism in space and time ignored and to make children realize that (d) human culture is diverse actual human beings with actual ORDERING OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE feel ings can be out wardly very different from the people among whom Directions: In the following items some they live, but inwardly composed of parts of the sentence have been jumbled the same human material. A Zulu would up. You are required to rearrange these not appear strange, remote or savage parts which are labelled P, Q, R and S to but one like themselves. produce the correct sentence. Choose the 46. The writer said that the cultural side proper sequence and mark on your answer of education is needed to make man sheet accordingly. Example ‘Z’ has been (a) admire his environment solved for you. (b) suitable for modern civilization Z. It is well-known that (c) appreciate other civilizations the effect is very bad (d) appreciate one’s heritage (P) (Q) 47. The writer criticized traditional on children of cinema educators for not (R) (S) (a) imparti ng i nformation about various’ cultures The proper sequence should be (b) imparting information about remote (a) P S R Q (b) S P Q R tribes. (b) S R P Q (d) Q S R P (c) making learning an enjoyable Explanation activity The proper way of wri t in g th e (d) using cinema as a method of sentence is ‘It is well known that the teaching effect of cinema on children is very 48. The response of the learners to bad.’ This is indicated by the sequence teaching through cinema is PSRQ and so (a) is the correct answer. (a) superficial (b) enthusiastic 51. Alexander was a disciple of Aristotle (c) long-lasting (d) absorbing (P) 49. The expression “to cure provincialism who was a great conqueror in space and time” means to get rid (Q) of whom the world acknowledges the (a) selfish opinion greatest philosopher (b) narrow views (R) (c) obscure ideas (d) regional feelings98 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 99. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : the world has ever known (a) PSQR (b) PSRQ (S) (c) RPSQ (d) SPQR a The proper sequence should be: 55. The practice of taking performance (a) P Q S R (b) Q P R S boosting drugs among athletes (c) R P Q S (d) S P Q R but checking it is not going to be easy 52. Jawaharlal Nehru (P) under the Cabinet Mission Scheme is generally conceded to be unfair (P) (Q) was the first to articulate of the detection technology (Q) (R) long before such an assembly was set up for the user is generally one jump (R) ahead (S) the idea of a Constituent Assembly (S) The proper sequence should be (a) Q P R S (b) Q P S R The proper sequence should be (c) R Q P S (d) R Q S P (a) P Q S R (b) Q S R P (c) R P Q S (d) S R P Q 56. As lightningaccompanies thunder was mingled with 53. The man is generally the one (P) (P) so in my character who can work very hard (Q) (Q) the mutterings of my wrath when he must work (R) (R) a flash of humour who can play most heartily when he (S) has the chance of playing The proper sequence should be (S) (a) P R S Q (b) Q P R S The proper sequence should be (c) Q R P S (d) Q S P R (a) P S Q R (b) Q R P S (c) Q R SP (d) S P Q R 57. During hibernation 54. The reporter of the newspaper informs they have lost a great deal of weight us that Lala Lajpat Rai spent (P) (P) of course the animals consume lecturing widely and attracting many (Q) American leaders and when they awake again (Q) (R) t o sympath i se wit h th e I n dian the fats accumulated in the summer nationalist position (S) (R) The proper sequence should be almost five years in America (a) P Q R S (b) Q S R P (S) (c) R Q S P (d) S Q P R The proper sequence should be 58. The house WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 99 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 100. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : As lightningaccompanies thunder carefully and select the answer of these (P) items using the codes given below that stands in front of us Codes : (Q) (A) Both A and R are individually true and was built of stones R is the correct explanation of A. (R) (B) Both A and R are individually true but which were dug out of its own site R is not thecorrect explanation of A. (S) (C) A is true but R is false. The proper sequence should be (a) Q P R S (b) Q R P S (D) A is false but R is frue. (c) Q R S P (d) Q S P R 61. Assertion (A): Subash Chandra Bose 59. The administeration will soon launch resigned from the presidentship of the Indian National Congress in his second to educate the people about their term. rights (P) Reason (R): He opposed to the Gandhian Movement based on non- a consumer protection drive violence. (Q) (a)A (b) B (c) C (d) D against using fraudulent means 62. Rice is the product of (R) (a) tropical region and to warn traders (b) subtropical region (S) (c) temperate region The proper sequence should be (d) none of the above (a) P Q S R (b) P S Q R 63. Where is Pir Panjal range of mountains (c) Q P S R (d) S P Q R situated ? 60. Some of our social sciences (a) Uttar Pradesh that cannot be attacked by modem (b) Assam society (c) Jammu and Kashmir (P) (d) West Bengal such as psychology and sociology 64. Match the following (Q) List-I List-II seem to have become A. World driest place1. 65.33 (R) B. Literates in India 2. Calama, sacred cows (As of desert Atacama (S) population) percentage of desert The proper sequence should be C. Bhilai 3. Iron and (a) P Q R S (b) Q R S P steel (c) R S P Q (d) R S Q P industry Directions: The following items consist of D. Kanchipuram 4. Silk industry two st at emen ts one l abel led as t he Codes: Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). A B C D You are to examine these two statements (a) 2 1 3 4100 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 101. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (b) 3 1 2 4 distinguished from para hydrogen by (c) 4 1 2 3 (a) two electrons moving in opposite (d) 2 3 4 1 directions 65. What is a cloud ? (b) two electrons moving in the same (a) It is a kind of mist directions (b) It is a kind of frost (c) two protons revolving in the (c) It is a kind of condensed form of opposite directions dew (d) two protons revolving in the same (d) It is a kind of fog lifted above the directions earth surface 73. Sodium cannot exhibit +2 oxidation 66. About 85% of the raw silk produced state because its in India comes from : (a) IE2 valuee is less than IE1 value (a) Kerala (b) M.P. (b) IE2 value is higher than IE1 value (c) Maharashtra (d) Karnataka (c) IE2 value and IE1 value are equal 67. The term secular was added in the (d) IE2 value is zero preamble to the Indian Constitution 74. The conjugate base of a strong acid by is (a) 41st Amendment (a) strong base (b) strong acid (b) 42nd Amendment (c) weak acid (d) weak base (c) 43rd Amendment 75. An element with atomic number 84 (d) 44th Amendment and mass number 218 loses one a- 68. Who finally approves the draft of five particle and two b-particle in the three Year Plan ? successive stages. The resulting (a) Union Cabinet element will have (b) President (a) At. no. 84 and mass no. 214 (c) National Development Council (b) At. no. 82 and mass no. 218 (d) Parliament and State Legislatures (c) At. no. 84 and mass no. 218 69. Which country is the latest to join (d) At. no. 82 and mass no. 214 the U.N. as a member ? 76. What is the percentage (%) of H2O in (a) Switzerland Fe(CNS)3×3H2O ? (b) Hong Kong (a) 45 (b) 30 (c) Taiwan (c) 19 (d) 25 (d) E. Timor 77. The Saka era commencing from AD 70. In which mode of expression, the 78 was founded by concentration of a solution remains (a) Kanishka independent of temperature ? (b) Asoka (a) Molality (b) Normality (c) Chandragupta (c) Formality (d) Molarity (d) Vikramaditya 71. Oxidation number of Fe in Fe3O4 is 78. Which ‘sufi-saint’ dargah is situated (a) 1/2 (b) 2/6 at Ajmer ? (c) 8/3 (d) 3/2 (a) Baba Farid 72. The molecule of ortho hydrogen is (b) Qutub-din-Bakhtiyar Kaka (c) Moinuddin Chisti WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 101 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 102. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (d) Khwaja Bahuddin 79. Who was the architect who designed INDIA “Taj Mahal” ? (a) Mohammad Hussain (b) Ustad Isa (c) Shah Abbas (d) Ismail 80. Which of the following States has the largest concentration of tea plantation in India ? (a) Assam (b) Bihar (c) Meghalaya (d) Arunachal Pradesh List-I List-II 81. Among the following rivers which river A. R 1. Rajmahal Hill known was as ‘Arun river’ in the B. S 2. Vindhya Parvat beginning? C. T 3. Maikal Hill (a) Sone (b) Kossi D. U 4. Satpuda Mountain (c) Chambal (d) Gomti E. V 5. Nilgiri 82. Which place is called as ‘Sangam’ of Bhagirathi and Alaknada ? Codes: (a) Dev Prayag (b) Rudra Prayag A B C D E (c) Chambal (d) Vishnu Prayag (a) 3 5 1 2 4 (b) 1 5 3 4 2 83. Din-i-illahi of Akbar was not a success (c) 4 3 2 1 5 because: (d) 5 1 4 3 2 (a) After Akbar it was not patronised (b) the muslim found it difficult to 85. In this map 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicate accept other religions that the correct sequence of Indian (c) it was not suitably projected to rivers the masses (d) all of the above reasons INDIA 84. Study the following map and match the list-I (R, S, T U, V show the mountain) list-II (their names)102 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 103. