Microsoft power point   artiklar och gruppkreativitet
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Microsoft power point artiklar och gruppkreativitet

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These slides are in mostly English, and about different artikels conserning different views on creativity. Used to let the students see that there are a great number of different perspectives on ...

These slides are in mostly English, and about different artikels conserning different views on creativity. Used to let the students see that there are a great number of different perspectives on creativity, and that conserning groups, there are still a lot of work to do.

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Microsoft power point   artiklar och gruppkreativitet Microsoft power point artiklar och gruppkreativitet Presentation Transcript

  • The dance group black grace, picture from www.boston.com What does recent scientific litterature say about creativity, groups and group creativity?
  • Journal of Management 2004 30(4) 453–470 A Little Creativity Goes a Long Way: An Examination of Teams’ Engagement in Creative Processes. L.L. Gilson & C.E. Shalley Engagement in creative processes involves team members • behaviorally, • cognitively, and • emotionally attempting new things or ways of going about their work.
  • Journal of Management 2004 30(4) 453–470 A Little Creativity Goes a Long Way: An Examination of Teams’ Engagement in Creative Processes. L.L. Gilson & C.E. Shalley “..in this paper, team creative processes are defined as members working together in such a manner that they link ideas from multiple sources, delve into unknown areas to find better or unique approaches to a problem, or seek out novel ways of performing a task. The dance group black grace, picture from media.newtimes.com
  • Journal of Management 2004 30(4) 453–470 A Little Creativity Goes a Long Way: An Examination of Teams’ Engagement The dance group black grace, picture from fwdc.org in Creative Processes. L.L. Gilson & C.E. Shalley ”… if team members perceive that creativity is required by their job, this essentially gives them both the permission and motivation to attempt to engage in creative processes.”
  • Journal of Management 2004 30(4) 453–470 A Little Creativity Goes a Long Way: An Examination of Teams’ Engagement in Creative Processes. L.L. Gilson & C.E. Shalley • Hypothesis 1: The more team members believe that their job requires creativity, the more frequently the team will engage in creative processes. Strengthened by the study. • Hypothesis 2: The more team members believe that their work requires task interdependence, the more frequently the team will engage in creative processes. Strengthened by the study. • Hypothesis 3: The more team members report that their team has a high level of shared goals, the more frequently the team will engage in creative processes. Found a significant connection • Hypothesis 4: The more team members report that the team actively participates in problem solving, the more frequently the team will engage in creative processes. Found a significant connection • Hypothesis 5: The more team members report that their team climate is supportive of creativity, the more frequently the team will engage in creative processes. Found a significant connection • Hypothesis 6: Teams with moderate amounts of organizational tenure will more frequently engage in creative processes. Found a significant connection • They also concludes; ”… this represents the first study that indicates that contact in the form of socializing during breaks at work and outside of work is positively associated with teams engaging in more creative processes. “
  • Journal of Management 2004 30(4) 453–470 A Little Creativity Goes a Long Way: An Examination of Teams’ Engagement in Creative Processes. L.L. Gilson & C.E. Shalley Therefore, it is important to understand what drives individuals and teams to choose to engage in creative processes, since this is not inherently the easiest route to pursue, and yet this act of engagement is the necessary first step to potential creative outcomes, as well as potentially improved performance. The dance group black grace, picture from artscenter.uhh.hawaii.edu
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 “Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity?” B Sessa http://www.cnsforum.com/content/pictures/imagebank/hirespng/Drug_amphet_high.png
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa “ … with today’s current renaissance in psychedelic drug research and the growing interest in cognitive enhancing drugs, now may be the time to re-visit these studies with contemporary research methods.”
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa “Despite the enormous amount of money and energy invested in such commercial industries, the scientific concept of how creativity is enhanced is poorly understood. This makes the neuroscientific understanding of these processes particularly relevant.”
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa Heilman, et al. (2003) proposed that creative innovation requires the co-activation and communication between regions of the brain that ordinarily are not strongly connected.
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa Some scholars (Zinkhan, 1993) have argued that creativity, by definition, defies measurement because all tests have predetermined correct answers and originality is a requirement of creativity – therefore, any ‘correct’ answer in a creativity test could not be creative.
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa • Tests to measure creativity fall into two broad categories – the more scientific psychometric tests and the more subjective, but widely used, method of ‘Expert Opinion’. • Tests that measure divergent thinking include the ‘Unusual Uses’ test, the ‘Structure Of Intellect’ test and ‘Mednick’s Remote Associates Test’.
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa Barron; • Creativity was not linked directly to IQ. Although intelligence is in some degree necessary, it is not alone a sufficient condition for high creativity. • Finding meaning in the world – and being enthusiastic and able to communicate that meaning to others in one form or other. • Being intuitive • Being introverted • Finding a simple explanation to a complex problem (and this refers to creativity in both art and mathematics). • Being slightly more ‘psychologically imbalanced’ (measured by Barron as ‘schizoid tendencies’) than the general population. • Ability to maintain independent judgement (even in the face of alternative peer consensus). • ‘Maintenance of psychic opposites’ – for example, individuals who displayed a tendency to be both free and disciplined or both ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’.
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa Rogers, internal and external conditions; • Low psychological defensiveness, • a lack of rigidity, • a permeability of boundaries in concepts, beliefs, perceptions and hypotheses, • a tolerance for ambiguity, • an ability to receive and integrate apparently conflicting information, • a sensitive awareness of feelings and • openness to all phases of experience, intuition, aesthetic sensibility, • a sense of satisfaction in self-expression, • the ability to think in terms of analogues and metaphors and • the ability to ‘toy’ with ideas, shapes and hypotheses
