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Fontaine Zink

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Fontaine Zink Fontaine Zink Presentation Transcript

  • Update on Diarrhoea Management What is New? O. Fontaine, WHO – Geneva On behalf of the Zinc task Force A Workshop to Support the Introduction of Zinc as part of Diarrhoea Management in Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia 26-28 September 2006
  • Epidemiology
  • Diarrhoea Mortality
    • 1980: 4.6 million child deaths from diarrhoea
    • 2003: 1.8 million child deaths from diarrhoea
    • Black, Morris, Bryce. Lancet 2003.
    • Jones, Steketee, Black et al. Lancet 2003.
  •  
  •  
  • D iarrhoea prevalence in under-five children by socioeconomic status in selected countries
  • Diarrhoea Treatment Policy
  • Global Diarrhoea Treatment Policy
    • Treatment of dehydration with ORS solution (or with an intravenous electrolyte solution in cases of severe dehydration)
    • Continue feeding or increase breastfeeding during , and increase feeding after the diarrhoeal episode
    • Use antibiotics only when appropriate (i.e. bloody diarrhoea) and abstain from administering anti-diarrhoeal drugs
    • Advise mothers of the need to increase fluids and continue feeding during future episodes
    • Provide children with 20mg per day of zinc for 10-14 days
    • WHO/UNICEF. Joint statement on the clinical management of acute diarrhoea. 2004.
  • Global Diarrhoea Treatment Policy
    • Treatment of dehydration with ORS solution (or with an intravenous electrolyte solution in cases of severe dehydration)
    • Continue feeding or increase breastfeeding during , and increase feeding after the diarrhoeal episode
    • Use antibiotics only when appropriate (i.e. bloody diarrhoea) and abstain from administering anti-diarrhoeal drugs
    • Advise mothers of the need to increase fluids and continue feeding during future episodes
    • Provide children with 20mg per day of zinc for 10-14 days
    • WHO/UNICEF. Joint statement on the clinical management of acute diarrhoea. 2004.
  • Global Diarrhoea Treatment Policy
    • Treatment of dehydration with ORS solution (or with an intravenous electrolyte solution in cases of severe dehydration)
    • Continue feeding or increase breastfeeding during , and increase feeding after the diarrhoeal episode
    • Use antibiotics only when appropriate (i.e. bloody diarrhoea) and abstain from administering anti-diarrhoeal drugs
    • Advise mothers of the need to increase fluids and continue feeding during future episodes
    • Provide children with 20mg per day of zinc for 10-14 days
    • WHO/UNICEF. Joint statement on the clinical management of acute diarrhoea. 2004.
  • Recent Scientific Advances about Zinc in the Treatment of Diarrhoea
  • Zinc for the Treatment of Diarrhoea History of Research
    • Ongoing research from the 1990s until today
    • 13 trials in acute diarrhoea
    • 5 trials in persistent diarrhoea
    • Age groups: 3-60 mo
    • Dose of zinc: ≈ 20 mg/d (range 5-45 mg/d)
  • Zinc for the Treatment of Diarrhoea Research Findings
    • 15% reduction in duration of acute diarrhoea
    • 24% reduction in duration of persistent diarrhoea
    • 42% reduction in treatment failure or death in persistent diarrhoea
    • Zinc Investigators’ Collaborative Group. AJCN 2000.
  • Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Duration of Acute Diarrhoea/Time to Recovery *Bangladesh, 1999 Pooled 1 *Difference in mean and 95% CI Relative Hazards and 95% CI *India, 1988 *India, 2000 *Brazil, 2000 *India, 2001 Indonesia, 1998 India, 1995 Bangladesh, 1997 India, 2001 India, 2001 Nepal, 2001 Bangladesh, 2001
  • Therapeutic Effects of Zinc on Diarrhoea Severity 59 Frequency Brazil 38 Output India 28 Output Bangladesh 39 Frequency India 18 Frequency India Percent Reduction Diarrhoea Outcome Country
  • Additional Preventive Aspects of Zinc Treatment
    • Zinc supplementation for 10-14 days has longer term effects on childhood illnesses in the 2-3 months after treatment
    • 34% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea
    • 26% reduction in incidence of pneumonia
    • Zinc Investigators’ Collaborative Group. Pediatrics. 1999.
  • Preventive Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Diarrhoea Incidence in Short - Course Supplementation Trials
  • Community-based Trial Demonstrates Zinc Effectiveness in Treating Diarrhoea
    • 30 health worker areas in rural Bangladesh randomized to ORS alone or ORS + zinc (20mg/d for 14 days) for diarrhoea treatment
    • 11,880 child-years of observation during the 2 year study
    • 23% decrease in duration of all diarrhoea episodes in zinc treatment clusters compared to control clusters (RH 0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.86)
    • Baqui, Black, Arifeen. BMJ 2003.
  • Community-based Trial Demonstrates Longer-term Benefits of Zinc
    • Zinc supplementation decreased:
      • Overall diarrhoea prevalence by 15% (RR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.96)
      • Hospitalization from diarrhoea by 19% (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00)
      • ALRI prevalence by 7% (RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.10)
      • Hospitalization from ALRI by 19% (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.23)
  • Community-based Trial Demonstrates Longer-term Benefits of Zinc
    • Decreased overall mortality by 51% (RR 0.49 95% CI: 0.25, 0.94), non-injury deaths
    • Decreased antibiotic use rate from 34% in control clusters to 13% in zinc clusters (p<0.01)
    • Increased ORS use from 50% in control clusters to 75% in zinc clusters (p<0.01 )
  • Safety of Zinc Supplementation
    • 9,100 children less than 5 years of age studied in 18 published clinical trials
    • 11,880 child yrs of observation in 1 large community trial
    • Vomiting is the only reported adverse effect
      • 5/7 trials report no differences between zinc and placebo
      • 2 trials report slightly higher vomiting rates in zinc supplemented children
    • 4 trials show no difference in copper status after 2 weeks of zinc supplementation
  • Cost Effectiveness of ORS and Zinc Supplementation
    • Decreases the duration and severity of the episode
    • Decreases the need for expensive hospitalization
    • Decreases the use of unnecessary antibiotics and other drugs
    • Further cost-benefit analyses are underway
    • Robberstad, Strand, Sommerfelt, and Black. Bull WHO 2004.
    • Baqui, Black, Arifeen. J Health Pop Nutr. 2004.
  • ORS and Zinc Treatment is now more effective This is the chance to make a difference