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High-Performance Concrete
High-Value Concrete



All concrete is high value!
 Cost

of material (small)

 Cost

of placement (significant)

 Cos...
High-Value Concrete


High value generally associated with HighPerformance



What is High-Performance?
 High-Early

St...
Characteristics of HighPerformance Concretes


High early strength



High strength



High modulus of elasticity



H...
Characteristics of HighPerformance Concretes


High resistance to frost and
deicer scaling damage



Toughness and impac...
Materials Used in HighPerformance Concrete
Material
Portland cement

Primary Contribution/Desired Property
Cementing mater...
Materials Used in HighPerformance Concrete
Material
Retarders

Primary contribution/Desired property
Control setting

Acce...
Selected Properties of HighPerformance Concrete
Property

Test Method

Criteria that may be specified

High Strength

ASTM...
High-Early-Strength Concrete


High-early compressive strength

ASTM C 39 (AASHTO T 22)
20 to 28 MPa (3000 to 4000 psi)
a...
High-Early-Strength Concrete
May be achieved by —


Type III or HE high-early-strength cement



High cement content 400...
High-Early-Strength Concrete
May be achieved by —


Chemical admixtures



Silica fume (or other SCM)



Steam or autoc...
High-Strength Concrete


90% of ready-mix concrete
20 MPa - 40 MPa (3000 –
6000 psi) @ 28-d
(most 30 MPa – 35 MPa)



Hi...
High-Strength Concrete Materials
Aggregates —


9.5 - 12.5 mm (3/8 - 1/2 in.) nominal maximum size
gives optimum strength...
High-Strength Concrete Materials
Supplementary Cementing Materials —


Fly ash, silica fume, or slag often mandatory



...
High-Strength Concrete Materials
Admixtures —


Use of water reducers, retarders, HRWRs, or
superplasticizers — mandatory...
High-Strength Concrete
Placing, Consolidation, and Curing


Delays in delivery and placing
must be eliminated



Consoli...
High-Durability Concrete


1970s and 1980s focus on — High-Strength HPC



Today focus on concretes with high durability...
High-Durability Concrete
Durability Issues That HPC Can Address


Abrasion Resistance



Blast Resistance



Permeabili...
High-Durability Concrete


Cement:

398 kg/m3 (671 lb/yd3)



Fly ash:

45 kg/m3 (76 lb/yd3)



Silica fume:

32 kg/m3 ...
Self-Consolidating Concrete
Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) also known as
self-compacting concrete —
flows and consolida...
Self-Consolidating Concrete
SCC for Power Plant —Mix Proportions
Portland cement (Type I)

297 kg/m3

(500 lb/yd3)

Slag cement

128 kg/m3

(215 lb/yd...
Reactive-Powder Concrete (RPC)


Properties:
 High

strength — 200 MPa
(can be produced to 810 MPa)

 Very



low poro...
Mechanical Properties of RPC
Property
Compressive
strength
Flexural strength
Tensile strength

Unit

80 MPa

RPC

MPa (psi...
Reactive Powder Concrete
Raw Material Components


Cement



Sand



Silica quartz



Silica fume



Micro-Fibres - metallic or poly-vinyl ace...
What is the typical mix ?
Cement

710 kg/m3
230 kg/m3
210 kg/m3

1020 kg/m3

Silica fume
Crushed
Quartz
Sand
Fibres

kg/m3...
What is the typical mix ?
Cement

28 - 30%

Silica fume

9 – 10%

Crushed
Quartz

8.5 – 9%

Sand

42 –43%

Fibres
Superpla...
Conclusion
High Value concrete is a specialized series of concrete
designed to provide several benefits in the constructio...
References
http://www.mse.mtu.edu/
http://elearning.vtu.ac.in/12/enotes/Adv_Conc_Stru/Unit7-KK.pdf
Thank You

High-Value Concrete
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High performance concrete (HPC)

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High performance concrete (HPC) is a specialized series of concrete designed to provide several benefits in the construction of concrete structures that cannot always be achieved routinely using conventional ingredients, normal mixing and curing practices. In the other words a high performance concrete is a concrete in which certain characteristics are developed for a particular application and environment, so that it will give excellent performance in the structure in which it will be placed, in the environment to which it will be exposed, and with the loads to which it will be subjected during its design life.