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (a) Vaigai, Cauvery, Tungbhadra and (c) 1 and 2 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Godavari 91. The smallest bird is: (b) Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and (a) humming bird (b) rhea Cavery (c) kiwi (d) cock (c) Cauvery, Krishna, Venganga and 92. Which of the following diseases spread Damodar through insects ? (d) Cauvery, Tungbhadra, Godavari 1. Gambian fever and Mahanadi 2. Chagga’s disease 86. In this map 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicate 3. Cholera 4. Oriental sore that group of cities is: (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 3 and 4 (c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 93. The child shown in the figure is suffering from some malnutrition. The name of the disorder related to this WORLD (a) Washington, Paris, Stockholm, Kabul (b) New York, Madri d, Moscow, (a) obesity (b) kawashiorkar Tehran, Basra (c) myxoedema (d) marasmus (c) Tehran, Washington, Paris, Moscow 94. Which of the following hormones is (d) New York, Rome, Berlin, Tehran secreted by pituitary gland ? 87. The number of floating ribs in the 1. STH 2. FSH human body is 3. Oxytocin 4. PTH (a) 6 pairs (b) 5 pairs (a) 1 and 2 (b) 3 and 4 (c) 3 pairs (d) 2 pairs (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 88. Fish eradicate the mosquito larvae is: 95. Consider the following statements: (a) Cuttler fish (b) Anabus 1. Rods are more in eyes of diurnal (c) Gambusia (d) Rohu animals. 2. Con es are more i n eyes of 89. A pair of insectivorous plant is: nocturnal animals. (a) Venus fly trap and Rafflesia (b) Nepenthes and bladderwort Correct statement(s) is/are (c) Drosera and Rafflesia (a) only 1 (d) Dionaea and Viscum (b) only 2 (c) neither 1 nor 2 90. Consider the following organs: (d) both 1 and 2 1. Cerebrum 2. Diencephalon 3. Henle of loop 4. Nephron 96. Fat soluble vitamin(s) is/are 1. Pantothenic acid The organs related to brain are 2. Tocopherol (a) 1 and 3 (b) l, 2 and 4 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 103 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 104. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 3. Pyridoxine (b) All died at young age 4. Folic acid (c) All died in the plane crash (a) only 1 (b) 1, 2 and 3 (d) All died in war (c) only 2 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 102.Chipko Movememt 97. Consider the following statements : (a) is originated in the Garhwal region 1. Lungs are found in all vertebrates of Western Himalayas except birds. (b) is related to environment 2. Book lungus are respiratory organs (c) is related to mass education in scorpion. (d) both ‘a’ and ‘b’ are true 3. Aquatic animals like prawns, fishes 103.The line of map connecting points of and tadpole respire in water with equal temperature at a given time is gills. (a) isohyet (b) isobar 4. Cutaneous respiration is not (c) isthmus (d) isotherm present in earthworm. 104.Arrange the following rivers from south Incorrect statements are: to north (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 4 1. Cauvery 2. Krishna (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1 and 4 3. Godavari 4. Mahanadi 98. The countries included in ‘Plus three” Codes: of ASEAN, are : (a) 1 , 3, 2, 4 (b) 3, 4, 1, 2 1. Northern Koria (c) 2, 4, 3, 1 (d) 1, 2, 3, 4 2. Bharat 3. South Koria 105.“Kuchipudi” dance was originated by 4. China (a) Andhra Pradesh 5. Japan (b) Karnataka (c) Punjab (d) Rajasthan Codes: (a) 3, 4, 5 (b) 1, 2, 3 106.No money bill can be introduced in (c) 2, 4, 5 (d) 1, 4, 5 the Lok Sabha without the approval of the 99. Whi ch of the foll owing is most (a) Vice President urbanised State of India ? (b) President (a) Maharashtra (b) Mizoram (c) Prime Minister (c) Goa (d) Tamil Nadu (d) Finance Minister 100.Which State tourism department’s 107.Which of the Mughal emperors was a motto is “Gods own country” ? well known poet ? (a) Tamil Nadu (a) Akbar (b) Himachal Pradesh (b) Shahjahan (c) Assam (d) Kerala (c) Humayun 101.All the following individuals have (d) Bahadurshah Jafar something common, what is that ? 108.When a mango is kept in dilute aqueous 1. John Kennedy Jr. solution of HCl, it 2. Zia-ul-Haq (a) swells (b) bursts 3. Dag Hammas Skjoeld (c) shrinks (d) none of these (a) All were sons of famous politician104 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 105. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 109.Arrange H 2 SO 4 (I), H 3 PO 4(II) and C. Red lead 3. Na2CO3.10H2O HClO4(III)in decreasing order of acidic D. White lead 4. CaCO3 strength Codes: (a) I > III > II (b) I > II > III A B C D (c) III > II > I (d) III > I > II (a) 1 2 3 4 110.Which of the following is a chemical (b) 3 4 2 1 change? (c) 4 3 2 1 (a) Melting of sodium in nuclear reactor (d) 4 3 1 2 (b) Melting of steel 116.Which of the following statements are (c) Sublimation of iodine true regarding graphite ? (d) Explosion of dynamite 1. It is the crystalline allotrope of 111.The composition of Duralumin is carbon. (a) Al = 94%, Mg = 6% 2. C—C bond distance is greater than (b) Cu = 56%, Zn = 24%, Ni = 20% diamond. (c) Cu = 95%, Al = 5% 3. The hybridisation of carbon in (d) Al = 95%, Cu = 4%, Mn = 0.5%, graphite is sp3. Mg = 0.5% 4. Graphite is the good conductor of 112.Which one of the following pairs is heat and electricity. correcty matched ? Whi ch of these st atements are (a) Electron - J.J. Thomson correct? (b) Ch arge on elect ron - James (a) 1 and 2 (b) 3 and 4 Chadwick (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 4 (c) Nucleus - Millikan 117.Heavy water is a compound of : (d) Neutron - Rutherford (a) hydrogen and heavier isotope of 113.Which one of the following is the oxygen common glass ? (b) heavier isotopes of hydrogen and (a) K2SiO3. CaSiO3.4SiO2 oxygen (b) Na2SiO3. CaSiO3.4SiO2 (c) oxygen and heavier isotope of (c) K2SiO3. PbSiO3.4SiO2 hydrogen (d) Na2SiO3 (d) none of the above 114.Which one of the following is the 118.Which general was responsible for anhydride of sulphurous acid ? Jallianwala Bagh tragedy ? (a) H2SO4 (b) SO2 (a) General Dalhousie (c) SO3 (d) H2S (b) General Dyer 115.Match list-I with list-II and select the (c) General Mountbatten (d) General William Bentinck correct answer using the codes given below the lists: 119.Which is the southrnmost place in the List-I List-II Indian union ? (Chemical) (Formulae) (a) Kanyakumari (b) Rameshwaram A. Washing soda1. Pb(OH)2. 2PbCO3 (c) Indira Point (d) Vivekanand B. Lime stone 2. Pb3O 4 120.Who is legally competent under the Indian Constitution to declare war or WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 105 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 106. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : conclude peace ? (c) It polymerises to give P.V.C. a (a) Prime Minister thermoplastic polymer. (b) The President (d) I t is more reacti ve towards (c) The Parliament nucleophiles than ethyl chloride. (d) The Council of Ministers 2. Which one of the following is known as westrosol ? 1. Which of the following statement is (a) Acetylene tetrachloride not correct about vinyl chloride ? (b) Acetylene dichloride (a) It can be prepared by addition of (c) Trichloroethylene hydrogen chloride to ethyne. (d) Allyl chloride. (b) It can be co-polymerised with vinyl 3. The compound with no dipole moment acetate to give strong adhesive is copolymers suitable for surface (a) methyl chloride. coatings. (b) carbon tetrachloride. (c) methylene chloride. PHYSICAL SCIENCE (d) chloroform. (a) They belong to the homogolous 4. If chloroform is left open in air in the series of general formula presence of sun rays, CnH2n+1 X where X = Cl, Br or I (a) explosion takes place. and n = 1, 2, 3 etc. (b) poisonous gas phosgene is formed. (b) They can be prepared by the (c) polymerisation takes place. reaction of the hydrogen halide and (d) No reaction takes place. the appropriate alcohol e.g. 5. Which of the following statements is ROH + HX ® RX + H2O. not correct about the haloalkanes ? (c) They show reactivity in the order (a) They are derived from alkenes by RCl > RBr > RI where R = alkyl replacement of one of its hydrogen group. atoms by halogens. (d) They form nitrites when refluxed (b) They can be prepared by the with potassium cyanide in ethanol. addition of hydrogen halides to 7. Which of the following statements is alkenes. not correct about chloroform ? (c) They un dergo nu cl eoph il i c (a) It is a highly inflammable liquid. substitution reactions in which the (b) It is a colourless, sweet-smelling halogen atom is replaced by liquid almost insoluble in water. another atom or group. (c) It can be used as an anaesthetic. (d) They can be reduced with lithium (d) It can be prepared by the haloform aluminium hydride to give the reaction. corresponding alkanes. 