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa Psycadelic drugs: A particular feature of the experience – that is encompassed by all the above characteristics and has special relevance to the creative process is, that of a general increase in complexity and openness, such that the usual ego-bound restraints that allow humans to accept given pre- conceived ideas about themselves and the world around them are necessarily challenged.
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa In some subjects, which had ’creative personality traits’, LSD trends for these effects where found, but not statistically significant • 1) Reduced inhibition and reduced anxiety. • 2) Improved capacity to restructure problems in a wider context. • 3) Increased fluency and flexibility of ideas. • 4) Increased visual imagery and fantasy. • 5) Increased ability to concentrate. • 6) Increased empathy with objects and processes. • 7) Increased empathy with people. • 8) Subconscious data more accessible. • 9) Improved association of dissimilar ideas. • 10) Heightened motivation to obtain closure. • 11) Improved ability to visualize the completed solution.
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa “It is well accepted that when under the acute influence of psychedelic drugs, performance on standard tests of intelligence, learning, memory and other cognitive functions, as well as certain psychomotor tasks, generally show impairment and sometimes show lack of change and only rarely show improvement.”
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8) (2008) 821–827 Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? B Sessa What is the benefit of revisiting psychedelics and creativity research now? • The area of psychedelic enhancement of creativity is one such area that may have potential benefits for furthering our understanding of neuroscience. • In addition, if we are to strive to comprehend the brain and mind in their entireties, these are areas that are worth revisiting with modern research methods.
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA http://www.psychologytoday.com/files/u114/conferencetable_1.jpg
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA Hypothesis: A group made up of members who show high degrees of both diversity and similarity of thought categories will get stronger creative benefits from working as a group than will groups with other compositions.
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA But many previous empirical studies suggest that various factors of interactive groups are responsible for the loss of productivity. • production blocking; it is not possible to share one’s own ideas while others are talking within the group. • evaluation apprehension; the potential evaluation of ideas by those within the group can also inhibit idea generation. • social loafing; another important social factor is the tendency of individuals to loaf or be less motivated when individual contributions are to be combined in a group product. • free riding; one may exert less effort or take a free ride when the high performance levels of others within a group make one’s contributions appear to be unnecessary.
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA • How can we overcome the “loss” factors that block the generation of creative ideas in interactive groups? • Which characteristics of groups lead to high levels of productivity or creativity? • What factors improve the generation of creative ideas through discussion? • When and how does interaction support creativity? http://www.tsh.ca/images/synectics.gif
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA “…similarity between the idea pools of members, at least to within some appropriate level, acts as a catalyst by allowing group diversity to make a positive contribution to creative performance. This catalysis, that is, restriction of the diversity within a group so that mutual comprehensibility is retained, motivates the group members to connect their ideas in effective ways and to elaborate novel ideas from the connections.” http://judotips.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/50jahre_aktu_judo.jpg
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA In the task of Study 1, participants were asked to generate unusual uses for an object. This simple heuristic task has often been used in research on brainstorming. Examples of the objects used are a knife, a detached doorknob, a paper clip, a soda can, a shoelace, and a pencil. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_dXDZmgVew5A/SoyLF2FcI1I/AAAAAAAAFhQ/eTd4GYjCjPU/s400/pencil+art.jpg
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA The task in Study 2 is the addition of new functions to an existing object. For example, the ideas generated in response to the same target object might include “Have the can’s surface change color in response to the emperature of its content”… http://www.thegoodstore.com.au/Uploads/Images/4fp-ruler-pen.jpg
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA TABLE 2: Values for(Study 1) Similarity Low High Variable Low Diversity High Diversity Low Diversity High Diversity Productivity a 11.00 14.27 15.40 20.08 Creativity b 9.00 11.80 12.53 15.92 Perception of communication (as listener) c 11.56 11.07 12.16 12.72 Perception of communication (as speaker) c 13.36 12.44 12.24 14.00 a. Number of ideas generated by the group. b. Number of ideas for which the creativity score was higher than average. c. Assessed on three 5-point items to produce a scale ranging from 3 to 15 However, in those cases where the high-similarity condition held, groups that also had high levels of diversity were significantly more creative than groups that did not (p < .05). This result indicates that groups achieved the best creative performance when they had high degrees of both diversity and similarity.
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA TABLE 4: Values for(Study 2) Similarity Low High Low Diversity High Diversity Low Diversity High Diversity Variable Productivity a 4.44 5.46 4.78 8.90 Creativity b 1.78 2.54 2.89 4.20 Perception of communication (as listener) c 13.48 13.23 13.64 13.47 Perception of communication (as speaker) c 12.04 11.77 12.63 12.30 a. Number of ideas generated by the group. b. Number of ideas for which the creativity score was higher than average. c. Assessed on three 5-point items to produce a scale ranging from 3 to 15. In line with the results of Study 1, this result indicated that those groups identified as having high levels of both diversity and similarity demonstrated the strongest creative performance.
  • SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 35 No. 5, 2004 SYNERGY BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY IN GROUP-IDEA GENERATION; ASAKO MIURA and MISAO HIDA “In Study 2, the synergistic effect of diversity and similarity on group creativity in idea generation that was suggested by Study 1 was investigated in a slightly more precise condition (all group members were female) and with another creativity task. Our empirical analysis indicated similar results on group performance to those of the first study. Our hypothesis on group creative performance had thus received further support. Accordingly, we can regard the possibilities of generality for this effect as strong.”
  • Era tankar om olikhet/likhet i gruppen?