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Complete PPT on Geothermal Energy and Geothermal Power Plants.

Complete PPT on Geothermal Energy and Geothermal Power Plants.

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  • 1. Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to download
  • 2.  The center of the Earth is around 7000 degrees Celsius - easily hot enough to melt rock.  Even a few kilometers down, the temperature can be over 250 degrees Celsius if the Earth's crust is thin.  In general, the temperature rises one degree Celsius for every 30 - 50 meters you go down, but this does vary depending on location.  In volcanic areas, molten rock can be very close to the surface.
  • 3.  Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some countries for cooking and heating.  It is simply power derived from the Earth's internal heat.  This thermal energy is contained in the rock and fluids beneath Earth's crust.  It can be found from shallow ground to several miles below the surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma.  These underground reservoirs of steam and hot water can be tapped to generate electricity or to heat and cool buildings directly.
  • 4.  Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy.  According to the Geothermal Energy Association, the heat continuously flowing from the core of the Earth is estimated to be equivalent to 42,000 gigawatts (GW) of power (20+ times today's global electricity generation).  If harnessed properly, geothermal could become a material contributor to global electricity generation.
  • 5.  Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on 4 July 1904 in Larderello, Italy. It successfully lit four light bulbs.  Later, in 1911, the world's first commercial geothermal power plant was built there.  Italy was the world's only industrial producer of geothermal electricity until 1958.  In 1958, New Zealand became the second major industrial producer of geothermal electricity.  In 1960, Pacific Gas and Electric began operation of the first successful geothermal electric power plant in the United States at The Geysers in California.  The binary cycle power plant was first demonstrated in 1967 in Russia and later introduced to the USA in 1981.  Worldwide, 11,400 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries in 2012.
  • 6. The world's first Geothermal power station in Larderello, in Southern Tuscany, Italy. 1911 Prince Piero Ginori Conti with the first geothermal power plant in 1904
  • 7.  Electricity generation requires high temperature resources that can only come from deep underground.  The heat must be carried to the surface by fluid circulation, either through  Magma conduits  Hot springs  Hydrothermal circulation  Oil wells  Drilled water wells or a combination of these.  This circulation sometimes exists naturally where the crust is thin.  Magma conduits bring heat close to the surface, and hot springs bring the heat to the surface.  If no hot spring is available, a well must be drilled into a hot aquifer.
  • 8. 1. Hot water is pumped from deep underground through a well under high pressure. 2. When the water reaches the surface, the pressure is dropped, which causes the water to turn into steam. 3. The steam spins a turbine, which is connected to a generator that produces electricity. 4. The steam cools off in a cooling tower and condenses back to water. 5. The cooled water is pumped back into the Earth to begin the process again.
  • 9. 1 2 3 4 5 Hot Water Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Injection Well
  • 10.  Dry Steam Power Plants  Flash Steam Power Plants  Binary-Cycle Power Plants
  • 11.  Dry steam plants are the simplest and oldest design.  They directly use geothermal steam of 150°C or greater to turn turbines.  The Dry Steam technology allows for the steam from a geothermal production well to be fed directly to a steam turbine without a secondary heat exchanger.  The turbine then coverts the change in steam pressure to mechanical rotational energy, which is converted to electrical energy by a generator.
  • 12.  The boiling point of a fluid increases as its pressure is increased.  Superheated water is liquid water under pressure at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point of 100 °C.  When the pressure is reduced the water flashes to steam.  Superheated water pumped from the ground at temperatures of 175 °C or more.  It can be flashed to steam in a separator or flash tank to drive a turbine directly.  Surplus water from the flash plant is reinjected into the ground.  This is the most common type of plant in operation today.
  • 13.  Binary cycle power plants are the most recent development, and can accept fluid temperatures as low as 57°C.  The moderately hot geothermal water is passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water.  This causes the secondary fluid to flash vaporize, which then drives the turbines.  This is the most common type of geothermal electricity plant being constructed today.  Both Organic Rankine and Kalina cycles are used.  The thermal efficiency of this type plant is typically about 10–13%.
  • 14.  In ground that is hot but dry, or where water pressure is inadequate, injected fluid can stimulate production.  Developers bore two holes into a candidate site, and fracture the rock between them with explosives or high pressure water.  Water travels through fractures in the rock, capturing the rock's heat until forced out of a second borehole as very hot water.  The water's heat is converted into electricity using either a steam turbine or a binary power plant system.  All of the water, now cooled, is injected back into the ground to heat up again in a closed loop.  This approach is called hot dry rock geothermal energy in Europe.  EGS systems are currently being developed and tested in France, Australia, Japan, Germany, the U.S. and Switzerland.
  • 15.  Geothermal power is considered to be sustainable because the heat extraction is small compared with the Earth's heat content.  The emission intensity of existing geothermal electric plants is on average 122 kg of CO2 per kilowatt-hour (kW·h) of electricity, about one-eighth of a conventional coal-fired plant.  Unlike solar and wind energy, geothermal energy is always available, 365 days a year.  It's also relatively inexpensive; savings from direct use can be as much as 80% over fossil fuels.  Geothermal plants use 404 square meters per GWh versus 3,632 and 1,335 square meters for coal facilities and wind farms respectively.  They use 20 litres of freshwater per MW·h versus over 1000 litres per MW·h for nuclear, coal, or oil
  • 16.  Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.  The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment.  No fuel is needed.  Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free.  It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can be taken from the energy being generated.
  • 17.  The big problem is that there are not many places where you can build a geothermal power station.  You need hot rocks of a suitable type, at a depth where we can drill down to them.  The type of rock above is also important, it must be of a type that we can easily drill through.  Sometimes a geothermal site may "run out of steam", perhaps for decades.  Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of.
  • 18.  http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/geothermal.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_electricity  http://environment.nationalgeographic.co.in/environment/global- warming/geothermal-profile/  http://www.geo-energy.org/geo_basics_plant_cost.aspx  http://www.mpoweruk.com/geothermal_energy.htm
  • 19. Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to download