8. Freon 114 is an organic substance 6. Which of the following statements is u sed i n ref ri gerat ors an d ai r incorrect about the alkyl halides ? conditioners. It is chemically called 1, 2 dichloro tetrafluoro ethane. Its106 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 107. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : correct formula is 12. A compound was refluxed with excess KOH solution for an hour. After F F acidification with nitric acid, silver | | nitrate was added. No precipitate, (a) Cl — C — C — H appeared. Water compound could | | have been Cl Cl (a) CH3CH2I (b) CH3CH2CH2Br (c) CH3COOl (d) C6H5Cl 13. When chloroform is treated with a F F primary amine and KOH we get | | (a) rose odour smell. (b) H — C — C — H (b) sour almond smell. | | (c) bad nectar-like smell. Cl Cl (d) sour oil of winter green like smell. 14. A sample of chloroform being used as CI F an anaesthetic is tested by | | (a) Fehling solution. (c) F — C — C — CI (b) ammoniacal CuCl. | | (c) AgNO3 solution. F F (d) AgNO3 solution after boiling with F Cl F alk KOH. | | | 15. The reaction least likely to occur is (d) F — C — C — C — F NO2 | | | H2SO4 (a) + HNO3 CI H F 9. When a solution of sodium chloride, Cl containing ethyl alcohol is eletrolysed, it forms (b) + Cl2 ultraviolet light (a) ethyl alcohol. (b) chloral. (c) chloroform. (d) acetaldehyde. SO2H 10. When chlorobenzene is heated with chloral and cone. H2SO4 which one of (c) + H2SO4 the following compounds is formed ? (a) Phenol (b) Benzoic acid Br (c) Polythene (d) D.D.T. Fe + Br2 11. 1, 2-Dichloropropane is refluxed under (d) a water-cooled condenser for some time with sodium hydroxide solution. 16. Which of the following is the correct The product is f ormu l a f or dich l orodi ph en yl (a) propionaldehyde. trichloroe­thane ? (b) propanol. (c) propionic acid. (d) 1-chloro-l-hydroxypropane. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 107 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 108. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : H Cl acid at 170°C, it yields (a) Cl— —C—C—Cl (a) HCOOH. (b) HCOOH and allyl alcohol. Cl (c) tartaric acid. (d) allyl alcohol. Cl H Cl 20. Which of the following is the structure of cellosolve ? (b) —C—C—Cl (a) ClH5 —O—CH2—CH2—O—CH2 Cl —CH2—OH (b) CH3—O—CH2—CH2—O—CH2— Cl CH2—OCH3 H Cl (c) CH3CH2O—CH2CH2OH (c) Cl— —C—C—Cl (d) None of these. Cl 21. In cold countries glycerol is added to the water in the radiator of cars Cl during winter. This helps to Cl Cl (a) bring down the specific heat of water. (d) — —C—C—Cl (b) lower the freezing point. Cl (c) reduce the viscosity. (d) make water a better lubricant. Cl 22. Dynamite is obtained by mixing 17. An attempt was made to prepare ethyl nitroglycerine with iodide by gently warming methylated (a) saw dust and NH 4NO3. spirit, potassium iodide crystals and (b) cellulose nitrate. concentrated sulphuric acid, no ethyl (c) cellulose nitrate and vaseline. iodide was produced because (d) T.N.T. (a) the mixture should not have been 23. Diketopiperazine is obtained by heating warmed. (a) methylamine. (b) the alcohol was dehydrated to (b) glycine. ethylene. (c) propionic acid. (c) methyl iodide was produced since (d) ammonium acetate. methylated spirit is mainly methyl alcohol. 24. When ethyl alcohol is heated with (d) the potassium iodide was oxidised conc. H2SO4 at 140°C, the product to iodine, which does not react obtained is wit h al cohol un der t h ese (a) ethylene. conditions. (b) diethyl ether. (c) diethyl sulphate. 18. When glycerol is heated with oxalic (d) ethyl hydrogen sulphate. acid at 260°C, it gives (a) formic acid. 25. Ethyl alcohol can be distinguished from (b) allyl alcohol. methyl alcohol by (c) glyceryl oxalate. (a) action of Cl2. (d) alkyl alcohol. 19. When glycerol is heated with oxalic108 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 109. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (b) action of NH3. (c) Acetic acid (c) determining their solubilities in H2O. (d) Barium acetate. (d) iodoform test. 30. Which product is obtained when 26. Which of the following statements is glycerol is heated with potassium incorrect about ethylene glycol ? bisulphate ? (a) It is a colourless liquid b.p. 197°C, (a) Acrolein used as an ‘antifreeze’. (b) Allyl alcohol (b) It is a dihydric alcohol. (c) Acetic acid (c) It forms two series of esters, ethers (d) None of these. and halides. 31. When a mixture of ethanol and (d) It reacts with sodium to give the methanol are heated in the presence di­sodium salt. of concentrated H 2SO4the organic 27. Which of the following statement is product(s) is (are) not true ? (a) CH3OC2H5 (a) Oxidation of a primary alcohol with (b) CH3OCH3 and C2H5OC2H5 chromic aci d (Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 an d (c) CH3OC2H3 and CH3OCH3 H2SO4) yields an aldehyde as the (d) CH3OC2H5, CH3OCH3, and first oxidation product. C2H 5OC2H 5 (b) Oxidation of a primary alcohol with 32. The hydrolysis of stearin produces potassium permanganate yields a stearic acid and carboxylic acid. (a) sodium hydroxide. (c) Oxidation of secondary alcohol with (b) glycerol. chromic acid yields a. ketone. (c) hydrochloric acid. (d) A secondary alcohol with chromic (d) propyl alcohol. acids yields the corresponding 33. Primary alcohols cannot be prepared carboxylic acid. by (a) h ydrat i on of alkenes in th e 28. Which of the following reacts with presence of acid. Lucas reagent most readily ? (b) reduction of ketones with zinc and (a) CH3—CH2—Cl hydrochloric acid. (b) CH3—CH2—CH (c) hydrolysis of alkyl halides with (c) CH2 = CH2CH3 aqueous alkali. CH3 (d) hydrolysis of ethers in strongly | acidic conditions. (d) CH3 — C — OH 34. Rectified spirit is a mixture of | (a) 95% ethyl alcohol +5% water. CH3 (b) 94% ethyl alcohol +4.53% water. (c) 94.47% ethyl alcohol +5.43% 29. Which of the following products is water. obtained by heating glycerine with (d) 95.57% ethyl alcohol +4.43% Ba(OH)2 ? water. (a) Methylamine 35. Lucas reagent for identification of (b) Acetamide alcohol is (a) P4, I2 and AgNO2 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 109 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 110. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (b) Alkaline KMnO4 (c) ethane. (d) ethyl alcohol. (c) conc. HCl and anhy. ZnCl2 42. Which of the following reagents can (d) hot reduced copper. distinguish aldehyde and ketone ? 36. The boiling point of ethanol is higher (a) Fehling’s solution than that of methanol. The main (b) H2SO4 solution reason for this is that (c) NaHSO4 solution (a) the relative molecular mass of (d) NH3 solution ethanol is higher than that of 43. Formaldehyde reacts with NH3 to form methanol. urotropine which has the composition (b) there are hydrogen bonds between (a) (CH2)4N6 (b) (CH2)5N5 ethanol molecules, but not between (c) (CH2)6N4 (d) (CH2)6N6 methanol molecules. (c) the Van der Waal’s forces between 44. On strongly heating anhydrous calcium ethanol molecules are stronger acetate, which compound is formed ? than those between methanol (a) Acetone molecules. (b) Ether (d) the, covalent bonds in the ethanol (c) Acetic anhydride (d) Carbon monoxide. molecule are stronger than those in the methanol molecule. 45. When diethyl ether is heated with phosphorus pentachloride, it yields 37. An organic compound dissolved in dry (a) ethyl chloride. ben zen e evol ved h ydrogen on (b) 1, 1-dichloroethyl ether. treatment with sodium. It is (c) Both (A) and (B). (a) a ketone. (d) None of these. (b) an aldehyde. 46. When sodium ethoxide and ethyl (c) a tertiary amine. chloride are heated, the product (d) an alcohol. formed is 38. Tincture of iodine consists of (a) ether. (b) ethyl alcohol. (a) a solution of iodine in alcohol. (c) acetaldehyde. (d) acetic acid. (b) a solution of iodine in water. 47. Which of the following statements is (c) a precipitate of iodine in water. correct in case of aliphatic aldehydes (d) pure iodine. and ketones? 39. When acetyl chloride is reduced with (a) Aldehydes are by oxidation of LiAlH4, the product formed is primary alcohols and ketones by (a) methyl alcohol.