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High performance concrete (HPC)

  1. 1. Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.in To Download High-Performance Concrete
  2. 2. High-Value Concrete  All concrete is high value!  Cost of material (small)  Cost of placement (significant)  Cost of Replacement (HIGH)
  3. 3. High-Value Concrete  High value generally associated with HighPerformance  What is High-Performance?  High-Early Strength Concrete  High-Strength Concrete  High-Durability Concrete  Self-Consolidating  Reactive Concrete Powder Concrete
  4. 4. Characteristics of HighPerformance Concretes  High early strength  High strength  High modulus of elasticity  High abrasion resistance  High durability and long life in severe environments  Low permeability and diffusion  Resistance to chemical attack
  5. 5. Characteristics of HighPerformance Concretes  High resistance to frost and deicer scaling damage  Toughness and impact resistance  Volume stability  Ease of placement  Compaction without segregation  Inhibition of bacterial and mold growth
  6. 6. Materials Used in HighPerformance Concrete Material Portland cement Primary Contribution/Desired Property Cementing material / Durability Blended cement Fly ash / Slag / Silica fume Calcined clay/ Metakaolin Calcined shale Superplasticizers High-range water reducers Hydration control admix. Cementing material / Durability / High strength Flowability Reduce water-cement ratio Control setting
  7. 7. Materials Used in HighPerformance Concrete Material Retarders Primary contribution/Desired property Control setting Accelerators Corrosion inhibitors Water reducers Shrinkage reducers ASR inhibitors Optimally graded aggr. Accelerate setting Control steel corrosion Reduce cement and water content Reduce shrinkage Control alkali-silica activity Improve workability/reduce paste Polymer/latex modifiers Durability
  8. 8. Selected Properties of HighPerformance Concrete Property Test Method Criteria that may be specified High Strength ASTM C 39 70-140 MPa @ 28 to 91 days H-E Comp. Strength ASTM C 39 20-30 MPa @ 3-12 hrs or 1-3 days H-E Flex. Strength ASTM C 78 2-4 MPa @ 3-12 hrs or 1-3 days Abrasion Resistance ASTM C 944 0-1 mm depth of wear Low Permeability ASTM C 1202 500 to 2000 coulombs Chloride Penetration AASHTO T 259/260 Less than 0.07% Cl at 6 months Low Absorption ASTM C 642 2% to 5% High Mod.of Elast. ASTM C 469 More than 40 GPa
  9. 9. High-Early-Strength Concrete  High-early compressive strength ASTM C 39 (AASHTO T 22) 20 to 28 MPa (3000 to 4000 psi) at 3 to 12 hours or 1 to 3 days  High-early flexural strength ASTM C 78 (AASHTO T 97) 2 to 4 MPa (300 to 600 psi) at 3 to 12 hours or 1 to 3 days
  10. 10. High-Early-Strength Concrete May be achieved by —  Type III or HE high-early-strength cement  High cement content 400 to 600 kg/m3 (675 to 1000 lb/yd3)  Low water-cementing materials ratio (0.20 to 0.45 by mass)  Higher freshly mixed concrete temperature  Higher curing temperature
  11. 11. High-Early-Strength Concrete May be achieved by —  Chemical admixtures  Silica fume (or other SCM)  Steam or autoclave curing  Insulation to retain heat of hydration  Special rapid hardening cements
  12. 12. High-Strength Concrete  90% of ready-mix concrete 20 MPa - 40 MPa (3000 – 6000 psi) @ 28-d (most 30 MPa – 35 MPa)  High-strength concrete by definition — 28 day – compr. strength 70 MPa (10,000 psi)
  13. 13. High-Strength Concrete Materials Aggregates —  9.5 - 12.5 mm (3/8 - 1/2 in.) nominal maximum size gives optimum strength  Combining single sizes for required grading allows for closer control and reduced variability in concrete  For 70 MPa and greater, the FM of the sand should be 2.8 – 3.2. (lower may give lower strengths and sticky mixes)
  14. 14. High-Strength Concrete Materials Supplementary Cementing Materials —  Fly ash, silica fume, or slag often mandatory  Dosage rate 5% to 20% or higher by mass of cementing material. High-Value Concrete