(b) ethyl alcohol. that of secondary alcohols. (c) acetaldehyde. (d) acetone. (b) A ldeh ydes are obt ai n ed by 40. What product is obtained by treating oxidation of secondary alcohols alcohols with Grignard’s reagent ? and ketones by that of primary (a) Alkanes (b) Alkenes alcohols. (c) Alkynes (d) Higher alcohols. (c) Aldehydes and ketones cannot be 41. Ethyl ether on heating in the presence represented by the same general of Al2O3 at 400° gives formula. (a) acetylene. (b) ethylene. (d) Aldehydes and ketones cannot be oxidised further.110 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 111. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 48. A compound X with molecular formula (b) ammoniacal cuprous chloride. C4H8O does not react with sodium, (c) reseaniline solution in water displacing hydrogen, neither does it decolarised by SO2. react with phosphorus pentachloride (d) None of these. to give hydrogen chloride. X reduces 55. Schiff’s reagent gives pink colour with an alkaline solution of copper (II) salt (a) alcohols. on gen t l e h eati n g. From t h i s (b) acetaldehyde. information we can say that X is (c) acetone. (a) a primary alcohol. (d) mesitylene chloride. (b) a secondary alcohol. 56. Acetone on distillation with conc. (c) a tertiary alcohol. H2SO4 gives (d) an aldehyde. (a) m-xylene. (b) mesitylene. 49. When ethyl iodide is treated with silver (c) cumene. (d) None of these. oxide, the product obtained is 57. When diethyl ether is treated with (a) C2H5OH chlorine, it yields (b) C2H 5OC2H 5 (a) ethane. (c) Both (a) and (b) (b) ethyl chloride, (d) None of these. (c) perchlorodiethyl ether. 50. The reaction in which an alkyl halide (d) acetyl chloride. on treatment alkoxide yields ether is 58. In contact with air or ozone, ethers known as form (a) Kolbe’s reaction. (a) acids. (b) alcohols. (b) Williamson’s. (c) peroxides. (d) aldehydes. (c) Wurtz’s reaction. 59. Formaldehyde condenses with phenol (d) Hydrolysis. in the presence of dil. H2SO4 to yield 51. Ether can be freed from peroxide by (a) Bakelite. (b) Nylon. shaking with (c) Lewisite. (d) Formose. (a) ferrous salt solution. 60. Which of the following compounds (b) copper sulphate solution. would undergo the Cannizzaro’s (c) ferric salt solution. reaction ? (d) None of these. (a) Acetaldehyde (b) Benzaldehyde 52. Williamsons synthesis is used to (c) Propionaldehyde prepare (d) Anisale. (a) acetone. (b) diethyl ether. 61. A coil of resistance 20 ohms and (c) PVC. (d) Bakelite. inductance 0.5 henry is switched on 53. Which of the following is more reactive to direct current 200 volt supply. Find towards the nucleophilic reagents ? the rate of increase of current at the (a) HCHO instance of closing the switch. (b) CH3COCH3 (a) 200 amp/sec (c) 100 amp/sec (c) CH3CHO (d) None of these. (c) 400 amp/sec (d) None of these 54. Schiff’s reagent is 62. Th e resi st an ce of a resi st an ce (a) ammoniacal silver nitrate. thermometer at 19°C is 3.50 ohm and WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 111 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 112. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : at 99°C is 3.66 ohm. At what temperature (Specific resistance of the wire = 5 × its resistance will be 4.30 ohm ? 10–2.Wm) (a) 217°C (b) 419°C (a) 9 (b) 6 (c) 313°C (d) None of these (c) 3 (d) 1.5 63. Four resistors are connected between 67. A wire AB carries a current (as two points X and Y in an electric circuit shown). It consists of a circular arc as shown below :  of radius R and central angle rad, 6 9 2 and two straight sections whose 1 2 1 extensions intersect the ;entre C of X P Q Y the arc. The magnetic field produced by current 5 at C is The 5W resistance develops 20.00 A B calls of heat due to current flowing through it. The heat developed in 2W 1 I 2 resistance (in calls) is 3 (a) 14.2 (b) 7.1 R (c) 20 (d) 15.3 64. An electrical wire made of copper is C stretched to make it 0.1% longer. The percentage change in resistance is :  0i  0i (a) (b) (a) 0.1% (b) 0.01% 4R 2R (c) 0.2% (d) 0.02%  0i 65. Two resistances of 400 W and 800 W (c) (d) Zero are connected in series with 6 V R bat t ery of n egli gi bl e i n t ern al 68. A wi re carryi n g cu rren t i h as resistance. A voltmeter resistance configuration as shown below : 10,000 W is used to measure the Two semi-infinite straight sections, protential difference across 400W. The both tangent to the same circle, are error in the measurement of potential connected by a circular arc, of central difference in volts approximately is : angle q, along the circumference of (a) 0.01 (b) 0.02 the circle, with all sections lying in (c) 0.04 (d) 0.05 r the same plane. The value of B 66. A galvanometer, having resistance of (magnetic field) to be zero at the 500, gives a full scale deflection for a centre, the value of 0 in radius is : current of 0.05 A. The length in metre of a resistance wire of area of cross- section 2.97 × 10–2cm2 that can be used to convert the galvanometer into an ammeter, whi ch can read a maximum of 5. A current is112 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 113. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : R I  a b I (a) 1 rad (b) 2 rad (c) 3 rad (d) 4 rad 69. Four long wires are parallel to each (a) 20.0 × 10–5 T (b) 2.0 × 10–5 T other, their cross sections forming the (c) 0.20 × 10–5 T (d) 0.002 × 10–5 T corners of a square with side x = 10 cm. A 10A current exists in each wire 71. Two wires, both of length L, are formed in the direction shown below into a circle and a square, each of r them carries current i. The magnetic The magnitude of B at the centre of field produced by square at centre is the square is B1 and that due to circle at centre is B2. Then which one of the following is A x B true ? (a) B1 = B2 (b) B1 > B2 x = 10 cm x = 10 cm (c) B1 < B2 (d) B1 is parallel to B2. 72. A magnetic dipole is placed rin two perpendicular magnetic fields B1 , and r D x C B2 and is in equilibrium making an r (a) 8 × 10–8 T (b) 8 × 10–8 T angle q with B1 . Then which one of (c) 0.80 T (d) 0 the following relations holds true ? r r 70. The given figure shows the cross (a) B1 = B2 section of a long conducting cylinder (b) B1 cos q = B2 sin q with inner radius a = 2.0 cm and outer (c) B1 sin q = B2 cos q radius b = 4.0 cm. (d) B1 = B2 sec q The cylinder carries a current out of 73. A wire is shaped to form a regular the page, and current density J is hexagon of side ‘a’. If a current of 1 given 06 by J = cr2, where c = 3 × ampere flows through the wire, then 106 A/m4. The value of magnetic field the magnetic field at the centre of B at a point 3.0 cm from central axis the hexagon is of the cylinder is 4 3  10  5 (a) B  T a 3 5  10 7 (b) B  T a WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 113 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 114. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (c) Bl < B2 3 5  10  5 (d) Date insufficient. (c) B  T a 77. Assuming the earth to be a spherical 4 5  10 7 magnet, find its magnetic moment. (d) B  T (Radius of earth = 6400 km, vertical a intensity of earth’s magnetic field at 74. A current i passes through a coil of the south pole = 0.6 oersted.) radius a having n turns. It is placed in (a) 7.20 × 1024 Am2 an external magnetic field of induction (b) 6.02 × 1024 Am2 r B . Th e pl an e r of t h e coi l i s (c) 6.86 × 1024 Am2 perpendicular to B and the current (d) 7.86 × 1022 Am2 in it appears clockwise when viewed r 78. A uniform magnetic shell is bounded along the direction of B . The work by concentric circles of radius a and done in rotating the coil through 180° b. Find the force it exerts at a point is whose distance is (a) p Joule a 2/3b2/3 (b) in µ0a2B Joule a  1/2 (c) 2 in pa2B Joule 2/3  b2/3 (d) zero from its centre along its axis. 75. A domain in ferromagnetic iron is in (a)0 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 the form of a cube of side length 1 mm. The molecular mass of iron is 55 79. A soft iron ring of permeability g has g/mole and its density is 7.9 g/cm3. a number of turns of wire uniformly Each iron atom has a dipole moment wound over it. A current flows in the of 9.27 × 10–24 Am2. The maximum wire. A small air-gap is formed in the possible magnetisation of the domain iron by cutting out a thin sector is bounded by two planes through the (a) 8.0 × 105 Am–1 axis of the ring, making a small angle (b) 8.0 × 10–5 Am–1 q with each other. By what factor is B (c) 800 Am–1 in the gap is reduced from the previous (d) 80 Am–1 value? 76. Two circular coils P and Q with their     centres lying on the same axis have (a) 1    1 same number of turns and carry equal   0  2 currents in the same sense. They are     separat ed by a di st an ce, h ave (b)    2 different diameters but subtend same  0   angle at a point O lying on their     common axis. The coil Q lies exactly (c)   1 midway between coil P and the point   0  2 O. The magnetic field at point O due to coils P and Q is Bl and B2. Then (a) B1 = B2 (b) B1 > B2114 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 115. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : at a point having coordinates (x, y)    2 in the z = 0 plane is (d) 1     1  0   80. A sheet of a magnetic material is  0I  yiˆ  xjˆ   0I  xiˆ  ˆ yj  placed perpendicular to a uniform magn eti c i nt ensity H . Find t he (a) 2 x 2  y 2  (b) 2 x 2  y 2  damagnetisation factor of the sheet. I ˆ  ˆ  ˆ  ˆ  A2 (a) 2p  0 I xi  yj  0 I xi  yj H A1 (b) 4p (c) x  (d) x  Block 2 µ2 B 2 2 2  y2 2 2  y2 Block µ 1 B1 5 cm (c) 3p 20 cm (d) 5p 84. Three infinitely long thin conductors 81. Fi n d t h e t ot al rel u ct an ce an d are joined at the origin of coordinates permeance between the ends of and lie along the x–, y– and z-axes. A parallel – connected rectangular iron current I flowing along the conductor blocks as shown in the adjacent figure. lying along the x-axis divides equally Given µ1 = 500 µ0 and µ2 = 2000 µ0. into the other two at the origin. The 4 1 magnetic field at the point (0, –a, 0) (a) 4.3  10 henery has magnitude 4 1 3 (b) 5.3  10  0i 0i henery (a) (b) 4 a 4 2 a 5 1 (c)  2.3  10 5 0i 3 0i henery (c) (d) 1 8 a 2 a (d)  2.4  105 henery 85. A ring of mean radius 15 cm has 3500 82. turns of wire wound on ferromagnetic B core of relative permeability 800. What is the magnetic field B in the core for Figures represent four positions of a a magnetising current of 1.2 A ? current carrying coil in a magnetic field (a) 5.84 T (b) 4.48 T directed towards right. A represents (c) 3.48 T (d) 4.84 T the direction of area vector of the 86. A small wire of mass m slides without coil. Then correct order of potential friction on two rails placed at a energy is distance d apart. The track lies in a (a) I > II > III > IV vertical magnetic flux of induction (b) I > III > II > IV (uniform field) B. A constant current i (c) II > I > III > IV flows along the rail across the wire (d) IV > III > I > II and back down the other rail. The 83. A long straight wire along the z-axis acceleration of the wire is carries a current I in the negative z H Bmi direction. The magnetic field vector B (a) (b) mBid d WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 115 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 116. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : The variation of I and E vs t is mid Bid (c) (d) represented in the graph. If E 0 = B m E0cos(100t). Then components of the 87. The scale of a galvanometer is divided circuit are i n t o 1 5 0 equ al di vi si on s. Th e (a) R = 1 kW and gal van omet er has t h e cu rren t C = 10 µF sensitivity of 10 divisions per mA and (b) R = 100 kW and the voltage sensitivity of 2 division C = 10 µF per mV. How the galvanometer be (c) R = 1W and designed to read 6A, per division? C = 100 PF (a) 8.33 × 105 W (b) 7.26 × 104 W (d) R = 1MW and (c) 9.34 × 106 W (d) 2.75 × 103 W C = 1µF 88. A long solenoid of radius 2 cm has 91. A condenser of capacity 1 microfarad 100 turns/cm and is surrounded by a is connected with an inductance of 100-turn coil of radius 4cm having a 10 mil lihenry. Fi nd t he n atural total resistance of 20 W. The coil is frequency of the circuit. connected to a galvanometer as (a) 1550 Hz (b) 1575 Hz shown in the figure. If the current in (c) 1591 Hz (d) 1600 Hz the solenoid is changed from 5A in 92. Using an AC voltmeter, the potential one, direction to 5A in the opposite difference in the electrical line in a direction, find the charge which flows house is read to be 234V. If the line through the galvanometer. frequency is known to be 50Hz, the (a) 700 µC (b) 600 µC equation of the line voltage is (c) 300 µC (d) 800 µC (a) V = 220 sin 100 pt 89. A long straight wire having the form (b) V = 165 sin (100 pt) of a thin half-ring of radius r is taken. (c) V = 440 sin (100 pt) Current is made to flow through this (d) V = 331 sin (100 pt) wire, as shown in the figure. 93. An alternating emf of frequency 50 What is the induction of magnetic field Hz is applied to a Series circuit of at O ? resistance 20 ohm, an inductance of 100 mH and a capacitor of 30 µF. By what angle does the current lag or lead the applied emf and ? r (a) tan–1 (–3.15) (b) tan–1 (–1.08) (c) tan–1 (2.22) (d) None of these  0i  0i 94. A rectangular coil of (a) (b) wi re rotat es at a 2R  R constant speed about I E  0i  0R one of its sides xy. The (c) 2 (d) side xy is parallel to a  R 2 t long, straight current 90. In an AC circuit phase difference carrying conductor. between current and potential is p/4. The induced emf will be minimum when the coil116 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 117. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : is resistance takes a current of 8 amperes when connected to a supply I x of 100 volts, at 50 cycles per sec. A certain non-inductive resistance, under the same conditions, carriers a current of 10 amperes. If the two are transferred to a supply system working I at 150 volts, at 40 cycles per second, what total current will they take if joined in parallel? (a) 18.2 A (b) 35.3 A (c) 28.4 A (d) 21.2 A y 97. A series LCR circuit containing a (a) perpendicular to the plane of the resistance of 120 S has angular conductor. resonance frequency 4 × 105 rad. s– 1. At resonance, the voltages across (b) in the plane of the conductor. (c) parallel to the plane of conductor. resistance and inductance are 60 V (d) outside the plane of the conductor. and 40 V respectively. At what frequency the current in the circuit 95. A box P and a coil Q are connected in lags the voltage by 45° ? series with an AC source of variable (a) 2.42 × 103 Hz (b) 3.02 × 102 Hz frequency. The emf of source is (c) 1.44 × 103 Hz (d) 3.18 × 104 Hz constant at 10 V. Box P contains a capacitance of 1µF in series with a 98. A circular coil of radius 5 cm has 500 resistance of 32W. Coil Q has a self- turns of a wire. The approximate value inductance 4.9 mH and a resistance of the coefficient of self-induction of of 68W in series. The frequency is the coil will be adjusted so that the maximum current (a) 25 mH (b) 25 × 10–3mH (c) 50 × 10 –3 mH (d) 50 × 10–3 H. flows in P and Q. Find the impedance of P and Q at this frequency. 99. An AC source of angular frequency w is fed across a resistor R and a capacitor C in series. The current registered is I. If now the frequency 4.9mH 68 E - 10 sin  t 1µF 32 P Q  of source is changed to (but 3 maintaining the same voltage), the current in the circuit is found to be E - 10 sin  t halved. Find the ratio of reactance to resistance at the original frequency w. (a) 79.0W, 80W (b) 28.66W, 100W (a) 2/5 (b) 3/5 (c) 76.96, 99W (d) None of these (c) 5/7 (d) None of these 96. A certain choke coil of negligible WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 117 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 118. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 100.In an AC generator, the number of turns in a coil is 2000 and the area of the coil is 0.15 m2. “The coil is rotated at a rate of 60 cycles per second in a (c) e field of 0.1 T. Find the peak volume of t iv Ca uc pa I nd the emf induced. citiv e (a) 1.131 × 104 V(b) 1.15 × 104 V f (c) 1131 ×104 V (d) 0.131 × 104 V 101.In a coil an emf of 8V is induced when in 0.5 sec the value of current changes from 2A to 4A. What will be the value (d) of coefficient of self-induction of the I coil? f (a) 0.8 H. (b) 0.1 H. 103.The value of current through an (c) 0.2 H. (d) 0.4 H. inductance of 1H and of negligible 102.A simple radio­frequency amplifier resistance when connected through circuit is taken (as shown in fig.). an a.c. source of 200 V and 50 Hz is : Which one of the following shows (a) 3.637 A (b) 0.637 A correct variation of current and (c) 1.637 A (d) 2.637 A frequency for net inductive and net 104.The earth’s magnetic field (say B) at capacitive circuit respectively ? equator is horizontal, uniform and IL L points north-south. A conducting square loop of side l and resistance R is kept in the vertical plane with two IC C of it s si des poi nt in g east -west direction. This loop is moved in east direction with a velocity v. The current induced in the loop is Bvl 2Bvl (a) (b) R R (a) I Ind itive ucti pac 4Bvl ve Ca (c) (d) 0 f R 105.A circular coil of radius 5 cm has 500 turns of a wire. The approximate value of the coefficient of self-induction of (b) I the coil will be Ca (a) 25 millihenry e pa tiv citiv uc (b) 25 × 10–3 millihenry Ind e f (c) 50 × 10–3 millihenry (d) 50 × 10–3 henry. 106.A wire is situated in the east-west118 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 119. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : direction and the current flowing through (a) 2 × 10–2 volt (b) 3 × 10–4 volt it is 0.5 ampere. The wire is held (c) 4 × 10–3 volt (d) None of these perpendicular to magnetic field of 0.2 111.A circuit consisting of an ideal inductor × 10–4 N (amp.-metre). The force (L) and capacitor (C) is connected to acting on the wire will be : a source of emf (E) as shown in fig. (a) 0.0 (b) 1 × 10–6 (c) 1 × 10–5 (d) 4 × 10–5 C L K K = key 107.A uniform bar is suspended in a E horizontal position by a vertical wire attached to its centre. When a torque The capacitor is charged for t seconds of 5 N is applied to the bar, the bar is an d t h en di sch arged t h rou gh twisted through an angle of 12°. When inductance L, by pressing the key K. the bar is released, it oscillates as a This L–C system torsional pendulum with a period of 0.5 second. The moment of inertia of (a) executes simple harmonic motion the bar is (a) 0.05 kg m2 (b) 0.1 kg m2  1  (c) 0.15 kg m 2 (d) 0.25 kg m2 with frequency  f    2 LC  108.When a conductor of length l meter (b) executes simple harmonic motion moves with a velocity v m/sec in a direction normal to magnetic induction B, then the induced emf is  with frequency f  2 LC  (a) Bvl (b) Zero (c) executes no oscillations. (c) ½ Bvl (d) Bvq (d) shows that frequency of current and charge is not same. 109.A current carrying wire has the follo­wing shape. a = radius of curved 112.A coil has 1,000 turns and 500 cm2 path. Find the magnetic induction at as its area. The plane of the coil is point P. placed at right angle to a magnetic induction field of 2 × 10–5 web/m2. P The coil is rotated through 180° in  a 0.2 seconds. The average emf induced in the coil in milli-volts is   (a) 5 (b) 10 0i  3  0i  3  (a) a   2   1 (b)   2   1 (c) 15 (d) 20    113.A solenoid 3.14 m long and of 0.002  0i  3  m2 cross-sectional area has 700 (c) 4 a   2   1  (d) None of these turns. Another small solenoid of 50  turns is tightly wound over the longer 110.A wire carrying current i = 100 A is sol en oi d. W h at wi l l be mu t u al taken. A rod is moved parallel to this inductance of the two solenoids. wire with a velocity v = 5 m/s as (µ0 = 4p × 10–7 Hm–1) ? shown in the figure. Find the value of (a) 1.8 × 10–4 H (b) 3.3 × 10–2 H induced emf in the rod. (c) 2.38 × 10–6 H (d) 2.8 ×10–5 H WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 119 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 120. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 114.When a wheel with metallic spokes shown in figure. 1.2 m long revolves in a magnetic field of 5 × 10–5 Wbm perpendicular to the plane of wheel, an emf 10 –2V is 25 cm 15 cm induced across the rim and the axle of the wheel. Find the rate of rotation 33.25 cm n = 4/3 of the wheel per second. I (a) 32.2 (b) 44.2 O (c) 30.2 (d) None of these Find the focal length of mirror (in cm). 115.A 10 metre wire is kept in east-west (a) 10 (b) 15 direction. It is falling down with a (c) 20 (d) 25 speed of 5.0 m/s perpendicular to the horizontal component of earth’s 120.An equic-onvex lens of refractive index magnetic field of 0.30 × 10–4 Wb/m2. 1.50 in contact with a liquid layer on What is the momentary potential top of a plane mirror is kept (shown in difference induced between the end figure). A small object on the principal of the wires ? axis is moved along the axis until its (a) 1.2 mV (b) 1.6 mV inverted image is found at the position (c) 2.4 mV (d) 3.2 mV of the needle. The distance of the –4 magnetic flux lines are object from the lens is measured to 116.5.5 × 10 be 45.0 cm. The liquid is removed and passing through a coil of resistance the experiment is repeated. The new 10 ohm and number of turns 1000. If distance is measured to be 30.0 cm. the number of flux lines reduces to 5 The refractive index of the liquid is × 10–5 in 0.1 sec, what will be the charge flowing through the coil ? (a) 0.02 C (b) 0.01 C (c) 1.02 C (d) 0.05 C 117.A coil of area 0.04m2 having 1000 turns is suspended perpendicular to a (a) 1.50 (b) 1.66 magnetic field of 5.0 × 10–5 Wbm–2. (c) 1.33 (d) 1.77 It is rotated through 90° in 0.2 second. Find the average emf induced. (a) 1.0 V (b) 0.03 V sin(   ) cos(   ) 1 (c) 0.05 V (d) 0.5 V 1. If A = sin(   ) cos(   ) 1 , then: 118.Find the self-inductance of an air-red sin(   ) cos(   ) 1 solenoid; 1m long and 0.05 m in diameter having 1400 turns. (a) A = 0  q (a) 2.4 mH (b) 3.4 mH (b) A is an add function of q (c) 4.8 mH (d) None of these (c) A = 0 for q = a + b + g 119.The adjoining figure shows object O, (d) A is indepedent of q final image I is formed after two 2. If the line L in the x – y plane and half refractions and one reflection is also the slope and twice the y-intercept120 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 121. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 2 (c) (3, 2) (d) (2, 3) of the line y = x  4, then an equation for 4. If (1 + x) n = C + C x + C x2 + ... + 3 0 1 2 CnCn, then C0C2 + C1C3+ C2C4 + ...+ L is: Cn–2 Cn is equal to: 1 4 (a) y = x  8 (b) y = x  2 (2n)! (2 n)! 3 3 (a) (b) 2 1 4 (n !) ( n  1)!( n  1)! (c) y = x  4 (d) y = x  4 3 3 (2n)! 3. Find the point on the ellipse x2 + 2y2 (c) (d) none of these ( n  2)!( n  2)! = 6 whose distance from the line x + y = 7 is least. 5. The digit in the unit place of the (a) (2, 1) (b) (1, 2) number (183)! + 3183 is: MATHEMATICS (a) 0 (b) 3 dx (c) 6 (d) 7 a velocity by  x  1. (x is the dt 6. If x, y, z are three consecutive positive distance described). The time taken i n t egers, t h en by a particle to transverse a distance 1 1 1 of 99 metres is: log e x  log e z  (a) log10e (b) 2log10e 2 2 2xz  1 1 1 1  3 (c) log 10 e (d) 2 loge10     ... is equal to: 2 3  2 xz  1 10. Order and degree of the differential (a) loge x (b) loge y  2  1/4 (c) loge z (d) none of these d2 y  dy  equation =  y  are:  7. The equation of the normal to the dx 2    dx  x2 y2 (a) 4 and 2 (b) 1 and 2 ellipse   1 at the end of the a2 b2 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 4 latus rectum is: 11. The general solution of the differential (a) x + ey + e3 a (b) x – ey – e3a equation (1 + tan y) (dx – dy) + 2x (c) x – ey – c2 a (d) none of these d y =0 k (a) x (sin y + cos y) = sin y + cey 8. If  x 6 sin(5x)7 dx = 5 cos (5x7), then: (b) x (sin y + cos y) = sin y + ce–y (a) k = 7 (b) k = – 7 (c) y (sin x + cos x) = sin x + cex 1 1 (d) none of these (c) k = (d) k =   sin x 7 7  /4   12. The equation    /4   |sin|x|  v 1  cos x  9. A particle moves in a straight line with WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 121 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 122. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : dx = 0 (a) 3 sq. units/sec. where l, m v are constants, given a (b) 10 sq. units/sec. relation between: (a) l, m and v (b) m and v (c) 10 3 sq. units/sec. (c) l and v (d) l and m (d) 10 2 sq. units/sec. t 18. The points on the curve y = x3 – 3x 13. If A (t) =  e  |x|dx , then lim A (t) is  t t  as which the normals are parallel to equal to: the line 2x + 18y = 9 are: (a) 0 (b) 2 (a) (2, –2) (b) (2, 2) (c) – 2 (d) 4 (c) (2, –2), (–2, 2) (d) (2, 2), (–2, –2) sin x 14.  sin( x  a) dx is equal to: 19. The function f is differentiable with f 1 (a) (x – a) cos a + sin a log sin (x – a) + (1) = 8 anf f’ (1) = . If f is invertible c 8 (b) sin (x – a) + sin x + c and g = f–1, then: (c) (x – a) cos x + log sin (x – a) + c 1 (a) g’(1) = 8 (b) g’(1) = 8 (d) cos (x – a) + cos x + c 1 sin x (c) g’(g) = 8 (d) g’(g) = 15.  3  4 cos2 x dx is equal to: 8 dy 1  1 2 cos x  20. If sin (x + y) = log (x + y), then is (a)  tan    c dx 2 3  3  equal to: (a) – 1 (b) 1 1  2cos x  (b) tan  1    c (c) – 2 (d) 2 2 3  3  21. Let f and g be differentiable functions (c) log (3 + 4 cos2 x) + c satisfying g’(a) = 2, g (a) = 6 and fog 1  cos x  = 1 (identity function). Then f ’(b) is (d)  tan  1    c equal to: 2 3  3  1 2 16. Th e su bt an gen t, ordi n at e an d (a) (b) subnormal to the parabola y2 = 4ax 2 3 at a point (different from the origin) (c) 2 (d) none of these are in: (a) G.P (b) A.P 1  sin  (c) H.P (d) none of these lim 22.       is equal to: 17. The side of an equilateral triangle are 2     cos  2 increasing at the rate of 2 cm/sec. The rate at which the area increases, 1 1 when the side is 10 cm is: (a)  (b) (c) – 1 (d) 1 2 2122 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 123. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : dx = 0 (a) 3 sq. units/sec. where l, m v are constants, given a (b) 10 sq. units/sec. relation between: (a) l, m and v (b) m and v (c) 10 3 sq. units/sec. (c) l and v (d) l and m (d) 10 2 sq. units/sec. t 18. The points on the curve y = x3 – 3x 13. If A (t) =  e  |x|dx , then lim A (t) is  t t  as which the normals are parallel to equal to: the line 2x + 18y = 9 are: (a) 0 (b) 2 (a) (2, –2) (b) (2, 2) (c) – 2 (d) 4 (c) (2, –2), (–2, 2) (d) (2, 2), (–2, –2) sin x 14.  