  15. 15. High-Strength Concrete Materials Admixtures —  Use of water reducers, retarders, HRWRs, or superplasticizers — mandatory in high-strength concrete  Air-entraining admixtures not necessary or desirable in protected high-strength concrete.  Air is mandatory, where durability in a freezethaw environment is required (i.e.. bridges, piers, parking structures)  Recent studies:  w/cm ≥ 0.30—air required  w/cm < 0.25—no air needed
  16. 16. High-Strength Concrete Placing, Consolidation, and Curing  Delays in delivery and placing must be eliminated  Consolidation very important to achieve strength  Slump generally 180 to 220 mm (7 to 9 in.)  Little if any bleeding—fog or evaporation retarders have to be applied immediately after strike off to minimize plastic shrinkage and crusting  7 days moist curing
  17. 17. High-Durability Concrete  1970s and 1980s focus on — High-Strength HPC  Today focus on concretes with high durability in severe environments resulting in structures with long life — High-Durability HPC
  18. 18. High-Durability Concrete Durability Issues That HPC Can Address  Abrasion Resistance  Blast Resistance  Permeability  Carbonation  Freeze-Thaw Resistance  Chemical Attack  Alkali-Silica Reactivity  Corrosion rates of rebar
  19. 19. High-Durability Concrete  Cement: 398 kg/m3 (671 lb/yd3)  Fly ash: 45 kg/m3 (76 lb/yd3)  Silica fume: 32 kg/m3 (72 lb/yd3)  w/c : 0.30  Water Red.: 1.7 L/m3 (47 oz/yd3)  HRWR: 15.7 L/m3 (83 oz/yd3)  Air: 5-8%  91d strength: 60 Mpa (8700 psi)
  20. 20. Self-Consolidating Concrete Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) also known as self-compacting concrete — flows and consolidates on its own  developed in 1980s — Japan  Increased amount of  Fine material (i.e. fly ash or limestone filler)  HRWR/Superplasticizers  Strength and durability same as conventional concrete
  21. 21. Self-Consolidating Concrete
  22. 22. SCC for Power Plant —Mix Proportions Portland cement (Type I) 297 kg/m3 (500 lb/yd3) Slag cement 128 kg/m3 (215 lb/yd3) Coarse aggregate 675 kg/m3 (1,137 lb/yd3) Fine aggregate 1,026 kg/m3 (1,729 lb/yd3) Water 170 kg/m3 (286 lb/yd3) Superplasticizer ASTM C 494, Type F (Polycarboxylatebased) 1.3 L/m3 (35 oz/yd3) AE admixture as needed for 6% 1.5% air content
  23. 23. Reactive-Powder Concrete (RPC)  Properties:  High strength — 200 MPa (can be produced to 810 MPa)  Very  low porosity Properties are achieved by:  Max. particle size 300 m  Optimized particle packing  Low water content  Steel fibers  Heat-treatment
  24. 24. Mechanical Properties of RPC Property Compressive strength Flexural strength Tensile strength Unit 80 MPa RPC MPa (psi) 80 (11,600) 200 (29,000) MPa (psi) MPa (psi) 7 (1000) 40 (5800) 8 (1160) Modulus of Elasticity GPa (psi) 40 (5.8 x 106) 60 (8.7 x 106) Fracture Toughness 103 J/m2 <1 30 Freeze-thaw RDF 90 100 Carbonation mm 2 0 Abrasion 10-12 m2/s 275 1.2
  25. 25. Reactive Powder Concrete
  26. 26. Raw Material Components  Cement  Sand  Silica quartz  Silica fume  Micro-Fibres - metallic or poly-vinyl acetate  Mineral fillers - Nano-fibres  Superplasticizer  Water
  27. 27. What is the typical mix ? Cement 710 kg/m3 230 kg/m3 210 kg/m3 1020 kg/m3 Silica fume Crushed Quartz Sand Fibres kg/m3 40 - 160 13 kg/m3 140 kg/m3 High-Value Concrete Superplasticizer Total water
  28. 28. What is the typical mix ? Cement 28 - 30% Silica fume 9 – 10% Crushed Quartz 8.5 – 9% Sand 42 –43% Fibres Superplasticizer 1.7 – 6.5% 0.6% 5.5 – 6% Total water w/c = 0.20 No aggregates !
  29. 29. Conclusion High Value concrete is a specialized series of concrete designed to provide several benefits in the construction of concrete structures that cannot always be achieved routinely using conventional ingredients, normal mixing and curing practices.
  30. 30. References http://www.mse.mtu.edu/ http://elearning.vtu.ac.in/12/enotes/Adv_Conc_Stru/Unit7-KK.pdf
  31. 31. Thank You High-Value Concrete

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