sin( x  a) dx is equal to: 19. The function f is differentiable with f 1 (a) (x – a) cos a + sin a log sin (x – a) + (1) = 8 anf f’ (1) = . If f is invertible c 8 (b) sin (x – a) + sin x + c and g = f–1, then: (c) (x – a) cos x + log sin (x – a) + c 1 (a) g’(1) = 8 (b) g’(1) = 8 (d) cos (x – a) + cos x + c 1 sin x (c) g’(g) = 8 (d) g’(g) = 15.  3  4 cos 2 x dx is equal to: 8 dy 1  1 2 cos x  20. If sin (x + y) = log (x + y), then is (a)  tan    c dx 2 3  3  equal to: (a) – 1 (b) 1 1  2cos x  (b) tan  1    c (c) – 2 (d) 2 2 3  3  21. Let f and g be differentiable functions (c) log (3 + 4 cos2 x) + c satisfying g’(a) = 2, g (a) = 6 and fog 1  cos x  = 1 (identity function). Then f ’(b) is (d)  tan  1    c equal to: 2 3  3  1 2 16. Th e su bt an gen t, ordi n at e an d (a) (b) subnormal to the parabola y2 = 4ax 2 3 at a point (different from the origin) (c) 2 (d) none of these are in: (a) G.P (b) A.P 1  sin  (c) H.P (d) none of these lim 22.       is equal to: 17. The side of an equilateral triangle are 2     cos  2 increasing at the rate of 2 cm/sec. The rate at which the area increases, 1 1 when the side is 10 cm is: (a)  (b) (c) – 1 (d) 1 2 2 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 123 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 124. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : srr srr 39. aC0 + (a + b) C1 + (a + 2b) C2 + ...+ (c) 2[a b c ] (d) 4[a b c ] (a + nb) Cn is equal to: r r (a) (2n + nb) 2n (b) (2a + nb) 2n–1 34. If the unit vectors a and b are inclined r r (c) (na + 2b)2n (d) (na + 2b) 2n–1 at an angle 2q such that|a  b | 1 and  40. The first the terms in the expansion 0 £ q £ p, then q lies in the interval: o f     5     (1 + ax)’’ (n ¹ 0) are 1, 6x and 16x2. (a)  0,  or  ,   (b)  ,   Then the values of a and n are  6  6   6  respectively. (a) 2 and 9 (b) 3 and 2       5  (c)  ,  (d)  ,  2 3  6 2  2 3  (c) and 9 (d) and 6 3 2 35. If A and B are square matrices of the same order and A is not singular then 41. Observe the following lists: for a positive integer n (A–1 BA)” is List I List II equal to: (A) A is a matrix (1) Nilpotent matrix (a) A–n Bn An (b) An Bn A–n such that A2 = A (c) A –1 Bn A (d) (A–1 BA) (B) A is square matrix (2) Involutary matrix  1 0  0 1 such that Am = 0 36. If I =   , I =   1 0  and  0 1   (C) A is a square (3) S y m m e t r i c matrix  cos  sin   matrix A2 = 1 B =   sin  cos   then B equals: (D) A is a square (4) Idempotent   matrix matrix (a) I cos q + I sin q such that AT = A (b) I sin q + I cos q The correct match for List I from List (c) I cos q – I sin q II is: (d) – I cos q + I sin q A B C D 37. The value of l for which the following (a) 1 2 3 4 system of equations does not have (b) 3 4 2 1 solution. (c) 4 3 2 1 x+ y+ z=0 (d) 4 1 2 3 4x + ly – lz = 0 42. Observe the following lists: 3x + 2y – 4z = – 8 List I List II (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –3 (d) 3  2 2 9 x  2 dx  3 2/3 e  3  x 1 (a)  5 ( x  5)  1/3 (1) 0 38. If A =   and A2 = I, then x is   4 e dx  1 0 equal to: 2 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4 (b)   2 [x] dx (2) 2 p124 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 125. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (c) A is true but R is false 3   1 x 2  1 (d) A is false but R is true (c)  1  tan    x  (3) – 2 44. Assertion (A): Let f: R ® R be a function such that f (x) = x3 + x2 + x   3x + sin x. Then f is one-one.  tan  1    1  x2  Reason (R): f (x) is an strictly (d) The greater of (4) p/2 increasing function.  /2 sin x Which of the above statement is 0 x dx and  /2 correct? (a) A (b) B The correct match for List I from List (c) C (d) D II is: r ˆ ˆ r A B C D j ˆ 45. Assertion (A): If a  i  j and b  ˆ  k , (a) 1 4 2 3 then (a + b, a – b) = 90°. (b) 1 3 4 2 r r r r Reason (R): Projection of a  b on a  b (c) 1 2 3 4 is zero. (d) 1 3 2 4 (a) A (b) B 43. Consider the following statements: (c) C (d) D x 46. Assertion (A): The function f(t): I. f (x) = is differentiable for 1  cos(1  cos t ) 1 |x| is continuous every x e R. t4 II. f (x) = |x2 – 5x + 6| is not 1 differentiable at x = 2. where then f(0) = . 8 Which of the above statement is Reason (R): For continuous function correct? (a) only I (b) only II f (0) ¹ lim f (t). t 0 (c) both I and II (d) neither I and II (a)A (b) B (c) C (d) D Directions: The following FIVE items 47. Assertion (A): The circle described consists of two statements, one labelled on the segment joining the points (– the ‘Assertion A’ and the other labelled the 2, –1), (0, –3) as diameter cuts the ‘Reason R’. You are to examine these two circle x2 + y2 + 5x + 4 = 0 orthogonally. statements carefully and decide if the Assertion A and Reason R are individually Reason (R): (–2, –1) and (0, –3) are t rue and i f so, wh et h er t h e reason conjugate points w.r. to the circle x2 explanation of the Assertion. Select your + y2 + 5x + y + 4 = 0 answer to these items using the codes (a)A (b) B (c) C (d) D given below. 48. Assertion (A): The minimum value of Code: the expression x2 + 2bx + c is c – b2. (a) Both A and R are ture and R is the Reason (R): The first order derivative correct explanation of A. of the expression at x = – b is zero. (b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT (a)A (b) B (c) C (d) D a correct explanation of A. WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 125 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 126. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : 49. Consider the following statements: a (a) c = – am (b) c =  sin 5x 1 m I.  cos7 x cos 2x dx is equal to 7 log (c) c = – am2 (d) c = a m2 1 54. Maximum area of an isosceles triangle |sec 7x|  log |sec 2x| + c 2 x2 y2 inscribed in the ellipse   1 with II.  1  sec x dx is equal to 2cos– a2 b2 the vertex at one end of the major  x axis is: 1  2 sin   c  2 3 3 (a) 3ab (b) ab 4 Which of the above statements is correct? 5 3 (c) ab (d) none of these (a) only I (b) only II 4 (c) both I and II (d) neither I nor II 55. The equation of chord joining two 49. Consider the following statements: points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) on the I. The area of the triangle formed by rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 is: x y          (a) x  x  y  y  1  1,  ,  2,  and  2  is 2  3 1 2 1 2 6 3 2 y x II. The randius of the circle (b) x  x  y  y  1 1 2 1 2 r 2  4r( 3 cos   sin  )  7 = 0 x y (c) y  y  x  x  1 is which of the statement is correct: 1 2 1 2 (a) only I (b) only II x y (c) both I and II (d) neither I nor II (d) y  y  x  x  1 1 2 1 2 r r r r r ˆ r r r j ˆ 51. If a  i  ˆ  k , b  i  ˆ , c  i and (a  b )  c j 56. If the line joining of foci subtends an r r angle of 90° at an exterimity of minor =  a   b , then (l + m) is equal to: axis, then eccentricity e is: (a)0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 1 1 52. If D, E, F are respectively the mid (a) (b) 6 3 points of AB,AC and BC in D ABC, 1 uuu uuu r r (c) (d) none of these then BE  AF is equal to: 2 uuur 1 uuu r 57. The lengths of the chord joining the (a) DC (b) BF points in which the straight line 2 uuur 3 uuu r x y 169 (c) 2BF (d) BF   1 cuts the circle x2 + y2 = 2 3 4 25 53. The line y = mx + c touches the is: p a r a b o l a (a) 1 (b) 2 x2 = 4ay if : (c) 4 (d) 8 58. Matrix theory was introduced by: (a) Newton (b) Calay-Hamilton126 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 127. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (c) Cauchy (d) Euclid ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 have all roots 59. If q sin –1 x + cos–1 x – tan–1 x, x ³ 0, are equal to: then the smallest interval in which q (a) a3c – b3d (b) ac3 – b3d lies is: (c) ac3 – bd3 (d) a3c – bd3  3 (a)    (b) 0     66. sin 47° – sin 25° + sin 61° – sin 11° 2 4 is equal to:    (a) cos 7° (b) sin 7° (c) –    0 (d)    4 4 2 (c) 2 cos 7° (d) 2 sin 7° 60. The equation sin x + sin y + sin z = – 67. If a, b, g are the roots of the equation 3 for 0 £ x £ 2p, 0 £ y £ 2p, 0 < z < x3 + 4x + 1 = 0 then (a + b)–1 + (b + 2p, has: g)–1 + (g + a)–1 is equal to: (a) one solution (a) 2 (b) 3 (b) two sets of solution (c) 4 (d) 5 (c) four sets of solution 68. A bag C contains 3 white and 3 black (d) no solution balls and another bag Y contains 4 61. If a, b (a ¹ b), satisfies the equation white and 2 black balls, one bag is a cos q + b sin q = c, then the value of selected at random and a ball is drawn from it. Then the probability for the      tan   is : ball chosen be white is: 2  (a) 2/15 (b) 7/15 b c a c (c) 8/15 (d) 14/15 (a) (b) (c) (d) a a b b dn 62. Convert Binary number 110011011 in 69. If In = (xn log x), then In – n In – 1 dx n decimal system: (a)402 (b) 411 (c) 456 (d) 481 is equal to: (a) n (b) n – 1 63. If w is a complex root of unity, then (c) n! (d) (n – 1)! p  q  r 2 p  q  rw 2 r r r r the value of  , 70. If a , b , c are three vectors such that a 2 r  p  q q  r  p r s r = b  c and the angle between b and c (p, q, r are real) is equal to is p/2, then: (a) 0 (b) 1 (a) a2 = b2 + c2 (b) b2 = c2 + a2 (c) –1 (d) 2 (c) c2 = a2 + b2 (d) 2a2 – b2 = c2 64. Find the area bounded by the curves 71. The greatest of the numbers 1, 21/2, y = |x – 1|and y = 3 – |x| is equal 31/3, 41/4, 51/5, 61/6 and 71/7 is: to: (a) 2 1/2 (b) 3 1/3 1 4 (c) 7 1/7 (d) all are equal (a) sq. units (b) sq. units 2 3 72. The straight line x + y – 5 = 0, x = 3 (c) 4 sq. units (d) 2 sq. units and y = 3 form a triangle. The ratio of the sides is: 65. Find the condition that the equation (a) 1 : 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 2 :1 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 127 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 128. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : (c) (d) 1 : 2 : 3 (a) 5 (b) 6 2 :1:1 (c) 4 (d) 7 73. Orthocentre of the triangle formed by 78. A parallelograms is cut by two sets of  1  1 m lines parallel to its sides. The joining the points  3,  ,  4,  and  3  4 number of parallelograms then formed is:  1 (a) (mC 2) 2 (b) (m+1C2) 2  5,  is: (c) ( m+ 2 C ) 2 (d) none of these  5 2 79. The number of ways in which a  1   1  committee of 6 members can be (a)   , 60  (b)   ,  60   60   60  formed from 8 gentlemen and 4 ladies so that the committee contains at least 3  1  ladies is: (c)   ,  24  (d) none of these  24  (a) 420 (b) 444 74. A square matrix can always be (c) 252 (d) 672 expressed as a: a b b c 1 (a) sum of symmetric matrix and a 80. If , b, are in A.P, then a , , c 1  ab 1  bc b skew symmetric matrix (b) sum of a diagonal matrix and are in: symmetric matrix (a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) skew matrix (c) H.P. (d) none of these (d) skew symmetric matrix 1 2 1 2  3 81. If 1    ... to n terms is S, 75. The solution set of the equation 2 3 2 3 x then S is equal to: n(n  3) n(n  2) 2 1 x 2 = 0 is: (a) (b) 4 4 6 7 3 n(n  1)(n  2) (c) (d) n 2 (a) f (b) {0, 1} 6 (c) (1, –1) (d) {1, –3} 82. If a, b are the roots of the equation x2 – ax + b = 0 and An = an + bn. Then 2r x n(n  1) which of the following is true? 76. If Sr = 2 6r  1 y n2 (2n  3) , then (a) An+1 = aAn + bAn–1 (b) An+1 = bAn + aAn–1 4 r 3  2nr z n3 (n  1) (c) An+1 = aAn – bAn–1 (d) An+1 = bAn – aAn–1 n 83. The value of p for which both the the value of  Sr is independent of : r 1 roots of the equation 4x2 – 20px + (a) x only (b) y only (25p2 + 15p – 66) = 0 are less than (c) x, y, z, n (d) n only 2, lies in: 77. If in the expansion of (1 + x)n, co-  4  efficient of 2nd, 3rd and 4th terms (a) (2, ¥) (b)  , 2 5 are in A.P, then x is equal to:128 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 129. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs :  4 c2 (c)   1,  (d) (–¥, –1) (a) x2 + y2 = (b) x2 + y2 = 2c2 5 2 84. If two towers of heights h1 and h2 (c) x2 + y2 = c2 (d) x2 – y2 = c2 su bt en d an gl es 6 0 ° an d 3 0 ° 89. If x = a + b, y = aw + bw2, z = aw2 + respectively at the midpoint of the bw, then xyz equals: line joining their feet than h1:h2 is (a) (a + b)3 (b) a3 – b3 (c) a3 + b3 equal to: (a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 3 (d) (a + b)3 – 3ab (a + b) (c) 2 : 1 (d) 3 :1 90. If z1 and z2 both satisfy z + z = 2|z – 1 13  85. If cos P = and cos Q = , where P 1| and arg (z1 – z2) = , then the 7 14 4 and Q both are acute angles. Then imaginary part of (z1 + z2) is: the value of P – Q is : (a) 0 (b) 1 (a) 30° (b) 60° (c) 2 (d) none of these (c) 45° (d) 75° 91. If the cube roots of unity are 1, w,w2, then the roots of the equation (x – a 1 86. If sec q – tan q = , then cos q is 1)3 + 8 = 0 are: a 1 (a) –1, 1 + 2w, 1 + 2w2 equal to: (b) –1, 1 – 2w, 1 – 2w2 a2  1 a2  1 (c) –1, – 1, – 1 (a) (b) (d) none of the above a2  1 a2  1 92. The average of n numbers x1, x2, x3, 2a 2a ... xn is M. If xn is replaced by x’, the (c) 2 (d) 2 new average is: a  1 a  1 87. The lines x cos a + y sin a = p1 and x nM  xn  x  (a) M – xn + x’ (b) cos b + y si n b = p 2 wi l l be n perpendicular if: (n  1) M  x  M  xn  x  (c) (d) n n  (a) a = b (b) | a – b | = 93. The S.D. of a variate x is s. Tnen the 2   ax  b (c) a = (d) a ± b = S.D. of the variate , where a, 2 2 c b, c are constant, is: x y 88. If for a variable line   1, then  a a a b (a)    (b)  c c conditi on a –2 + b –2 = c –2 (c i s constant) is satisfied, then the locus  a2  of foot of the perpendicular drawn from (c)  2   (d) none of these  c  the origin to this is: 94. The equation of the line through the WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 129 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 130. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : x 4 y 1 is equal to: points (1, 2, 3) parallel to line = (a) 0 (b) a, a 2  3 (c) bb (d) (a + b) c z  10 98. If G is the centriod of a triangle ABC, = are: uuur uur uuur 8 then GA  Gb  GC is equal to: x 1 y 2 z 3 uuur (a)   (a) 0 (b) 3GA 2  3 8 uur uuu r (c) 3Gb (d) GC x 1 y 2 z 3 99. The shaded region in the given figure (b)   1 2 3 is: x 1 y 2 z 3 (a) A – (B È C) (b) (B Ç C) – A (c)   (c) A Ç (B Ç C) (d) A Ç (B È C) 1 2 3 (d) none of these 100.If A = {(x, y) : x2 + y2 = 25} and B = {(x, y) : x2 + 9y2 = 144} then A Ç B 95. The equation of the sphere concentric contains: with the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 – 4x – 6y (a) one point (b) three points – 8z = 0, and which passes through (c) two points (d) four points (0, 1, 0) is: (a) x2 + y2 + z2 – 4x – 6y – 8z + 1 = 0 (b) x2 + y2 + z2 – 4x – 6y – 8z + 5 = 0 (c) x2 + y2 + z2 – 4x – 6y – 5z + 2 = 0 (d) x2 + y2 + z2 – 4x – 6y – 5z + 3 = 0 96. If | a + b | = | a – b|, then: (a) a is parallel to b (b) a is perpendicular to b 1 (c) a =  2 (d) angle between a and b is p /3 r r r r r r r r r r r 97. If a  b  c  d , b  c  d =  a , and a  b  c are non-copalnar, then a + b + c + d130 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012
  • 131. UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : ANSWERS GENERAL ABILITY TEST 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (c) 15. (d) 16. (a) 17. (d) 18. (c) 19. (c) 20. (c) 21. (b) 22. (c) 23. (a) 24. (b) 25. (b) 26. (b) 27. (b) 28. (b) 29. (c) 30. (a) 31. (a) 32. (d) 33. (c) 34. (d) 35. (b) 36. (d) 37. (c) 38. (c) 39. (d) 40. (a) 41. (c) 42. (b) 43. (c) 44. (c) 45. (b) 45. (b) 47. (c) 48. (c) 49. (b) 50. (a) 51. (b) 52. (b) 53. (b) 54. (a) 55. (b) 56. (d) 57. (b) 58. (a) 59. (c) 60. (b) 61. (b) 62. (a) 63. (c) 64. (a) 65. (d) 66. (d) 67. (b) 68. (a) 69. (d) 70. (a) 71. (c) 72. (d) 73. (b) 74. (d) 75. (a) 76. (c) 77. (a) 78. (c) 79. (b) 80. (a) 81. (d) 82. (a) 83. (d) 84. (a) 85. (d) 86. (b) 87. (d) 88. (c) 89. (b) 90. (c) 91. (a) 92. (d) 93. (d) 94. (d) 95. (c) 96. (c) 97. (d) 98. (a) 99. (a) 100. (d) 101. (c) 102. (d) 103. (d) 104. (a) 105. (a) 106. (b) 107. (b) 108. (c) 109. (d) 110. (d) 111. (d) 112. (a) 113. (b) 114. (b) 115. (b) 116. (c) 117. (c) 118. (b) 119. (c) 120. (b) PHYSICAL SCIENCE 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (d) 11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (c) 14. (c) 15. (b) 16. (b) 17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (c) 21. (b) 22. (a) 23. (b) 24. (b) 25. (d) 26. (d) 27. (d) 28. (d) 29. (a) 30. (a) 31. (d) 32. (b) 33. (b) 34. (b) 35. (c) 36. (c) 37. (d) 38. (a) 39. (b) 40. (a) 41. (b) 42. (a) 43. (c) 44. (a) 45. (a) 46. (a) 47. (a) 48. (d) 49. (b) 50. (b) 51. (a) 52. (b) 53. (a) 54. (c) 55. (b) 56. (b) 57. (c) 58. (c) 59. (a) 60. (b) 61. (c) 62. (b) 63. (a) 64. (c) 65. (c) 66. (a) 67. (d) 68. (b) 69. (a) 70. (b) 71. (b) 72. (c) 73. (d) 74. (c) 75. (a) 76. (c) 77. (d) 78. (a) 79. (a) 80. (b) 81. (b) 82. (b) 83. (a) 84. (c) 85. (b) 86. (d) 87. (a) 88. (d) 89. (c) 90. (a) 91. (c) 92. (d) 93. (b) 94. (b) 95. (c) 96. (d) 97. (d) 98. (d) 99. (b) 100. (a) 101. (c) 102. (a) 103. (b) 104. (d) 105. (d) 106. (c) 107. (c) 108. (a) 109. (c) 110. (b) 111. (a) 112. (a) 113. (d) 114. (b) 115. (b) 116. (d) 117. (d) 118. (c) 119. (c) 120. (c) MATHEMATICS 1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (d) 11. (b) 12. (c) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (a) 16. (a) 17. (c) 18. (d) 19. (c) 20. (a) 21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (c) 24. (d) 25. (d) 26. (a) 27. (c) 28. (c) 29. (b) 30. (d) 31. (a) 32. (a) 33. (a) 34. (a) 35. (c) 36. (a) 37. (d) 38. (a) 39. (c) 40. (c) 41. (d) 42. (a) 43. (c) 44. (d) 45. (a) 46. (a) 47. (a) 48. (c) 49. (a) 50. (a) 51. (a) 52. (a) 53. (c) 54. (b) 55. (a) 56. (c) 57. (b) 58. (b) 59. (b) 60. (a) 61. (a) 62. (b) 63. (c) 64. (c) 65. (b) 66. (a) 67. (c) 68. (c) 69. (d) 70. (a) 71. (b) 72. (c) 73. (b) 74. (a) 75. (d) 76. (c) 77. (d) 78. (c) 79. (c) 80. (a) 81. (a) 82. (c) 83. (d) 84. (d) 85. (b) 86. (b) 87. (b) 88. (c) 89. (b) 90. (c) 91. (b) 92. (b) 93. (b) 94. (a) 95. (b) 93. (b) 97. (a) 98. (a) 99. (b) 100. (d) WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 131 Integrated Guidance Programme for IAS (Pre) - 2012